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Treason of Judas. The Last Supper. The Agony in the Garden. Arrest of Jesus. The Jewish Trial
1-6. Conspiracy of the chief priests. Treachery of Judas (Matthew 26:1-5, Matthew 26:14-16; Mark 14:1-2, Mark 14:10-11). See on Mt. St. Luke omits the anointing at Bethany, because he has already recorded a similar incident (Luke 7:37).
4. Captains] i.e. the Levitical guard or police of the Temple, not the Roman garrison of Jerusalem.
7-13. Preparations for the Last Supper (Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12). See on Mt.
12. Furnished] arrayed for the Passover.
14-23. Institution of the Lord’s Supper. Denunciation of the Traitor (Matthew 26:20-29; Mark 14:17-25; 1 Corinthians 11:23). See on Mt. St. Luke’s account most resembles that in 1 Corinthians 11:23, which is only natural, seeing that he was a disciple of St. Paul. The most striking peculiarity of his account is that he mentions two cups, one before and one after the blessing of the bread. The latter is without doubt the cup of the Holy Communion, or Eucharist, which, as his been shown on St. Matthew, corresponded to the ’Cup of Blessing’ or ’third cup’ of the Passover Supper. The earlier cup of St. Luke may therefore have been the ’second cup’ of the Passover, which was drunk after the lamb was placed on the table (see on Mt). The mention of two cups by St. Luke was early felt to be a difficulty, and accordingly a few ancient MSS reduce the cups to one, some by omitting the former cup, others by omitting the latter. The latter omission, which has the support of only one Greek and five Latin MSS, has met with some support from recent critics. If it be accepted, St. Luke’s first cup must be that of the Eucharist, and in that case he represents the Eucharistic cup as consecrated before the bread.
17. Took the cup] RV ’received a cup.’
18. I will not drink, etc.] If these words are in their true position they seem to show that Jesus did not Himself drink of the cup of the Eucharist. Mt and Mk, however, place them after the blessing of the Eucharistic cup, instead of before it.
19. In remembrance of me] lit.’ for My memorial.’ This command for the continual repetition of the ordinance is mentioned only by St. Luke and St. Paul. The word translated ’remembrance ’is a rare one, and in biblical Greek means always a memorial before God, e.g. Leviticus 24:7: ’Thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row (of shewbread), that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord.’ So also in NT. (Hebrews 10:8). Accordingly the rite is intended, not so much to remind men of the death of Christ, as to remind God of it, to plead before God the merits of Christ’s sacrifice, as the only ground for mercy and favour.
20. This cup is the new testament (RV ’covenant’) in my blood] The meaning, according to 1 Corinthians 10:16, seems to be: ’This cup conveys to those who with true and lively faith partake of it, the benefits of the new covenant, which the shedding of my blood procures for mankind’ (i.e. remission of sins, eternal life, spiritual sustenance, etc.). Mt and Mk have, ’This is my blood of the new covenant.’ There is no reason why our Lord should not have used both expressions in explaining to Bus disciples the spiritual effect of the rite.
21. This v. is a strong support of the view that Judas received the sacrament, but it is not conclusive: see on Mt, and John 13:30.
24-30. A contention which should be the greatest (peculiar to Lk). This contention is probably to be placed at the very beginning of the supper, before the feet-washing: see on John 13:1-20. Our Lord had previously rebuked a very similar contention provoked by the ambition of the sons of Zebedee: see Matthew 20:25-28, where almost the same words are used.
28. Temptations] i.e. trials.
29, 30. See on Matthew 19:27-30.
31-34. Peter’s fall foretold (common to all the evangelists). See on Matthew 26:31-35. St. Luke agrees with St. John that Jesus made the prediction in the supper-room.
31, 32. These two vv. are peculiar to St. Luke. Satan hath desired] i.e. Satan hath procured that all of you should be surrendered to him to be severely tried, like Job. Sift] The violent motion of the sieve corresponds to the violent trial that the apostles were to experience when Christ was arrested.
32. For thee] Christ prayed specially for Peter, because he was the leader of the Apostles, and so much depended on him. Bis primacy was personal, not official, being derived from the special faculty of faith from which he derived his name, and which, after his fall, he conspicuously displayed.
35-38. Jesus directs His disciples to make provision for a time of persecution (peculiar to Lk). ’The meaning of our Lord in this much controverted passage appears to be to forewarn the apostles of the outward dangers which will await them henceforward in their mission—unlike the time when He sent them forth without earthly appliances, they must now make use of common resources for sustenance, yea and even of the sword itself for defence ’(Alford).
35. When I sent you] see Luke 9:3, and cp. Luke 10:4.
36. He that hath a purse] Although under ordinary circumstances those who preach the gospel are to live of the gospel and not concern themselves with worldly affairs, yet under exceptional circumstances, e.g. amid hostile surroundings, or in a heathen land, or in a church extremely poor, ministers of the gospel may engage in trade, or in other ways provide for their maintenance, as St. Paul did (Acts 18:3).
Scrip] i.e. provision-basket.
And he that hath no sword] The better translation is, ’And he that hath no money and no scrip, let him sell his cloak and buy a sword.’ The meaning is that the danger will be so great, that self-defence will be of primary importance. The best course for a man who has no money, will be to sell his cloak to buy a sword to defend himself. Sword stands here for all lawful means of self-defence. When St. Paul pleaded before Nero, he doubtless employed counsel to defend him. This was ’buying a sword ’in the sense which Jesus intended.
37. The things concerning me] i.e. the prophecies of My death. End] i.e. fulfilment.
38. Here are two swords] The disciples thought that Jesus advised them to buy swords to protect Him from arrest. They pointed out, therefore, that they had two already, with which they were prepared to defend Him. Seeing Himself misunderstood, Jesus abruptly closed the conversation with the words, It is enough, i.e. ’Enough of this trifling!’ He had intended the disciples to ’buy swords’ (i.e. take measures) for their own safety, not for His. He Himself was resolved to die, but He wished their lives to be preserved.
39-46. The Agony in the Garden (Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32). See on Mt, and on Luke 4:13.
43, 44. These vv., which contain the exquisitely human features of the bloody sweat, and the appearance of the angel to strengthen Jesus, are peculiar to Lk. They exhibit our Lord as true man, subject to all the weaknesses and trials of humanity, and requiring the same comfort and support in His agony as other men. Although omitted by a few ancient authorities, these vv. obviously describe an authentic incident: cp. Matthew 4:11.
44. Drops of blood] Great mental agony has been known to produce this phenomenon.
47-53. Arrest of Jesus (Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:48; John 18:3). See on Mt and Jn.
51. Suffer ye thus far] i.e. Suffer My enemies to do even this, viz. arrest Me. Make no further resistance. Healed him] This healing is peculiar to Lk.
53. This is your hour] i.e. the hour in which God permits you to do your wicked work, and Satan apparently to triumph.
54-62. Peter denies Jesus (Matthew 26:57-58, Matthew 26:69-75). See Mt and references there. All the evangelists record the incident.
63-65. Jesus mocked by the high priest’s servants (Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65). See on Mt.
66-71. The Jewish trial (Matthew 26:59; Mark 14:55: cp. John 18:19). See on Mt and Jn.
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Luke 22". "John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29