Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Chronicles 27


1The twelve captains for every several month.
16The princes of the twelve tribes.
23The numbering of the people is hindered.
25David's several officers.

Verse 1

Now the children of Israel after their number, to wit, the chief fathers and captains of thousands and hundreds, and their officers that served the king in any matter of the courses, which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year, of every course were twenty and four thousand.
the chief fathers
The patriarchs, chief generals, or generals of brigade. This enumeration is widely different from that of the preceding. In that, we have the order and course of the priests and Levites, in their ecclesiastical ministrations: in this, we have the account of the order of the civil service, what related simply to the political state of the king and kingdom. Twenty-four persons, chosen out of David's worthies, each of whom had a second, were placed over 24,000 men, who all served a month at a time, in turn; and this was the whole of their service during the year, after which they attended to their own affairs. Thus the king had always on foot a regular force of 24,000, who served without expense to him or the state, and were not oppressed by the service, which took up only a twelfth part of their time; and by this plan he could, at any time, bring into the field 12 times 24,000 or 288,000 fighting men, independently of the 12,000 officers, which made in the whole an effective force of 300,000 soldiers; and all these men were prepared, disciplined, and ready at a call, without the smallest expense to the state or the king. These were, properly speaking, the militia of the Israelitish kingdom.
13:1; Exodus 18:25; Deuteronomy 1:15; 1 Samuel 8:12; Micah 5:2
28:1; 2 Chronicles 17:12-19; 26:11-13
any matter
1 Kings 5:14
1 Kings 4:7,27
Reciprocal: Numbers 1:4 - General1 Chronicles 7:2 - whose number;  1 Chronicles 29:6 - the chief;  2 Chronicles 1:2 - to the captains;  2 Chronicles 25:5 - captains over thousands

Verse 2

Over the first course for the first month was Jashobeam the son of Zabdiel: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:11; 2 Samuel 23:8
Adino the Eznite

Verse 3

Of the children of Perez was the chief of all the captains of the host for the first month.
Genesis 38:29; Numbers 26:20
the chief.
Genesis 49:8-10; Numbers 7:12; 10:14
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 32:6 - he set captains

Verse 4

And over the course of the second month was Dodai an Ahohite, and of his course was Mikloth also the ruler: in his course likewise were twenty and four thousand.
11:12; 2 Samuel 23:9
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 24:15 - the Lord

Verse 5

The third captain of the host for the third month was Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, a chief priest: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
Or, "Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada the chief priest:" it was Jehoiada, and not Benaiah, who was a priest.
18:17; 1 Kings 4:4
chief priest
or, principal officer.
1 Kings 4:5
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 23:20 - Benaiah;  1 Kings 1:8 - Zadok;  1 Chronicles 11:22 - Benaiah

Verse 6

This is that Benaiah, who was mighty among the thirty, and above the thirty: and in his course was Ammizabad his son.
11:22-25; 2 Samuel 22:20-23; 23:20-23
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 23:23 - more honourable;  1 Kings 1:8 - Zadok

Verse 7

The fourth captain for the fourth month was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zebadiah his son after him: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:26; 2 Samuel 2:18-23; 23:24

Verse 8

The fifth captain for the fifth month was Shamhuth the Izrahite: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
If this person was the same as Shammoth the Hararite, or Shammah the Harodite, it is probable that he took the denomination Izrahite, from one of his progenitors of the name Izrah, and derived the other from the place of his residence.
Shammoth the Hararite
26:29; 2 Samuel 23:25
Shammah the Harodite

Verse 9

The sixth captain for the sixth month was Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:28; 2 Samuel 23:26

Verse 10

The seventh captain for the seventh month was Helez the Pelonite, of the children of Ephraim: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
2 Samuel 23:26

Verse 11

The eighth captain for the eighth month was Sibbecai the Hushathite, of the Zarhites: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:29; 2 Samuel 21:18
Numbers 26:20
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 27:13 - Zarhites

Verse 12

The ninth captain for the ninth month was Abiezer the Anetothite, of the Benjamites: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
2 Samuel 23:27
Reciprocal: Psalm 68:27 - little

Verse 13

The tenth captain for the tenth month was Maharai the Netophathite, of the Zarhites: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:30; 2 Samuel 23:28

Verse 14

The eleventh captain for the eleventh month was Benaiah the Pirathonite, of the children of Ephraim: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
11:31; 2 Samuel 23:30

Verse 15

The twelfth captain for the twelfth month was Heldai the Netophathite, of Othniel: and in his course were twenty and four thousand.
2 Samuel 23:29
4:13; Judges 3:9

Verse 16

Furthermore over the tribes of Israel: the ruler of the Reubenites was Eliezer the son of Zichri: of the Simeonites, Shephatiah the son of Maachah:
These persons, called "princes of the tribes," in ver. 22, and ch. 28:1, appear to have been civil rulers over their several tribes, and honorary men, without pay, not unlike the lords lieutenants of our counties. In this enumeration there is no mention of the tribes of Gad and Asher, probably because they were joined to the neighbouring tribes; or perhaps, the account of these has been lost from the register.
Reciprocal: Genesis 35:22 - Now the sons;  Exodus 1:1 - GeneralNumbers 1:16 - the renowned

Verse 17

Of the Levites, Hashabiah the son of Kemuel: of the Aaronites, Zadok:
of the Aaronites
12:27,28; 24:4,31
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 4:2 - Azariah

Verse 18

Of Judah, Elihu, one of the brethren of David: of Issachar, Omri the son of Michael:
If Elihu be not a mistake for Eliab, it is probable that he was called by both names.
1 Samuel 16:6; 17:13,29
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 2:13 - Eliab;  2 Chronicles 11:18 - Eliab

Verse 21

Of the half tribe of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo the son of Zechariah: of Benjamin, Jaasiel the son of Abner:
1 Kings 4:14
1 Samuel 14:50,51; 2 Samuel 3:27,37

Verse 23

But David took not the number of them from twenty years old and under: because the LORD had said he would increase Israel like to the stars of the heavens.
David took not
It seems probable, from this passage, that Joab began, by David's order, to number the children, as well as adults, but was prevented from finishing the account, probably because the plague had begun. The numbering of the effective men might have been deemed a political expedient; but pride and ostentation alone could dictate the numbering of minors and infants, especially as God had pronounced the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, innumerable.
from twenty
Numbers 1:18
he would increase
Genesis 15:5; Hebrews 11:12
Reciprocal: Genesis 13:16 - GeneralNumbers 1:2 - Take ye the sum;  Deuteronomy 1:10 - your God;  2 Samuel 24:1 - number;  2 Samuel 24:9 - eight hundred thousand;  1 Kings 3:8 - cannot;  1 Chronicles 7:2 - whose number;  1 Chronicles 21:2 - bring;  1 Chronicles 21:5 - a thousand;  Nehemiah 9:23 - multipliedst;  Psalm 80:9 - and it

Verse 24

Joab the son of Zeruiah began to number, but he finished not, because there fell wrath for it against Israel; neither was the number put in the account of the chronicles of king David.
began to number
21:1-17; 2 Samuel 24:1-15
was the number put
Heb. ascended the number.
Reciprocal: Exodus 30:12 - no plague;  Numbers 1:2 - Take ye the sum;  Numbers 16:46 - there is wrath;  2 Samuel 24:9 - eight hundred thousand;  1 Kings 3:8 - cannot;  1 Kings 14:19 - book;  1 Chronicles 7:2 - whose number;  1 Chronicles 21:2 - bring;  Psalm 80:9 - and it

Verse 25

And over the king's treasures was Azmaveth the son of Adiel: and over the storehouses in the fields, in the cities, and in the villages, and in the castles, was Jehonathan the son of Uzziah:
the king's
2 Kings 18:15; 2 Chronicles 16:2
the storehouses
Genesis 41:48; Exodus 1:11; 2 Chronicles 26:10; Jeremiah 41:8
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 28:1 - the captains of the companies;  1 Chronicles 29:6 - the rulers;  2 Chronicles 17:13 - much business;  2 Chronicles 32:27 - treasuries;  Proverbs 24:4 - GeneralIsaiah 22:15 - treasurer

Verse 27

And over the vineyards was Shimei the Ramathite: over the increase of the vineyards for the wine cellars was Zabdi the Shiphmite:
the increase of the vineyards
Heb. that which was of the vineyards.
Reciprocal: Genesis 40:2 - the chief of the butlers;  Ecclesiastes 2:4 - I planted

Verse 28

And over the olive trees and the sycomore trees that were in the low plains was Baalhanan the Gederite: and over the cellars of oil was Joash:
And over
1 Kings 4:7
the sycamore trees
The Hebrew shikmin, Syriac shekmo, and Arabic jummeez, is the [sykomoros] or sycomore, of the Greeks, so called from [sykos] a fig-tree, and [moros] a mulberry- tree, because it resembles the latter in its leaves, and the former in its fruits. "The sycamore," says Mr. Norden, "is of the height of a beech, and bears its fruit in a manner quite different from other trees: it has them on the trunk itself, which shoots out little sprigs, in form of grape stalks, at the end of which grow the fruit close to one another, almost like a cluster of grapes. The tree is always green, and bears fruit several times in the year, without observing any certain seasons; for I have seen some sycamores that have given fruit two months after others. The fruit has the figure and smell of real figs, but is inferior to them in the taste, having a disgusting sweetness. Its colour is a yellow, inclining to an ochre, shadowed by a flesh colour. In the inside it resembles the common figs, excepting that it has a blackish colouring with yellow spots. This sort of tree is pretty common in Egypt; the people, for the greater part, live on its fruit, and think themselves well regaled when they have a piece of bread, a couple of sycamore figs, and a pitcher of water."
1 Kings 20:27
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 9:27 - the sycamore;  Psalm 78:47 - sycamore;  Luke 19:4 - a sycamore

Verse 29

And over the herds that fed in Sharon was Shitrai the Sharonite: and over the herds that were in the valleys was Shaphat the son of Adlai:
5:16; Isaiah 65:10
Reciprocal: Genesis 47:6 - rulers;  1 Samuel 21:7 - herdmen;  2 Chronicles 32:29 - possessions;  Proverbs 27:23 - diligent;  Ecclesiastes 2:7 - also

Verse 30

Over the camels also was Obil the Ishmaelite: and over the asses was Jehdeiah the Meronothite:
the camels
Job 1:3
the Ishmaelite
Genesis 47:6

Verse 32

Also Jonathan David's uncle was a counsellor, a wise man, and a scribe: and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni was with the king's sons:
2 Samuel 13:3; 21:21
scribe.or, secretary.
son of Hachmoni
or, Hachmonite
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 23:8 - General1 Chronicles 28:1 - and of his sons

Verse 33

And Ahithophel was the king's counsellor: and Hushai the Archite was the king's companion:
2 Samuel 15:12; 16:23; 17:23
2 Samuel 15:32,37; 16:16
2 Samuel 16:17; Psalms 55:13; Zechariah 13:7
Reciprocal: Joshua 16:2 - Archi;  2 Samuel 23:34 - Eliam;  1 Kings 4:5 - the king's

Verse 34

And after Ahithophel was Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar: and the general of the king's army was Joab.
1 Kings 1:7
the general
11:6 Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 23:34 - Eliam

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 27". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".