Restoration of God's People
1, 2. A warning to trust in God and not in sorcerers.
3-7. The Lord will cast out the evil guides of the people, and under new leaders Ephraim and Judah will be victorious.
8-12. Ephraim will be gathered, but Egypt and Assyria will be humbled.
1. The connexion with Zechariah 9:17 is very slight, fertility demanding the necessary rain. Some believe that the passage is entirely independent. The time of the latter rain] The early rain was in October, when the ground would be broken up for sowing; the latter rain was in Feb.-March, after the crops had sprung up, and was necessary for an abundant harvest. Even in the season it is wise to ask God for rain. Bright clouds] RV 'lightnings.'
2. Idols] 'teraphim,' household images, probably in human form: cp. 1 Samuel 13:16. They were used for purposes of divination, and were probably connected originally with ancestor worship. They went their way] RV 'they' (i.e. the people) 'go their way,' as sheep when the pasture fails in one place go on to another.
3-12. The whole passage is difficult. A good conjecture summarises it as follows: God will visit Judah, in whom will arise brave and wise leaders. By their means the lost Ten Tribes (Joseph.. Ephraim, Zechariah 10:6-7), who are still in exile, will have a glorious restoration to Gilead and Lebanon.
3. Shepherds] probably religious teachers are here meant: see Intro. Punished the goats] RV 'will punish the he-goats,' i.e. the false guides of the people: cp. Jeremiah 50:8. Hath made] RV 'shall make.' Evidently the word shepherd, closing Zechariah 10:2, suggests an attack on the worthless shepherds, religious teachers, perhaps, of foreign extraction or of foreign sympathies. The he-goats may be ethnarchs or civil rulers in Jerusalem.
4. Out of him] better, 'from him,' i.e. from Judah. Came] better, 'shall come.' Corner] i.e. cornerstone. Nail] rather, 'tent-peg': something that will hold firm. Oppressor] RV 'ruler,' i.e. one who keeps guard over workmen.
6. House of Joseph] i.e. Israel, as represented by Ephraim and Manasseh, the two leading tribes. Bring them again] may refer to the many Israelites in exile in Egypt (Zechariah 10:10) and elsewhere.
8. I will hiss for them] i.e. whistle to attract them: cp. Isaiah 5:26. God will bring back Israel to their own land.
9. I will sow them] As it stands this seems to contradict what follows as well as what goes before. With a slight change of Heb. it is possible to render: 'I scattered them among the nations, but in far countries they remember me. And they will bring up their children and come back.'
10. Assyria] Asshur might here be used of the Seleucid dominions in Syria and Persia; see Intro.
11. He] i.e. Israel. There will be a new exodus for God's people. Sea with affliction] better, perhaps, 'the narrow sea,' i.e. the arm of the Red Sea through which, once before, they passed. The river] i.e. Nile. Assyria and Egypt are chosen as representing the great world forces which harassed God's people.
12. Them] i.e. Israel, to whose glorious restoration the thoughts of the prophet return. Shall walk up and down in his (i.e. the Lord's) name] LXX renders, 'In His name shall they boast themselves.'
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on Zechariah 10". "John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany