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This is a song of the evening. The general circumstances out of which it rises are the same as those of the previous psalm. Now, however, the day into which the singer marched with confidence is over. The evidences of strain are apparent, and yet the dominant thought is of victory won and confidence increased.
The opening words constitute a petition in the midst of which the singer declares that God has delivered him. He appeals to the "sons of men," to those who, according to his morning psalm, declared, There is no help for him in God.
He now asks them how long they will turn His glory into dishonor, 'love vanity," and "seek after falsehood." The experiences of another day enable him to declare that Jehovah is great. He warns them to "stand in awe," to think of it, and 'be still."
The testimony merges into an appeal to those who do not know Jehovah. They are pessimists, dissatisfied in the midst of life, and asking, Who will show us any good?
Out of his experience of Jehovah's goodness, he affirms that he has found gladness more than the men who have been in circumstances of material prosperity. The song ends with words that breathe his deep content, In peace will I both lay me down and sleep . . . . and the reason is that though he is alone, or in solitude, Jehovah makes him dwell safely.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on Psalms 4". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent