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Trial Before Pilate and Herod. The Crucifixion and Burial
1-5. The trial before Pilate begins (Matthew 27:1-2, Matthew 27:11-14; Mark 15:1-5; John 18:28-38). See on Mt and Jn.
6-12. Trial before Herod (peculiar to Lk). ’By sending Jesus to Herod the clever Roman gained two ends at once. First, he got rid of the business which was imposed on him, and then he took the first step towards a reconciliation with Herod (Luke 23:12). The cause of their quarrel had probably been some conflict of jurisdiction. In that case, was not the best means of soldering up the quarrel to concede to him a right of jurisdiction within the very city of Jerusalem?’(Godet).
7. Herod’s jurisdiction] This extended over Galilee and Peræa.
Was at Jerusalem] i.e. in order to keep the Passover.
13-25. Trial before Pilate resumed. Jesus is condemned (Matthew 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-20; John 18:38 to John 19:16). See on Mt and Jn.
26-32. The procession to the Cross (Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21-22; John 19:17). See on Mt. The beautiful address to the women of Jerusalem is peculiar to Lk. These women are not the same as the Galilean sympathisers (Luke 8:1-3), but residents in Jerusalem. The warm feeling with which all classes of women regarded Jesus is especially marked in this ’the Gospel of womanhood.’
28. Weep not for me] You are not wrong in weeping for Me, nevertheless something is about to befall, for which you will weep with far greater reason, the destruction of your city and the overthrow of your nation.
30. Cp. Isaiah 2:19; Revelation 6:16.
31. If they do these things, etc.] i.e. ’If the Romans so cruelly treat Me whom they know to be innocent, how much more severely will they treat your children whom they will regard as rebellious and guilty?’ Or, ’If the inhabitants of Jerusalem are so guilty now in slaying Me, to what further stages of wickedness will they afterwards advance?’
33-49. Crucifixion and Death of Jesus (Matthew 27:33-56; Mark 15:23-41; John 19:18-37). See on Mt and Jn. Peculiar to Lk are three of the Seven Words from the Cross, and the incident of the Converted Thief.
34. Father, forgive them, etc.] (peculiar to Lk). This, the first Word from the Cross, is omitted by a few early authorities, but is unquestionably authentic. Jesus here puts into practice His own teaching about loving enemies and forgiving them.
39. One of the malefactors] At first both malefactors reviled Jesus (Matthew 27:47), then one of them, moved by the gentleness and majesty of the Sufferer, was ashamed, and rebuked his fellow. From shame he passed to penitence and faith.
42. Lord, remember me, etc.] RV ’Jesus, remember me when thou comest in thy kingdom.’ The thief here acknowledges Jesus to be the Messiah, a stupendous act of faith under the circumstances. ’He was rejected by the Jews who saw Him raising the dead. He was not rejected by the thief who saw Him hanging with him on the Cross ’(St. Augustine). The thief apparently expected Christ to rise again and establish His kingdom.
43. To-day, etc.] (peculiar to Lk). ’The grace granted is more abundant than the prayer. For his prayer was that the Lord would be mindful of him when He should have come into His kingdom. But the Lord said unto him, “Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise” Where Christ is there is life, there is the Kingdom ’(St. Ambrose). On ’Paradise’ see Luke 16:22, Luke 16:23. This incident teaches us not to despise even deathbed repentances.
44. In the RV the darkness is said to be due to ’the sun’s light failing.’
46. Father, etc.] (peculiar to Lk). This ’word’ is a quotation from Psalms 31:5. Spirit] i.e. Christ’s human spirit. ’Spirit’ and ’soul’ are identical in the Gospels. Christ is said to have both (Matthew 26:33; Matthew 27:50; John 12:27; John 13:21; John 19:30).
50-56. The burial (Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; John 19:38-42). See on Mt, Mk and Jn.
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Luke 23". "John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30