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Bible Commentaries

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

Romans 12

Verses 1-99

Ch. 12:1 8 . Christian practice as the result of Christian truth: self-dedication to the service of God in the Christian Church

1 . I beseech you therefore ] The Doctrinal Part of the Epistle, strictly so to be called, is now closed. Not that Doctrine, in the special sense of dogmatic revelation, is absent from the remaining chapters; for morality is always in Scripture traced to dogmatic truth, and constantly occasions statements of it. But the main object, by far, in the remainder of the Epistle is instruction in the application of truth to life Christian practice.

therefore ] i.e. in view of the whole previous argument, in which gratuitous remission of sin, and acceptance of the guilty, for Christ’s sake, has been explained; and the consequent gift and influences of the Holy Spirit; and the assurance of glory: in which, too, the closing sections have reminded both Gentile and Jewish believers of the special aspects of sovereign mercy in their respective cases.

the mercies ] the compassions ; His motions of tenderness and pity. The same word, or cognates, is used 9:15; Luke 5:36 ; 2 Corinthians 1:3 ; Philippians 2:1 ; Colossians 3:12 ; Hebrews 10:28 ; James 5:11 .

This gracious word is doubly noteworthy here, just after the unqualified assertion of Divine Majesty and Sovereignty in 11:33 36.

present ] Same word as 6:13, 16, 19; where E. V. “yield.”

your bodies ] i.e., practically, your energies . The soul, in the present state, works through the body; so that its action for its Master can take effect only through the dedication of the body to Him hands, feet, eyes, tongue, and brain.

a living sacrifice ] A metaphor used elsewhere of the Christian’s tokens of thanksgiving: Philippians 4:18 , (of liberal gifts, for Christ’s sake, to the Apostle;) Hebrews 13:15 , (of praise, the “fruit of the lips;”) 16, (of beneficence for Christ’s sake;) 1 Peter 2:5 , (of tokens of thanksgiving of any kind, offered up by believers, who, as such, are “a holy priesthood.”) See below on 15:16 for further sacrificial metaphor.

reasonable ] rational, of the reason . Same word as 1 Peter 2:2 , where render “ the rational pure milk; ” i.e. the pure milk which has to do with the mind not the body. So here: the “service” which is not of “meats and drinks and washings,” but is the dedication of the inmost self with its energies; spiritual service, not mechanical.

service ] Same word as 9:4. See on 1:9, where the cognate verb occurs. In Hebrews 12:28 the words “service” and “acceptable” reappear, in another but kindred connexion. Meyer renders the Gr. word here by Opfer-cultus .

2 . be not conformed ] Same word as 1 Peter 1:14 ; (E. V. “not fashioning yourselves ”) The Gr. noun ( schema ) on which the verb rendered “ conform ” is based indicates a form external rather than internal, transient or unreal rather than solid and lasting: a “figure.” It occurs 1 Corinthians 7:31 , (E. V. “the fashion of this world,”) and Philippians 2:8 , (E. V. “in fashion as a man.”) In the last passage the reference is to the Lord’s Manhood not as unreal but as, in a certain sense, external , i.e. as distinguished from the real but invisible Deity which lay, as it were, within the veil or robe of the real and visible Humanity. Here the verb indicates that a true Christian’s “conformity to this world” could only be (1) conformity to a transient thing, a thing doomed to destruction, and (2) illusory in itself, because alien from the man’s true principles and position. A similar reference is plainly traceable in 1 Peter 1:14 .

this world ] Lit. this age . Same word as Matthew 12:32 ; Luke 16:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:20 , 1 Corinthians 1:2 :6, 1 Corinthians 1:8 , 1 Corinthians 1:3 :18; 2 Corinthians 4:4 ; Galatians 1:4 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; 1 Timothy 6:17 ; 2 Timothy 4:10 ; Titus 2:12 . The antithesis is “the world to come,” “the coming age,” “that age:” e.g. Matthew 12:32 ; Luke 20:35 ; Ephesians 1:21 . The passages quoted (and many might be added) shew that the meaning is rightly conveyed in E. V. “ This age ” is the present order of things, the period of sin and death, and (by a natural transference) the contents of that period, the principles and practices of evil. The antithesis is the Eternal Future, the resurrection-life, (Luke 20:35 , Luke 20:36 ,) in which sin and death shall have no place for ever. Thus the exhortation here is, to live as those whose lives are governed by the principles and hopes of a holy eternity in prospect.

be transformed ] Same word as Matthew 17:2 , (“was transfigured; ”) 2 Corinthians 3:18 , (“are changed ”) The root-noun ( morphè ) is different from the root-noun of “conformed” just above, and forms an antithesis to it. In such antithetical connexions it indicates an essential, permanent, and real form. It is used e.g. Philippians 2:6 , Philippians 2:8 ; in which verses the essential reality of the Lord’s Deity and Servitude respectively are emphasized. Here the point of the word is manifest: the Christian, by the Divine “renewal,” is to realize an essential and permanent change; to prove himself, as it were, one of a new species; a “new man,” not the “old man” in a new dress.

For masterly discussions of the differences between Schema and Morphè see Abp Trench’s New Testament Synonyms , under the word μορφὴ , and Bp Lightfoot’s Philippians , detached Note to ch. 2. Abp Trench vividly illustrates the difference thus: “If I were to change a Dutch garden into an Italian, this would be [a change of schema; ] but if I were to transform a garden into something wholly different, say a garden into a city, this would be [a change of morphè .] 1 1 We translate the Greek nouns, used by the Abp in this sentence. He paraphrases the present passage: “Do not fall in with the fleeting fashions of this world, out undergo a deep abiding change, by the renewing of your mind, such as the Spirit of God alone can work in you (2 Cor. 3:18).” ”

Observe that the Gr. word translated “conformed” in 8:29 is based not on schema but on morphè . This passage is illustrated by that. The predestinating will of God is carried out, as we here see, through the real efforts of the renewed wills of the saints, to which the appeal is here made. See Philippians 2:12 , Philippians 2:13 ; (where render “ for His good pleasure’s sake .”)

by the renewing of your mind ] As the quasi- instrument of the transformation. The regenerating power of the Holy Spirit had rectified their intelligence, which they were now to use in “purifying themselves as the Lord was pure.” As the Divine change had enabled them to use their intelligence aright, the change is spoken of as if itself the instrument to be used. The word rendered “ renewing ” occurs Titus 3:5 ; and the cognate verb 2 Corinthians 4:16 ; Colossians 3:10 . It may denote, according to context, either the initial “renewing,” when man definitely becomes “the child of God through faith in Christ Jesus,” and “the Spirit of Christ” takes up His dwelling in the soul; or the progressive “renewing” consequent on this, as thought, will, and affections “grow in grace,” and the man is (according to the appeal here) progressively “transformed.” Such is probably the reference in 2 Corinthians 4:16 ; Colossians 3:10 . Here the other reference is more probable, as we have indicated above: the “renewing” here is already a fact, and is used in the process of “transformation.”

your mind ] Here probably, in a strict sense, your intelligence , renewed or rectified by Divine grace, so as (in the following words) “to prove what is the will of God.” Observe that the “mind,” as well as other parts of the being, is assumed to have needed “renewing.” Cp. Ephesians 4:18 .

that ye may prove ] may assay, or test . Same word as 1:28, (E. V., “like,”) 2:18, 14:22 (“allow;”), 1 Corinthians 3:13 (“try;”), 2 Corinthians 13:5 ; Ephesians 5:10 (a close parallel;), Philippians 1:10 (where render, “test things which differ;), &c.” Where the context allows, the word often includes (and sometimes wholly adopts) the idea of preference , of approval; e.g. 1 Corinthians 16:3 . Here the meaning is that the Christian’s intelligence has been so “renewed” by grace that he now, by a holy instinct, can discern, in conflicting cases, the will of God from the will of self or of the world. And on this perception he is to act.

acceptable ] Same word as in ver. 1. His will is “acceptable” to the saints, because the will of their Father. It is also “acceptable “to Himself, both in itself, and because as done by His children it results in acts pleasing to Him.

perfect ] In wisdom and love, whatever perplexities becloud it.

3 . the grace given unto me ] His qualifications as an Apostle; inspired authority as the Lord’s messenger and interpreter. See 1:5, 15:15, 16. Cp. also 1 Corinthians 3:10 , 1 Corinthians 3:15 :10; Galatians 2:9 ; Ephesians 3:2 , Ephesians 3:7 , Ephesians 3:8 ; for parallels more or less exact to this phrase in this connexion.

not to think think soberly ] In the Gr. there is a forcible “play on words” here, making an almost epigram. The verbs are, the simple verb “to think,” and two of its compounds meaning respectively “to overween” and “to be sober-thoughted.” Lit. not to over-think beyond what it behoves him to think, but to think so as to come to sober-thinking . The special direction to be taken by this “sober-thinking” was the recognition by each Christian of the limits of his own gifts, the reality of the gifts of others, and the position of the individual as only a part of the great community; as well as the ever-important fact that “gifts,” whether many or few, are the sovereign bounty of God.

hath dealt ] Lit. did deal , or distribute ; on the admission of each soul to His grace and service. Same word as 1 Corinthians 7:17 ; 2 Corinthians 10:13 .

the measure of faith ] Cp. Ephesians 4:7 , where (see ver. 11) the context is similar to this. There, however, the word “ grace ” is used where “ faith ” is used here; and “faith” here is not quite easy of explanation. In this Epistle the special aspect of faith ( trust in God and His word) as justifying has been consistently in view, rather than its aspect (Hebrews 11:1 ) as laying hold upon invisible realities in general. Here, therefore, it seems best to seek for a reference as consistent as possible with that of the rest of the Epistle, and one also which shall harmonize with the phrase in ver. 6 below; q.v. We explain the present passage then as follows: “ Faith ” here means specially acceptance of Christ, revealed as the Propitiation: but that acceptance is also, ipso facto , the entrance on bondservice to God, (see e.g. 6:18:) therefore the gift of faith is here mentioned as involving the idea of the allotment of consequent duties and functions also to the various believers with their various capacities. Faith, in the Divine plan, is the grand qualification for service , (because it is the appointed instrument of reconciliation;) and it is therefore the sphere, so to speak, in which all true service is to be done.

In this view, we may paraphrase the passage before us: “even as God distributed the sovereign gift of faith, (Ephesians 2:7 , Ephesians 2:8 ,) the gift of the power to ‘believe unto justification,’ to each of you, with a view in each case to the various tasks and services of the life of faith.”

See further on ver. 6.

4 . For as we have ] Here first (and last) in this Epistle St Paul uses the simile of the Body and its Limbs, to illustrate the close mutual connexion of the saints. For parallels, see 1 Corinthians 10:17 , 12:1 Corinthians 10:12-30 ; Ephesians 1:23 , 4:Ephesians 1:4-16 , 5:23 30; Colossians 1:18 , Colossians 1:24 , Colossians 1:2 :19, Colossians 1:3 :15. In some of these passages the Lord appears explicitly as the life-giving Head of the Body; in one as its loving Bridegroom; while in others (as here) He does not explicitly appear in the imagery; the leading thought being the connexion of His saints with each other , and the diversity of their functions meanwhile. The phrase just below, “ in Christ ,” does not strictly belong to the simile, though expressing a truth elsewhere conveyed by the simile of the Head of the Body.

all members ] Lit. the limbs all .

5 . in Christ ] i.e. by virtue of our union with Him. See on 8:1. Cp. also for the profound meaning of the phrase, 2 Corinthians 5:17 .

and every one ] Perhaps better, in view of MSS. &c., but with respect to individuality ; “as concerns our several positions.”

6 . whether prophecy , &c.] The Gr. construction from hence to the end of ver. 8 is peculiar, because elliptical; but the E. V. well interprets the ellipses.

prophecy ] Here probably the charisma , or special miraculous gift, of preaching; of utterance in the Christian assemblies under immediate Divine impulse and guidance. It is now no longer possible to analyze minutely this sacred phenomenon; but we gather (from the great passage on the subject, 1 Corinthians 14:0 ) that up to a certain point the utterances were under the conscious will of the utterer, and (as we see in the present passage) might be, by negligence or extravagance of will, distorted and otherwise misused. See next note.

according to the proportion of faith ] Lit. according to the proportion of the faith , i.e. the faith of the utterer. The meaning “ the (Christian) faith ” would in itself be allowable, but in this Epistle (see note “on measure of faith” above) it is not probable. The Gr. word rendered “ proportion ” is analogia , (whence our analogy ). It is used in classical Greek for arithmetical proportion, and in its derived meanings closely resembles our word “proportion.” Here, accordingly, we may fairly render in proportion to his faith ; as regulated by his faith, in respect of less or more. This may be explained thus: The “prophecy” would, above all else, deal with Christ , His Person and Work; with Christ as made known to the “prophet” as the Object of his own faith; a faith which itself (if genuine) was based not on his own impulses and reveries, but on the solid ground of Divine revelation, verifiable as such. Accordingly the “prophet,” in exercising his gift, was to watch over his utterances, and not to allow them to fluctuate with his own independent thinking or wishing, but to see that they were steadily adjusted to the eternal Truth concerning his Lord, already revealed to him as a believer.

7 . ministry ministering ] Lit. whether service, in the service . The word rendered “ ministry ” is diaconia; (same word as 11:13, where it means the apostolic service). It is a largely inclusive word; the main fixed idea being that of active, “practical,” duty in the Church, of whatever kind or degree. Almost any work other than that of inspired utterance, or miracle-working, may be included in it here. “ In the service: ” i.e. “let us be really in it; devoted to it.” So “in the teaching,” “in the exhortation,” just below. In 1 Timothy 4:15 , the Gr. rendered “Give thyself wholly to them,” is lit. “ Be in these things.”

he that teacheth ] In 1 Corinthians 12:28 , 1 Corinthians 12:29 , (see too Ephesians 4:11 ,) “teachers” are mentioned as a class of commissioned workers in the Church. Perhaps they were specially the expositors of revealed truth; those who devoted themselves to explaining the application (to belief and practice) of the Scriptures and of the apostolic preaching.

on teaching ] Lit. in the teaching . See last note but one.

8 . he that exhorteth ] Here again a special division of Christian work is alluded to. The “exhortation” was, perhaps, a department of the speaking-duty of the Church less elaborate than the “teaching;” more entirely regarding practice; and allotted more with a view to physical qualifications, as of voice, &c.

on exhortation ] Lit. in the exhortation .

giveth ] distributeth ; “imparteth” of his own possessions to the needy. Here, of course, no special office, but special opportunity, is in view. Every Christian would, more or less, be a giver; but the wealthier Christians would have peculiar responsibility in the matter.

with simplicity ] Lit. in simplicity . A derived meaning of the Gr. word, in connexion with giving, (and so here,) is liberality, openhandedness ; the opposite to the doubled, closed , hand of the niggard. Same word as 2 Corinthians 8:2 , 2 Corinthians 8:9 :11, 2 Corinthians 8:13 , (where lit. “ liberality of distribution”).

ruleth ] Lit. presideth; whether in the Church, or over any section of work, or over his own household.

with diligence ] Lit. in haste , i.e. with earnestness : with laborious and minute attention to duty.

he that sheweth mercy ] Here it is unlikely that a special class, or duty, is in view; except so far as some Christians, by means or opportunity, would be specially led to works of love for the sad and the destitute. Such workers of mercy were to give their work full effect by a spirit of cheerful, and cheering, kindness; as those who had known the kindness of God.

9 21 . Christian practice: in further detail, with regard to personal and social duty

9 . love ] Lit. the love; your love, Christian love.

Abhor , &c.] Lit. Abhorring the evil, cleaving to the good . Here participles, as very frequently through this context, practically stand for hortative verbs; describing in order to set a standard for endeavour. On the subject here, cp. Psalms 97:10 .

10 . Be kindly , &c.] Lit. In point of your brotherly love [be] affectionate to one another . The word rendered “ kindly-affectioned ” has special reference to family affection; and probably our Translators had this in view, and used “kindly” in its strict sense; “of the kind ,” “of the stock, or family.” For “ brotherly-love ” cp. 1 Thessalonians 4:9 ; Hebrews 13:1 ; 1 Peter 1:22 , 1 Peter 1:3 :8; 2 Peter 1:7 . See Isaac Taylor’s Saturday Evening for an admirable Essay on “The Family Affection of Christianity.” We quote a line or two of the summary; “Christian affection has the permanence it derives from an indissoluble bond; the vigour given it by a participation in sufferings and reproaches; and the depth it receives from the prospect of an unbounded futurity.”

in honour ] Lit. in point of the honour ; the honour due from each to all. Cp. Philippians 2:3 ; 1 Peter 2:17 , 1 Peter 5:5 . Spiritual religion is, in its proper nature, the noblest school of courtesy; habituating the man to the refining power of the Divine presence, and constantly rebuking the self-regard which is the essence of discourtesy.

11 . not slothful in business ] Better, in point of earnest diligence , not slothful . The precept includes an exhortation to thoroughness in earthly duty, but much more besides.

fervent in spirit ] Better, as regards the spirit, fervent . “ The spirit ” here probably means the human spirit, though the grammar admits as easily a reference to the Holy Spirit. The context, which hitherto has referred to the acts of human thought and energy, favours the reference to man’s spirit, renewed and animated by grace. Same words as Acts 18:25 . Cp. Acts 17:16 .

serving the Lord ] Another reading, but inferior on many grounds, is serving the occasion; the Gr. originals of “ Lord ” and “ occasion ” being very similar in form. It is well remarked (by De Wette, in Alford,) that “the Christian should certainly employ the opportunity, but not serve it.” He will often have to go apparently counter to it, in the path of duty. The special mention of bondservice to the Lord here is perhaps due to the last two clauses: the diligence and the fervour of the Christian are to be elevated and regulated by his consciousness of sacred bondservice.

12 . Rejoicing in hope ] Better, In respect of the hope, rejoicing . Cp. ch. 5:2; where see note. On this holy gladness cp. also 1 Peter 1:3-9 .

patient , &c.] Better, in respect of the tribulation, enduring . “ The tribulation: ” i.e. that which as Christians you are sure to find, in one form or another. Cp. John 16:33 ; also ch. 5:3, 8:35.

continuing , &c.] Better, in respect of the [duty , or act, of] prayer, persevering . Same word as Colossians 4:2 . Cp. 1 Thessalonians 5:16 . Prayer would be either united (Acts 12:12 ), or individual (Matthew 6:6 ); but in any case it would be diligent, painstaking, and real.

13 . distributing ] communicating , sharing your own with them. This was almost the first instinct of the Church of Christ; and it was felt to be connected naturally with the sublimest truths of eternity. Observe the instant transition from 1 Corinthians 15:0 to 1 Corinthians 16:1 . Cp. Galatians 2:10 ; Hebrews 13:16 ; and below, 15:25, 26.

given to hospitality ] Lit. pursuing hospitality . Cp. Hebrews 13:2 , where lit. “forget not hospitality.” The duty of succouring and aiding fellow-Christians from a distance would be a chief (though by no means the only) point of the exhortation.

14 . Bless them which persecute you ] According to the Lord’s own express precept; see Luke 6:28 . See also His example, Luke 23:34 . The Roman Church was not at this time under special trial of persecution; so we seem to gather from the general tone of this Epistle. But soon the Neronian persecution was to break upon it; and meantime, in one form or another, persecution was always going on, if only on a private scale. Cp. 2 Timothy 3:12 .

15 . Rejoice , &c.] On this beautiful and precious precept, cp. 1 Corinthians 12:26 ; and see the Lord’s example, at Cana and at Bethany. St Paul himself knew how to practise his own precept. (2 Corinthians 2:2-4 .)

16 . Be of the same mind ] Cp. 15:5; 1 Peter 3:8 . Lit. Thinking the same thing towards one another; “actuated by a common and well-understood feeling of mutual allowance and kindness.” (Alford.)

Mind not ] The verb (on which see on 8:5) is the same as that just rendered “Be of the … mind;” and doubtless refers to it: “ Think kindly toward one another; and thereto think not high things.” The “ high things ” would be thoughts of personal vanity, or of social, or perhaps also spiritual, pride.

condescend ] Lit. being led away with ; drawn into sympathy with them.

men of low estate ] So probably, better than “low things ,” as some render. To sympathize with the humble was the antithesis to the having “the heart haughty and the eyes lofty.” (Psalms 131:1 ) The “low estate” in view was no doubt specially that of social inferiority; e.g. that of the slave. Wonderful was the work of the Gospel in bringing home this great and sacred duty, and yet without one note of revolutionary bitterness. See 1 Timothy 6:1 , 1 Timothy 6:2 . It is the Gospel alone which knows the full meaning of Liberté, Fraternité, Égalité .

Be not wise , &c.] Same words as 11:25. Obedience to this precept would be a great help to the fulfilment of those just before and after.

17 . Recompense to no man , &c.] Matthew 5:39 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:15 , (a pregnant parallel to this context;) 1 Peter 3:9 .

Provide things honest ] Lit. thinking beforehand honourable things; using forethought so as to secure the reality and the appearance of rectitude in your life and its surroundings.

in the sight of all men ] i.e. so that all shall see the results of the forethought, in the absence of all fair ground for scandal; in your well-ordered household, avoidance of debt, attention to civil duties, &c. “ All men: ” here, no doubt, the “ all ” suggests the duty of avoiding just reproach from without as well as within the Church. This watchfulness about the opinion of others is anything but a slavery to opinion . It is an anxiety to “adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.” (Titus 2:10 .) It is the very opposite of the tendency to make concessions of principle , or to adopt fashions of opinion as a standard of duty.

18 . If it be possible , &c.] Cp. Hebrews 12:14 ; and see 1 Peter 3:9-13 .

as much as lieth in you ] Lit. as regards what is on your side; you ” being emphatic here: q. d., “Let the peace, if broken, be broken from the other side.” The spirit of the Saviour’s precepts best illustrates this verse; Matthew 5:39-41 . “Peaceable living” would be “ im possible,” on the Christian’s side, only when duty to others required him to withstand or expose wrong-doing.

19 . Dearly beloved ] Words here conveying a singularly beautiful appeal. The believers are entreated by the voice of love to walk in love.

For a remarkable illustration of the precept see 1 Corinthians 6:7 ; and cp. 1 Peter 2:20-23 .

wrath ] Lit. the wrath; that of the enemy or oppressor.

Vengeance is mine; I will repay ] “ Mine ” and “ I ” are, of course, emphatic. The quotation is from Deuteronomy 32:35 ; where lit. Heb., “To me belongeth vengeance and recompence.” The LXX. has “In the day of vengeance I will repay.” In Hebrews 10:30 the same words are quoted, with another view; namely to warn Christians that their God will visit their transgressions, as the chastiser of His people.

20 . Therefore if thine enemy , &c.] Here again is an O. T. quotation, (Proverbs 25:21 , Proverbs 25:22 ; nearly verbatim with LXX.,) introduced by the Apostle’s “ therefore ,” as a practical inference from the previous principles.

thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head ] This phrase has been explained (1) of burning shame produced by requital of good for evil; (2) of the melting of the evil-doer’s heart by such conduct, as of metal by fire; (3) of the result of a spirit of love as producing at length the “incense” of prayer and praise (as from censer-coals) from the conquered heart. (The last is suggested in the Speaker’s Commentary , on Proverbs 25:0 ) A simpler, yet more inclusive, explanation is Alford’s: “in thus doing, you will be taking the most effectual vengeance;” the idea of vengeance being, in the Christian’s view, transformed , so as to become in fact the victory of love . Q. d., “You shall thus secure exactly that sort of vengeance which alone a servant of God can desire.” The clause “and the Lord shall reward thee,” in Proverbs 25:0 , is omitted; not as if not true (for the Gospel distinctly teaches that “good works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification, … are pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ 1 1 Art. xii. of the Church of England. ;”) but as not pertinent to the context here, where the ruling motive understood throughout is “ the mercies of God .”

21 . Be not overcome , &c.] The verbs are in the singular; individualizing the appeal. The verse runs, lit., Be not thou overcome by the evil, but overcome the evil in the good . “ The evil,” “the good; ” that of the evil-doer and the sufferer respectively. Q. d., “Do not let his evil principles and acts conquer the better mind that is in thee by grace, but use ‘the good’ given to thee the good of Divine peace and love shed abroad in thy heart to subdue the evil in him.” “ In the good: ” = under its influence.

Out of countless examples in Christian history we quote a recent one, from the Native Church in China. In 1878 a small and new Christian community was severely persecuted, and some of the converts, grownup men, were cruelly ill-used by a petty official, without the least resistance on their part. Some time after, this official was summoned before a superior officer, and sentenced to severe punishment. But one of his former victims, who meanwhile had not been his accusers, interposed and procured his pardon; and their enemy was turned forthwith into a grateful and cordial friend. (A. E. Moule’s Story of the Chehkiang Mission , Exodus 2:0 , p. 120.)

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"Commentary on Romans 12". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/cgt/romans-12.html. 1896.