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Romans 12

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy ScripturesEverett's Study Notes

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Verses 1-8

The Gospel in Relation to One Body in Christ In Romans 12:1-8 Paul explains how believers, both Jews and Gentiles, are united as one body in Christ. This passage of Scripture initially deals with a believer offering himself in Christian service. We are told to offer our lives in “spiritual service” to the Lord (Romans 12:1). When we begin to renew our minds with God’s Word (Romans 12:2) and serve Him within the body of Christ, we discover that God has given each one of us a gift. When Romans 12:6 says, “having then gifts,” it implies that God has given every member of the body of Christ a gift. As we look at Romans 12:3 we find where “God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith,” or, He has assigned to every one of us a particular gift of Christian service. This is stated in another way in Romans 12:4 when it says “but all members do not have the same function,” which means that each member does have a particular function. As we continue to read, we find that Paul lists the Christian services in Romans 12:6-8.

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Our Offering of Spirit, Soul, and Body to God Romans 12:1-3

2. Many Members, but One Body Romans 12:4-5

3. The Gifts of Christian Service Romans 12:6-8

The Measure of Faith Should Advance the Kingdom of Heaven upon Earth - Every child of God has been given gifts as a manifestation of the measure of faith divinely imparted within him. Every one of God’s children comes from a different background, culture, race, a different mindset with various obstacles to overcome, and with different amounts of love poured forth in the home in which one was reared. No one begins the Christian journey the same, although everyone has to come to the same place of repentance and faith in the atonement of Jesus Christ. With this seed of faith implanted in him, every child of God has unlimited potential to impact his world. No Christian should live his life on earth and go to Heaven without accomplishing something great for the Lord. Whether a businessman, he should leave a business that blesses the community and a strong infrastructure that his children can inherit and be blessed. Whether a person is in the educational system, he should leave a legacy that contributes to the advancement of education. Whether a musician, he should write music that can be played for centuries to follow. Whether in sports, he should mould and shape this culture with strong Judeo-Christian values. Whether a minister of the Gospel, he should advance the Kingdom of Heaven in ways that have never been done before. As a child of God is faithful to operate in his gift according to his measure of faith, God will impart more faith and gifts and callings. His contribution to our life has no limits. It is the believer who limits God in his own life.

Illustration When western civilization organized the institution of education in the form of universities, the doctoral degree required a student to contribute to his field of study by taking research on a topic to a higher level of knowledge. Thus, the research from each doctoral degree contributed to the progress of its respective field of study. A doctoral degree also prepared an individual for a lifetime of research in his particular field of study so that advancements could be made in every field of education. As a result, western education began to reflect man’s divine calling to excersice his gifts and contribute something positive to society. This behavior allowed western civilization to progress far beyond other primitive societies upon earth. Men began to invent, paint, write, and excel in every aspect of human behaviour.

Romans 12:1-3 Our Offering of Spirit, Soul and Body to God - This passage of Scripture deals with three-fold make-up of man; the body, the mind and the spirit. Since man is a 3-fold creature, his spirit is made new in the rebirth. But the mind and body have to be dealt with, and made to conform to the Word of God. Romans 12:1 deals with the body, which must offer itself in service to God. Romans 12:2 refers to the mind, which must be renewed. Romans 12:3 refers to the heart, which must walk humbly before God and others.

Romans 12:1 tells us to offer ourselves to God as living sacrifices. We begin doing this in our Christian life by serving in the local church in the ministry of helps. Romans 12:2 then tells us that as our mind becomes renewed by the Word of God, we will begin to know God's will, His plan and purpose, for our lives. Romans 12:3 tells us to remain humble in his relationships with others. Thus, as a person begins to yield his life to Jesus (Romans 12:1), and renews his mind with the Word of God (Romans 12:2) and to minister to others in love and humility (Romans 12:3), the gifts will begin to operate in his life. Thus, Romans 12:6-8 list the gifts that operate in the body of Christ.

Therefore, if we are faithful to obey Romans 12:1-2, we will be led into the ministry and gifts that God has given to us as discussed in Romans 12:6-8. We will not operate in the gifts of God without being faithful in the local church and learning God's Word.

Romans 12:1 I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.

Romans 12:1 “I beseech you” Comments Romans 12:1 begins with παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς , so that this passage opens as a word of exhortation, Greek ( παρακαλέω ). This was a time of exhorting and prompting the church at Rome. It is similar to when we are witnessing to a loved one. We become sincere and intense in our plea to the person that we are trying to convince.

Paul’s plea reveals that man’s will is involved. In other words, every believer chooses whether to offer himself to God or not. It is actually a daily choice we make each day, whether we will serve the Lord, or ourselves.

Note that Paul commands Timothy to exhort the brethren in 2 Timothy 4:2, “Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.”

Romans 12:1 “therefore” - Comments Many scholars says that the conjunction “therefore,” which begins a new section of the epistle of Romans, refers to the previous chapters 1-11. While the first section (1-11) emphasizes doctrine, the following chapters (12-16) deal with the practice of living according to the doctrine that Paul has just laid down.

Just as today, a minister teaching a seminar in Church will first present the Scriptural basis for his subject matter, then go into the practical application in the lives of the believers, so Paul first presents the Scriptural basis in chapters 1-11 of why his recipients should obey the teachings presented in chapters 12-16.

The word “therefore” can also refer to the immediate passage in 9-11, which states that the Christians in Rome, being Gentiles, have been grafted into the natural vine. Therefore, since the Romans should fear lest they, too, be cut off (Romans 11:20-22), Paul exhorts them to offer themselves to God is holy service.

Romans 11:20-22, “Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear: For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee. Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.”

Romans 12:1 “by the mercies of God” - Comments The mention of God's mercies in Romans 12:1 refers specifically to the calling of the Gentiles in chapter 11. God has grafted the Gentiles into the vine. Chapters 9-11 have just explained God's mercy in the act of receiving the Gentiles into the blessings of God (Romans 11:30-32). In fact, this phrase generally sums up the Gospel of Jesus Christ expounded in Romans 1-11 as well. The Gospel finds its origin in a merciful and compassionate God, who provided a means of redemption when mankind was undeserving of it. Paul alluded to his exposition of the Gospel that reveals God’s compassion in his opening salutation of this epistle when saying, “beloved of God” (Romans 1:7), for it is the love of God towards mankind that motivated Him to pour out His compassion upon us.

Romans 11:30-32, “For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief: Even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy. For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.”

Romans 1:7, “To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.”

Thus, Paul's plea for the Gentile church at Rome to serve the Lord is based on God's mercy of grafting them in (Romans 15:9).

Romans 15:9, “And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will confess to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name.”

Romans 12:1 “that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice” Comments Paul uses the phrase “present (or offer) your bodies a living sacrifice” in order to draw a comparison to the dead bodies of animals that were sacrificed as a burnt offering on the brazen altar in Temple worship under the old covenant, and up until the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70. In other words, we are to be like this sacrifice in the respect that this is our “spiritual” form of worship. Note how Paul has just alluded to this living sacrifice in Romans 8:36.

Romans 8:36, “As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter .”

A living sacrifice could be described as a servant of God’s work. This means to sacrifice your wants for God’s desires to be accomplished in your life. Note the phrase “spiritual service (worship).” This is walking in love, in harmony with God's will for your life.

Jesus Christ is the greatest example of a living sacrifice. Ours is a living sacrifice, who laid down his life on Calvary. Since Jesus died in our place we are to now live in service to Him (Ephesians 5:2).

Ephesians 5:2, “And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour.”

Paul, the apostle, was also a living example of how to lay down a life daily. In 1 Corinthians 15:31, Paul says, “I die daily,” referring to the same idea. In Romans 8:13, he calls it “putting to death the deeds of the body” saying, “If you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.” In Colossians 3:5, Paul uses the phrase “put to death your members which are on the earth,” again referring to daily sacrifices that a believer makes for Christ.

1 Corinthians 15:31, “I protest by your rejoicing which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.”

Romans 8:13, “For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.”

Colossians 3:5, “Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry:”

Note that Paul the apostle also clearly teaches that we died once with Christ at the time we were born again.

Romans 6:3, “Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?”

Galatians 2:20, “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.”

Colossians 3:3, “For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God.”

Although we identified with Christ’s death, burial and resurrection, we must daily live according to this divine truth or revelation, and not according to our carnal thinking. This means the giving of yourself daily to serve the Lord. Note similar verses:

1 Corinthians 15:31, “I protest by your rejoicing which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.”

2 Corinthians 1:9, “But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead:”

2 Corinthians 4:10-12, “Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. For we which live are alway delivered unto death for Jesus' sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh. So then death worketh in us, but life in you.

Galatians 2:20, “I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.”

Philippians 1:20, “According to my earnest expectation and my hope, that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but that with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death.”

As our inner man desires to serve the Lord, we must daily battle with our flesh. How do we do this? The next verse (Romans 12:2) tells us that it is by knowing God’s will for our lives daily, and this comes with a renewed mind.

Paul also refers to our bodies in Romans 12:1 as a forethought of the body of Christ, which he is about to refer to in Romans 12:4-8.

Romans 12:1 “acceptable unto God” - Comments That is, “well-pleasing to God.” Note:

Hebrews 11:6, “But without faith it is impossible to please him : for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.”

Romans 12:1 “which is your reasonable service” - Comments The phrase “which is your reasonable service” can be translated “your spiritual service” so that it refers to the way we serve God daily. In the Greek text this phrase stands in apposition, or alongside, the phrase “a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God.” Thus, Paul is telling the saints that the offering of their bodies as a living sacrifice is in fact their way of rendering a spiritual service unto God. It is the practical way in which they worship and serve the Lord. Thus, the two phrases “a living sacrifice” and “a spiritual service” mean the same thing. Paul is saying that since the sacrifices contained within Mosaic Law have been done away with, their spiritual duties can now be performed by serving the Lord in their bodies rather than by burning a bull or a sheep on an altar. Paul will soon list these spiritual services, or Christian services, in Romans 12:6-8 that God has given initially to every believer.

Paul uses the same Greek word λατρει ́ α (service) in Romans 12:1 that he used to open this epistle, “whom I serve with my spirit” (Romans 1:9) ( λατρευ ́ ω ). This means that Paul would not have asked them to do something that he was not already doing himself.

Romans 1:9, “For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;”

Romans 12:1 Comments (1) Paul closes his epistle to the church at Rome (of which the majority were Gentiles) by telling them that he is offering them up as a sacrificial offering unto God (Romans 15:16).

Romans 15:16, “That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost.”

Remember that God received a human sacrifice when His Son Jesus Christ died on Calvary. Romans 1-11 explains that great sacrifice made on Calvary as a way of encouraging us to imitate Christ in offering ourselves as a living sacrifice in Romans 12-16. Therefore, in Romans 12:1, Paul is telling the Gentiles to assist him in making sure that they join him in preparing themselves as a sweet-smelling offering unto the Lord. Paul used this figurative language on another occasion when he told the church at Corinth that he was presenting them to Christ as a chaste virgin.

2 Corinthians 11:2, “For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.”

Kenneth Hagin explains that yielding our bodies in “spiritual service” includes the way that we offer ourselves during a worship service, by yielding to the Holy Spirit in our daily lives and by allowing the gifts of the Spirit to be manifested through our bodies, such as the gifts of utterance or revelation, dancing in the Spirit, etc. [202]

[202] Kenneth Hagin, Plans Purposes and Pursuits (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1988, 1993), 139-41.

Romans 12:1 Comments (2) God’s love had been shed abroad by the Holy Spirit into Paul’s heart (Romans 5:5). It was this type of love that compelled Paul to lay down his life in behalf of his nation (Romans 9:1-3). It is this God-type of love that compels us to lay our lives down in behalf of the needs of others. Therefore in Romans 12:1, Paul calls upon his readers to do the same in becoming a living sacrifice for others.

Illustration As a young Christian, Andrew Wommack was asking the Lord what was his ministry gift and calling. The Lord told him that if he would become a daily, living sacrifice, he would not miss his calling. [203] Thus, Paul’s exhortation to become a living sacrifice (Romans 12:1-5) precedes the gifts of Christian service because when we give our lives to the Lord as a sacrifice we cannot miss God’s ministry calling in our lives.

[203] Andrew Wommack, “Sermon,” Gospel Truth Seminar, Kampala, Uganda, 28-29 November 2011.

Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.

Romans 12:2 “And be not conformed to this world” Word Study on “conformed” Strong says the Greek word “conformed” ( συσχηματίζω ) (G4964) means, “to fashion alike, i.e. conform to the same pattern.” The same Greek word is used in 1 Peter 1:14.

1 Peter 1:14, “As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:”

Romans 12:2 “but be ye transformed” Word Study on “transformed” Strong says the Greek word “transformed” ( μεταμορφόω ) (G3339) means, “to transform, metamorphose.”

Romans 12:2 “by the renewing of your mind” - Comments - We renew our mind by the Word of God (Philippians 2:5-11, Colossians 3:16).

Colossians 3:16, “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.”

Romans 12:2 “that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God” Word Study on “prove” Strong says the Greek word “prove” ( δοκιμάζω ) (G1381) means “to test, approve.”

Comments - As believers maturing in the Lord, we have to learn how to find God's will and plan for our lives. In the context of this passage, we are told to find our place in the body of Christ and to walk in the ministry that God has ordained for each of us. Discovering this role for oneself takes our efforts to find this plan. In these efforts, we often will discover, examine and test situations in our lives in order to find God's plan for us.

There are categories, or different degrees, of being in God's will. Kenneth Hagin calls them the “good,” “the permissive,” and “the perfect will,” with the third being the best plan for us to pursue. [204] This suggests that the fruit of our divine service can also be measured, as in the Parable of the Sower, as 30-60-100 fold returns.

[204] Kenneth Hagin, How You Can Be Led By the Spirit of God (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1986, 1997), 15. Kenneth Hagin, Growing Up Spiritually (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1976, 1982), 157. Kenneth Hagin, Why Tongues (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1975, 1994), 20. Kenneth Hagin, I Believe In Visions (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1984, 1986), 100.

Paul uses two of these words together again in 1 Timothy 2:3, apparently as synonyms of each other.

1 Timothy 2:3, “For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;”

Walking in God’s will daily is not as much being in a certain place or location as it is a condition of the heart. More than seeking where or when we are to go, we must ask how we are to go; for although our will and intelligence are leading us, divine providence and God’s sovereignty are stronger forces that are bringing us to where and when we go.

So, focus not so much on your physical location in order to measure if you are in God’s will, for He is guiding you in His sovereignty. We have placed our lives into His hands in faith, trusting in His divine care and protection. There are blessing in every place we may abide, as long as we are in tune with the voice of God. Therefore, determine to keep your heart pure, knowing that He is guiding your steps day by day. He will bring you into His will and plan for your life. [205]

[205] These comments are taken from Frances J. Roberts, Come Away My Beloved (Ojai, California: King’s Farspan, Inc., 1973), 18.

Romans 12:2 Comments - Romans 12:2 deals with the renewing of the mind in order to know God's will. We are new creatures living in a fallen world of sin. We are to no longer conduct our lives like those in this world, but as heavenly creatures, reflecting our new nature as children of God and citizens of Heaven, redeemed saints who serving the living God in everything we do. We must live in this fallen world while making the effort to conform our bahaviour to a heavenly world, a lifestyle that contracts the system of this world. Romans 12:2 tells us to think like a servant of God would think. The result of correct thinking is to be able to discern God’s will for your life. This is eternal life, to know Him (John 17:3) and His will for our life (John 6:38).

John 6:38, “For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.”

John 17:3, “And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ , whom thou hast sent.”

Illustration - GIGO, “garbage in, garbage out.” Webster’s Dictionary - An acronym noting the fact that garbled input into a computer results in garbled output. We are created to be programmed; similar to the way a computer is designed. What we put into our minds will come out in our way of thinking.

Romans 12:1-2 Comments The Imperatives - There are two positive imperatives, or commands, and one negative imperative in these two verses:

1. Present your body as a sacrifice - positive

2. Be transformed - positive

3. Do not be conformed to this world - negative

Romans 12:3 For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith.

Romans 12:3 “For I say, through the grace given unto me” Comments Pau has as much reason to exalt himself as any saint. The grace and gifts and anonitings poured forth in his life and ministry exceeded what most believers will ever obtain; yet, he balances his exalted position in the body of Christ with humility. Paul understood his place in the body of Jesus Christ, our Lord as a fellow believer and servant of all.

Romans 11:13, “For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office:”

1 Corinthians 15:10, “But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.”

1 Corinthians 15:19, “If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.”

Ephesians 3:8, “Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ;”

Romans 12:3 “not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think” - Comments - The context of this passage is about finding our place in ministry in the body of Christ. Often, as the gifts and anointings of God are manifested in our lives, we find it easy to become high-minded and to think of ourselves as better than another member of the body of Christ. Thus, Paul's warning as he begins to discuss our ministries in verses 4-8.

Romans 12:3 “according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith” Word Study on “dealt” - Strong says the Greek word “dealt” ( μερίζω ) (G3307) literally means, “to apportion, bestow, share.”

Comments A measure refers to a portion. Romans 10:17 tells us that “faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.” Thus, a believer is to prosper in proportion to their faith (Romans 12:6).

Romans 12:6, “Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith ;”

Acts 17:31 says that God has given to every man who believes the assurance of their salvation by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead:

Acts 17:31, “Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead .”

Our assurance is involved in our faith in God (Hebrews 6:11; Hebrews 10:22).

Hebrews 6:11, “And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end :”

Hebrews 10:22, “Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith , having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.”

All men have been given a measure of the grace of God, which is the same as saying they every believer has been given a gift from God, or Christian service to perform. These Christian services are listed in Romans 12:6-8.

Romans 12:3 begins a passage on how to be renewed in the mind. It is easy for us to become high-minded when being used of God, which is a common problem for many Christians. Do not be high-minded, but be “sober,” which means “sensible, of a sound mind, serious.”

Creflo Dollar explains that when a man receives the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, he receives the measure of faith that God is referring to in Romans 12:3. [206] Thus, every born again child of God is given a measure, or seed, of faith by which to nurture. Every believer is given an opportunity to grow in that measure of faith in order to reach higher levels of faith in God.

[206] Creflo Dollar, Changing Your World (College Park, Georgia: Creflo Dollar Ministries), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

Romans 12:3 Comments As we realize how much God loves us and has exalted us in the heavenly realm and prepared us for greatness, we are to balance this exalted position in Christ with humility. The reason for the need to walk in humility is based upon the fact that every believer in the body of Christ has been equally exalted and has the same potential to do great exploits for God. We are one of many members of the body of Christ whom God has gifted. He has distributed manifold gifts to the body of Christ.

Romans 12:4-5 Many Members, but One Body In Romans 12:4-5 Paul makes a brief statement regarding the fact that there are many members that make up the body of Christ, but only one body. Paul offers a more extensive discussion on this topic in 1 Corinthians 12:1-31 and Ephesians 4:15-16.

Romans 12:4 For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office:

Romans 12:4 Word Study on “office” Strong says the Greek word ( πρᾶξις ) (G4234) means, “a practice, act, function.”

Comments - The word “office” is referring to our “spiritual worship” from Romans 12:1 and our “measure of faith” mentioned in Romans 12:3. These offices will be listed in Romans 12:6-8.

Romans 12:5 So we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

Romans 12:6-8 The Gifts of Christian Service In Romans 12:6-8 Paul lists the various gifts given to each member of the body of Christ. He begins this topic by exhorting the Romans to present their bodies as a living sacrifice unto the Lord. This gifts operate in each believer as one takes a step of faith and serves others as unto the Lord.

Comparison of the Gifts in Other Pauline Epistles - When the list of gifts in Romans 12:6-8 is compared to the list given in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 and Ephesians 4:11, there are some differences. In Romans 12:0, these gifts, or various functions, are emphasized as being various ways of serving one another within the body of Christ. These gifts are manifested when a servant of God yields his life in ministry to help others. Thus, a layman can walk in these gifts. Therefore, the emphasis is on our faith to operate in the gifts because they are gifts that we initiate by Christian service. The list in Romans 12:6-8 is a different list of gifts because these are “ways of serving in the body of Christ,” whereas the gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 are “manifestations of the Spirit,” or gifts that the Holy Spirit initiates.

In 1 Corinthians, these gifts are called “manifestations of the Spirit” because it is the Holy Spirit who is the motivator, or the one who initiates these gifts. Thus, the emphasis is on the variety of ways that God works in our lives by the office of the Holy Spirit.

Still further, the gifts listed in Ephesians 4:11 are offices that a person holds in order for Jesus Christ to fulfill all things in all in God’s purpose and plan for the Church (Ephesians 4:10). These gifts, or offices, operate according to “the measure of the gift of Christ.” That is, they are initiated by Christ Jesus our Lord. For example, Paul states, “And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry.” (1 Timothy 1:12) In other words, Jesus initiated Paul’s calling in the office of an apostle because he had been faithful with the measure of faith that he has used in his Christian service.

The gifts in Romans 12:6-8 are where we begin to operate in the gifts according to our measure of faith as laymen because these are gifts that we initiate in Christian service. Then the gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 operate on a greater level of anointing as others see the Holy Spirit manifesting in their lives under those anointings because they are initiated by the Holy Spirit. Finally, God calls those who are faithful with these gifts into fulltime ministry according to the gifts, or offices, listed in Ephesians 4:11. Thus, the gifts listed in Romans 12:6-8 are the gifts that God gives to us in our lives and we are to initiate the operation of these gifts. As we are faithful, God imparts to us greater anointings (1 Corinthians 2:8-10) and even full times callings and offices (Ephesians 4:11). Even the twelve apostles of the Lamb began in serving the Lord Jesus Christ. When Jesus said, “Come, follow Me,” they forsook all and followed Him. Then God moved upon Him at one point in His earthly ministry to appoint twelve of His disciples whom He called apostles. However, they all began in the ministry of helps.

We can also see a development of these gifts from passage to passage. In Romans 12:6-8, we see that the gift of prophecy is initially given to believers to operate at their level of faith. For example, in 1989 I began to lead morning prayer at my work place. One morning the Lord spoke to me and said, “Prophesy what the men of God in the Bible prophesied and pray for your co-workers to be filled with the Holy Spirit,” So for the next four years, I took certain verses in the Scriptures and I spoke then over the work place in faith believing. This would be the lowest level of prophecy. Then the next level of prophecy can be seen in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 when the Holy Spirit moves upon us to give a particular word of prophecy. This takes place when the Holy Spirit initiates a prophecy rather than us speaking the word of God in faith. When a person begins to learn how to move by the Holy Spirit in the gift of prophecy on a regular basis, he soon qualifies to enter into the office of the prophet as listed in Ephesians 4:11. However, he is not in this office unless he has a divine calling by Jesus Christ, who initiates this gift and office.

Regarding the gift of teaching mentioned in Romans 12:6-8, when I offered my life in Christian service, I was asked to teach a twelfth grade class in Sunday School. I took on this Christian service with zeal and enjoyed preparing and teaching these young boys and girls. Many years later, I began to teach in Bible School and was given a prophecy in April 1994 by Pastor Dale Gentry, who operates often in the office of a prophet, that I was a teacher. I have continued to teach in Bible School and behind the pulpit. I would rather teach than preach.

Regarding the gift of exhortation mentioned in Romans 12:6-8, we find such zeal in young men who eventually find a calling as an evangelist. The gift of giving can also be developed as a person who becomes a wealthy businessman to support the work of Christ. The gifts of ruling and showing mercy fit the heart of a person who may one day become a pastor. Kenneth Hagin sees the gift of governments listed in 1 Corinthians 12:28 as representing the office of a pastor. [207]

[207] Kenneth Hagin, He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1992, 1993), 189.

Romans 12:6 Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith;

Romans 12:6 “Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us” Comments - We could translate this phrase to read, “Having then gifts differing according to the anointing that is given to us…” Within the context of the epistle of 1 Corinthians, the phrase “the grace of God” refers to the operations of the gifts of the Spirit. In fact, some of the early Church fathers will use the Greek word χάρις (grace) when speaking of the charismatic gifts of the Spirit.

“For the same Apostle says, But for us there is one God, the Father, of Whom are all things, and we in Him, and one Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom are all things, and we through Him. And again, One Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, Who is both through all, and in us all. By these words one God and one Lord it would seem that to God only is attributed, as to one God, the property of being God; since the property of oneness does not admit of partnership with another. Verily how rare and hard to attain are such spiritual gifts! How truly is the manifestation of the Spirit seen in the bestowal of such useful gifts! And with reason has this order in the distribution of graces been appointed, that the foremost should be the word of wisdom; for true it is, And no one can call Jesus Lord but in the Holy Spirit, because but through this word of wisdom Christ could not be understood to be Lord; that then there should follow next the word of understanding, that we might speak with understanding what we know, and might know the word of wisdom; and that the third gift should consist of faith, seeing that those leading and higher graces would be unprofitable gifts did we not believe that He is God.” (St. Hilary of Poitiers, On the Trinity 8.34) [208]

[208] Hilary of Poitiers, On the Trinity, trans. E. W. Watson and L. Pullan, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 9, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, c1908), 147.

“In like manner we have heard also above concerning the Holy Spirit, that he too grants the same kinds of graces . For it is said: ‘To one is given through the Spirit the gift of healings, to another divers kinds of tongues, to another prophecy.’ So, then, the Spirit gives the same gifts as the Father, and the Son also gives them. Let us now learn more expressly what we have touched upon above, that the Holy Spirit entrusts the same office as the Father and the Son, and appoints the same persons; since Paul said: ‘Take heed to yourselves, and to all the flock in the which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers to rule the Church of God.’ (St. Ambrose, On the Holy Spirit 2.152) [209]

[209] Ambrose, On the Holy Spirit, trans. H. de Romestin, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 10, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: James Parker and Company, c1896), 134.

“Truly that disciple of Christ, imitating the miracles performed by the Saviour, and which he, by way of example, set before the view of his saints, showed Christ also working in him, who, glorifying his own holy follower everywhere, conferred upon that one man the gifts of various graces . Arborius, of the imperial body guard, testifies that he saw the hand of Martin as he was offering sacrifice, clothed, as it seemed, with the noblest gems, while it glittered with a purple light; and that, when his right hand was moved, he heard the clash of the gems, as they struck together. ( Dialogues Of Sulpitius Severus 3.10) [210]

[210] Dialogues Of Sulpitius Severus, trans. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 11, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: James Parker and Company, c1894), 50.

Romans 12:6 “according to the proportion of faith” Word Study on “proportion” Strong says the Greek word “proportion” ( ἀναλογία ) (G356) means, “proportion.” BDAG says it means, “right relationship, proportion, agreement.”

Comments - When we receive a message from the Lord, it takes faith to speak that word. We must be sure that we have received a word from the Lord. Sometimes, however, people continue to speak words in excess of the message that the Lord gave them, thus getting in the flesh. It is very easy to say things that are not truly from the Lord when exercising the gifts of utterance. We are to prophesy according to the message that the Lord has given us, no more, and no less.

Romans 12:8 “Or he that exhorteth, on exhortation” Comments - We can see how a person walks in the gift of exhortation by continually sharing the Word of God and words of encouragement with others.

Romans 12:8 “he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity” Word Study on “giveth” Strong says the Greek word “giveth” ( μεταδίδωμι ) (G3330) means, “to give over, to share.”

Word Study on “simplicity” Strong says the Greek word “simplicity” ( ἁπλότης ) (G572) means, “singleness, sincerity, generosity.”

Comments - Paul taught the Corinthian church to give with generosity in chapters 8-9 when he was exhorting them on the collection for the poor saints in Jerusalem. He calls their giving a χα ́ ρισμα in Romans 12:6, and a χα ́ ρις in 2 Corinthians 8:7.

2 Corinthians 9:6-7, “But this I say, He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully. Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.”

2 Corinthians 8:7, “Therefore, as ye abound in every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us, see that ye abound in this grace also.”

Illustration - In Philippians 4:18, the Philippian church gave Paul gifts. Paul called these gifts a sacrifice.

Philippians 4:18, “But I have all, and abound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, wellpleasing to God.”

Romans 12:8 “he that ruleth, with diligence” - Word Study on “diligence” - Or, “zeal.” Strong says the Greek word “diligence” ( σπουδή ) (G4710) means, “dispatch, eagerness, earnestness.”

Verses 1-21

Practical Applications of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to Our Everyday Lives After Paul declares the Gospel in the first eleven chapters, he devotes rest of the chapters to the practical application of the Gospel in the life of the individual. This two-fold aspect of doctrinal and practical teachings is typical of the Pauline epistles. Romans 1:16-17 serves as a summary of the Gospel of Jesus, which Paul spends much of this Epistle expanding upon. These are the key verses of the book of Romans in which Paul declares the power of the Gospel, revealing God’s plan of redemption for mankind. The Almighty God will affect His purpose and plan for man through the power of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He will spend the first eleven chapters show to us God’s role in bringing about this Plan of Redemption to mankind. He will take the rest of his Epistle teach us our role in supporting this plan in the societies that each of us live in, as we apply the Gospel to our relationships with others.

Paul explains how believers, both Jews and Gentiles, are united as one body in Christ (Romans 12:1-8). The Church is also united within a society, so that this obligates us to social duties with our fellow man (Romans 12:9-21). The Church is also related to the government of that society. Therefore, it has civil duties in relation to its leaders (Romans 13:1-7). These civil duties do not conflict with the Mosaic Law found within Scripture. In fact, these principles are found within the Law (Romans 13:8-10). Paul then exhorts the church at Rome to treat one’s fellow believer with love as an example to the society and government in which they live (Romans 13:11 to Romans 15:13). Christ’s eminent return is reason enough to follow Paul’s exhortations (Romans 13:11-14). He takes a special problem, which is foods, to show the believers how to work together despite their differences (Romans 14:1 to Romans 15:13). Thus, we see in a nutshell how to apply the Gospel in our relationship to the Church, to society in general, to governmental authorities, and finally to individual believers. We see that the Church is structured within the society, which is structured under a ruling government. Within this structure, the believers are to be an example of love in how they treat one another so that the society of unbelievers may see the love of God. This is how the Gospel is taken to a nation, which is the third and supporting theme of Romans.

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Gospel in Relation to One Body in Christ Romans 12:1-8

2. The Gospel in Relation to Social Duties Romans 12:9-21

3. The Gospel in Relation to Civil Duties Romans 13:1-7

4. The Gospel in Relation to the Law Romans 13:8-10

5. The Gospel in Relation to Other Believers Romans 13:11 to Romans 15:13

Application of the Gospel of Jesus Christ as Living Sacrifices - Paul now leaves the doctrinal teachings found in the first major part of this epistle (1-11) and moves into exhortations on how to apply these divine doctrines to daily life (12-15). After having explained how God is still working in the nation of Israel as well as the Church to fulfill all things according to His election through divine foreknowledge, Paul first calls them all, both Jewish and Gentile converts in the church at Rome, to unity in the body of Christ (Romans 12:1-8). They are also to conduct themselves in the love of God towards the society in which they live (Romans 12:9-21), knowing that they are a light to the world and God wants to redeem all men. Although the Jews in Rome as well as in Palestine were considered troublesome by Roman officials, Paul exhorts the Church at Rome to set themselves as examples of respectable citizens by being submission to government authority (Romans 13:1-7). In doing this, they are not breaking the Mosaic Laws, but rather fulfilling them (Romans 13:8-10). Paul then writes a lengthy passage to the church at Rome discussing particular issues that explain how to walk in love among themselves, in light of the fact that the Day of the Lord’s Return is near (Romans 13:11 to Romans 15:13).

Since Romans 12:1-2 command us to give ourselves to God as a servant, the following passages show us how to give ourselves to God as a living sacrifice. Romans 13:14 seems to summarize these two verses, since it is a closing verse to these two chapters.

Romans 13:14, “But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.”

Romans 12-15 serve to show how the believers in Rome could offer themselves as a living sacrifice; in their relationships with one another, with society and under government authorities.

Verses 9-21

The Gospel in Relation to Social Duties Romans 12:9-12 focuses on the church’s social duty to society. The Church is also united within a society, so that this obligates us to social duties with our fellow man (Romans 12:9-21).

In contrast to dealing with those who have particular gifts in Romans 12:6-8, Romans 12:9-21 deals with virtues in which all members of the body of Christ must walk. However, just as Paul dealt with the priority of the love walk after teaching on the gifts of the Spirit in 1 Corinthians 12-14, so does he follow a teaching of the gifts with a passage on love.

Romans 12:9 Let love be without dissimulation. Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good.

Romans 12:9 “Let love be without dissimulation” - Word Study on “without dissimulation” Strong says the Greek word “without dissimulation” ( ἀνυπόκριτος ) (G505) means, “undissembled, sincere, without dissimulaton (hypocrisy).” Comments - Kenneth Hagin says “dissimulation” means “to pretend, pretension.” He says that many people pretend to love others, but do not actually walk in love with their neighbours. [211]

[211] Kenneth Hagin, Love the Way to Victory (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1994, 1995), 239.

Word Study on “cleave” The Greek word “cleave” ( κολλάω ) (G5823) means “to glue, stick.”

Comments - In the same way that Paul undergirds the operation of the gifts of the manifestation of the Holy Spirit listed in 1 Corinthians 12:9-10; 1 Corinthians 12:28-31 by following it with an entire chapter on love (1 Corinthians 13:0), so does Paul do the same after presenting the spiritual gifts of Christian service in Romans 12:6-8. In order for them to be used effectively and long-term, they must all be undergirded with the love walk. We serve God with our individual gifts and callings as an act of love. Our motive is not to exalt ourselves, but to build up others in the body of Christ. Paul tells us to let our acts of love towards others be from our heart, genuine, and not by pretending in order to please people. Paul then proceeds to give examples of this genuine love walk amongst society in the rest of this passage of Romans 12:9-21.

Illustration - A good example of a man who had genuine love and abhorred evil was Job (Job 1:1).

Job 1:1, “There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil.”

Romans 12:10 Be kindly affectioned one to another with brotherly love; in honour preferring one another;

Romans 12:10 Word Study on “kindly affectioned” Strong says the Greek word “kindly affectioned” ( φιλόστοργος ) (G5387) means, “cherishing one’s kindred, especially parents or children, fond of natural relatives, i.e. fraternal toward fellow Christians.” BDAG says it means, “loving dearly.”

Romans 12:10 Word Study on “preferring” - Strong says the Greek word “preferring” ( προηγέομαι ) (G4285) means, “to lead the way for others, i.e. show deference.” BDAG says it means, “to try to outdo one another in showing respect.”

Romans 12:11 Not slothful in business; fervent in spirit; serving the Lord;

Romans 12:11 “Not slothful in business” - Word Study on “business” Strong says the Greek word “business” ( ὀκνηρός ) (G3636) literally means, “tardy, i.e. indolent,” and figuratively, “irksome.” BDAG says it means, “idle, lazy, indolent.”

Romans 12:11 “fervent in spirit” Word Study on “fervent” - Strong says the Greek word “fervent” ( ζέω ) (G2204) literally means, “to be hot,” and figuratively, “to be fervid, (earnest).” BDAG says it means, “boil, seethe.”

Comments - The RSV reads, “Be aglow with the Spirit.” Goodspeed says, “Be on fire with the Spirit.” Kenneth Hagin says this phrase means, “Be filled with the Spirit.” [212]

[212] Kenneth Hagin, Following God’s Plan For Your Life (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1993, 1994), 23.

We can recognize those who are “aglow” with the Spirit. For example, in Acts 6:1-3, the twelve apostles told the believers in Jerusalem to “look out” for seven men who were aglow with the Holy Spirit, full of wisdom and honest. Thus, this attribute is recognizable.

Romans 12:12 Rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer;

Romans 12:12 “patient in tribulation” - Word Study on “patient” Strong says the Greek word “patient” ( ὑπομένω ) (G5278) literally means, “to stay under (behind),” and figuratively, “to undergo, i.e., bear (trials), have fortitude, persevere.”

Romans 12:12 “continuing instant in prayer” Word Study on “continuing instant” Strong says the Greek word “continuing instant” ( προσκαρτερέω ) (G4342) means, “to be earnest towards, to persevere, to be constantly diligent.”

Comments We could translate the phrase to mean, “devoted to prayer.” Note:

1 Thessalonians 5:17, “Pray without ceasing.”

Romans 12:13 Distributing to the necessity of saints; given to hospitality.

Romans 12:13 “Distributing to the necessity of saints” - Word Study on “distributing” - Strong says the Greek word, “distributing” ( κοινωνέω ) (G2841) means, “to share with others.”

Comments - Note our responsibility to the brethren:

Galatians 6:10, “As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith .”

Romans 12:13 “given to hospitality” - Word Study on “given to” - Strong says the Greek word, “given to” ( διώκω ) (G1377) means, “to pursue.”

Romans 12:14 Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not.

Romans 12:15 Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep.

Romans 12:15 Comments - Life is a mixture, or balance with, times of rejoicing and weeping. If we rejoice all the time, we would lose focus on the vanity and suffering of this life. If we weep and had no joy, we would lose focus upon the blessings of God that are all around us each day. People who take illegal drugs and indulge in alcohol do so in order to escape their miseries and find a period of rejoicing.

Romans 12:16 Be of the same mind one toward another. Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own conceits.

Romans 12:16 “Be of the same mind one toward another” - Comments - 1 Peter 3:8 gives us an amplified meaning of this phrase. Note:

1 Peter 3:8, “Finally, be ye all of one mind , having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous:”

Romans 12:16 “Mind not high things, but condescend to men of low estate” Word Study of “mind” Strong says the Greek word “mind” ( φρονέω ) (G5426) means, “to exercise the mind, i.e. entertain or have a sentiment or opinion.” “associate.” BDAG says it means, “set one’s mind on, be intent on.”

Word Study of “condescend” Strong says the Greek word “condescend” ( συναπάγω ) (G4879) means, “to take off together, i.e. transport with (seduce, yield).” BDAG say it means, “to accommodate yourself to humble ways.”

Scripture References - Note similar verses:

James 1:9-10, “Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted: But the rich, in that he is made low: because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away.”

James 2:5, “Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?”

Romans 12:16 “Be not wise in your own conceits” Scripture References - Note similar verses:

Proverbs 3:7, “Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil.”

Isaiah 5:21, “Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!”

Romans 12:16 Comments Romans 12:16 is essentially a restatement of Romans 12:3 in which Paul says, “For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith.” The message is the same, exhorting every believer to walk in humility with one another.

Romans 12:17 Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men.

Romans 12:17 “Recompense to no man evil for evil” - Word Study on “recompense” Strong says the Greek word “recompense” ( ἀποδίδωμι ) (G591) means, “to give away, i.e. up, over, back.” BDAG says it means, “to give away, give up, give out.”

Illustration - On the Thanksgiving eve of 1982, Steve and Lynn Everett’s car had its back windshield smashed with a concrete block by a group of young men driving by their house. They had to make the decision to forgive and to not pay back the villains that did this evil deed.

Romans 12:17 “Provide things honest in the sight of all men” Comments - The ASV reads, “Take thought for things honorable in the sight of all men.”

Illustration - One day, while doing handiwork for a living in the mid-1980's, I was given US$ 230 in cash from a customer in order to purchase construction materials for his home. Since I could not get to the job immediately to begin work, as I had told them, I delivered the materials at this home. I then left a note that I would begin work in the morning. I was trying to show myself as an honest individual, even to this lost man and wife. While unloading the materials that day, the Lord quickened this verse to me, showing me how I was walking the Word of God.

Romans 12:18 If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.

Romans 12:18 “as much as lieth in you” Comments - The Greek literally reads, “the thing from you (your part or role).”

Romans 12:19 Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Romans 12:19 “Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath” Comments - When someone does us wrong, God knows that we immediately feel anger and wrath. Romans 12:19 tells us not to yield ourselves to these feelings and perform our own method of vengeance. I have learned to hold my tongue and give myself time to calm down before responding to matters that anger me.

Illustration (1) David was a man who learned to let God avenge his enemies. Many of the psalms are prayers to God in which he delivers his enemies over to God’s wrath.

Illustration (2) - We take vengeance many times with the tongue.

1 Corinthians 6:7, “Now therefore there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one with another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded?”

Matthew 5:39, “But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.”

Illustration (3) - In Mowat Junior High School, I was once slapped on both sides of cheek by another student named Ricky Langford. He slapped my first cheek, and I remembered Matthew 5:39, so I turned the other cheek, and he slapped it also. In the summer of 1982, this same young man shared his conversion testimony with me in the Springfield Methodist Church in Panama City, Florida. He later joined a church that I was pastoring. I became his pastor for a while.

Romans 12:20 Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.

Romans 12:21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.

Romans 12:21 “Be not overcome of evil” Comments - Do not be overcome by evil. If overcoming evil with good is not practiced in a church body, strive comes, followed by division, then ruin (Matthew 12:25).

Matthew 12:25, “And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand:”

Romans 12:21 Comments - Anger can become a stronghold in a person’s life if he continually gives place to it. The continual practice of responding in anger causes it to become a part of our character. The Scriptures teach us not to respond to our feelings of anger, but rather, train ourselves by responding with good works. For most, if not all, of us this is a learning process that is being worked out in us by the Holy Spirit.

Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Romans 12". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghe/romans-12.html. 2013.
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