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This chapter gives us an idea of the internal order of the kingdom under the government of David. The courses mentioned in the opening part of the chapter are not mentioned elsewhere in the Old Testament. They may have been the toilers who wrought in some specific work. Perhaps this refers to arrangement made for the labor necessary to build the Temple. Then the rulers of the tribes are named. Following this is a significant statement that in the numbering necessary to organization David was careful not to sin again. He had learned a lesson from experience. Next the rulers of departments are named, and, finally, a list of the chief men in David's household is given.
The chapter is a striking revelation of the fact that David's greatness as a king was not confined to his victories in war. He was no less great in peaceful administration. Tilling the soil, careful cultivation, raising cattle and all that pertained to the internal welfare of his people had his attention, and were arranged for under duly qualified and appointed oversight. There is no room for doubt that under the reign of David the Hebrew people realized their greatest strength, even if they did not reach the height of their magnificence. Truly a wonderful man was David. Fundamentally a man of God, he was also a warrior, a poet, an administrator. With his passing, the day of Hebrew greatness passed its meridian.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 27". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 14 / Ordinary 19