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Bible Commentaries
1 Kings 15

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

Verses 1-6

Commentary on 1 Kings Chapter 15 AND 2 Chronicles Chapter 13

Commentary on 1 Kings 15:1-6 AND 2 Chronicles 13:1-2

Eighteen years after the death of Solomon the kingdom of Judah had another king, the grandson of David, and also the grandson of Absalom (here called Abishalom), David’s son. Absalom’s sons had died (2 Samuel 18:18), so Abijah had descended through his daughter, Tamer. His mother’s name was Maachah (or Michaiah), and her father’s name was Uriel. Abijah (Abijam in Kings) appears to have had many of the charismatic qualities of his maternal grandfather. He had been groomed to succeed his father on the throne.

Abijah’s reign was for only three years. The reason for his short reign is not revealed. The saddest thing about Abijah is the divine record of his spiritual condition. He walked in all the sins of his father, Rehoboam, and seems not to have turned to the Lord on occasion as did his father. God’s record is clear that he was allowed to rule that the Lord’s word concerning David’s "lamp in Jerusalem" might be fulfilled, and in order that Jerusalem might be further established as the Lord’s dwelling place. David’s life was characterized as godly, except in the affair of Uriah the Hittite, for which he had repented and was forgiven, but the conduct of Abijah was not comparable. This may be why the Lord removed him from the scene as Judah’s ruler after only three years.

2 Chronicles 13:3

(The 1st edition Hardbound version of the commentary includes the following comments under 1 Kings 15).

1 Kings 15:6 states that a state of war existed between Rehoboam and Jeroboam throughout their reigns. Though there was certainly belligerency God did not allow them to engage in open warfare. The first account of actual battle between Jeroboam and the southern kingdom occurred after the accession of Abijah, and is recorded only in Chronicles. It is in this incident that the characteristics of his grandfa­ther, Absalom, appear in the young king. He appears as proud, boastful, and arrogant, yet having a brilliant mind. He was also a very able orator.

The site of this battle was Mount Zemaraim, in the tribe of Ephraim, but archaeologists today are unable to locate it. Abijah was the appar­ent aggressor, for he had his army inside the bounds of the northern kingdom,and Jeroboam was thus on the defensive. Abijah was outnum­bered two to one, he having 400,000 chosen, valiant men in comparison to Jeroboam’s 800,000. Abijah’s army may have benefited from superi­or officers and training, due to the former prowess of David’s army which would have been passed on to them.

Abijah claimed a divine right to rule over all the tribes by the cove­nant of God with David. With his army situated on the mountain, from which his voice would carry well to the men of Israel in the valleys below, Abijah proceeded to deliver his oration to the men of Israel. His speech consisted of three major points: 1) the fact of God’s kingdom covenant with David; 2) rebuke of the northern tribes for their rebellion; 3) assur­ance that the Lord remained on the side of Judah.

Abah said the covenant of the Lord with David was a covenant of salt. Salt was considered a very important element to ancient men, and a covenant of salt. Salt was to be considered of vital force toward those who entered into it. This covenant had included David’ sons, and the tribes of Jeroboam’s kingdom ought to know this. Abijah ignored the ap­parent will of the Lord in allowing the separation of the tribes into two kingdoms.

The rebuke of Abijah was aimed basically at Jeroboam, to whom he referred as the rebellious servant of Solomon (which, of course, he had been). Those who had followed Jeroboam, of the tribes, Abijah char­acterized as vain men, worthless sons of Belial, who had taken advan­tage of a young and naive Rehoboam. Abijah possibly meant that his fa­ther was immature as a ruler and inexperienced in handling a crisis situ­ation. The men of the north had come to him, even before his corona­tion, with demands he had insufficient time to consider. So they had made good their rebellion against the house of David, and expect to maintain themselves by the vast army they have accumulated. This they do in spite of having rejected the true God of Israel for two golden calves. They have further rejected the true priests and the Levites and have responded by making every man who can supply a sacrifice for his consecration a priest of the calves.

In contrast, Abijah protests, the true worship of the Lord is still being carried out in Judah and Jerusalem. The sons of Aaron continue to maintain the temple worship, and the Levites continue in their designated positions. Abijah claims that Judah has not neglected the Lord, but continues the offerings, sacrifices, incense, shewbread, and lamps as the Lord had prescribed for Israel in His law given Moses.

Furthermore, he claimed that the Lord was with him, and His priests to sound the war trumpet against Jeroboam’s forces. They thus cannot expect to prosper infighting against the Lord.

2 Chronicles 13:13

(The 1st edition Hardbound version of the commentary includes the following comments under 1 Kings 15).

End of Jeroboam, Verses 13-20

It appears that the men of Abijah were engrossed in his eloquent oration, so that they were unaware of what was happening among the men of Jeroboam. As their king closed his speech they suddenly realized that they had been ambushed. Jeroboam had taken the advantage of their enthrallment with their king’s great words and encircled them with his 800,000 men, and they were hemmed in on every side. God had allowed a situation which would prove the claims to divine allegiance made for them by King Abijah.

The men of Judah responded admirably. They immediately cried to the Lord for help when they realized their predicament. The priests bearing the trumpets also responded by sounding them in the name of the Lord. The men raised their voices in a mighty shout which reached up to God. As a result the Lord heard them and gave them victory over the mighty army of Jeroboam. In fact He is said to have smitten Jeroboam and all Israel Himself, before the eyes of Abijah and Judah. This indicates that the nature of the defeat of Israel was such that there was no denying the hand of God in the matter. They were wholly delivered into the hands of the men of Judah (cf. 2 Corinthians 2:14).

Israel suffered a very disastrous defeat at the hands of Abijah and Judah. Five hundred thousand of the 800,000 men perished in the battle. The northern kingdom was so severely beaten they did not re­cover for many years. Abijah carried the war further into the kingdom, capturing Bethel (where the calf temple was), Jeshanah (just south of Shiloh) and its environs, and Ephraim (or Ophrah, eastward from Bethel) and its towns. Nothing is said of Abijah’s treatment of the city of Bethel and its idolatrous temple. Had he been sincere in his flowery speech about his devotion to true worship he surely would have destroyed it. This he certainly must not have done, or the Lord would have recorded it in the Scriptures. He was not a sincere and truthful worshipper (John 4:23).

Notice has already been made in this commentary of the death of Jeroboam (see above). But it is well to emphasize again the nature of his death. This battle of Mount Zemaraim is his last notable act, though he lived about two years longer. The Scriptures say that the Lord struck him, and he died. This would accord with the prediction of the Prophet Ahijah, who said that Jeroboam and all his house would die violently and their bodies go unburied.

Lessons from this study: 1) God’s promises are kept and continue in spite of evil rulers; 2) fixing one’s eyes on the eloquent platitudes of the world gets them off God and His power and may lead to loss; 3) when one finds himself out of the will of God a speedy repentance should be made that the Lord’s favor may be restored; 4) the Lord cannot be made to change His will to suit the ideas of men (Isaiah 55:8-11); 5) the good promises of men never are accomplished without the Lord (Proverbs 16:25).

Verses 7-12

Commentary on 1 Kings 15:7-12 AND 2 Chronicles 13:21 to 2 Chronicles 14:5

Asa Reigns in Judah,

Though the reign of Abijah was short he managed to do mighty deeds in its tenure. The defeat of Israel and Jeroboam is the only one recorded, however. He had a harem comparable to that of his father, though he had only fourteen wives. They produced for him twenty-two sons and sixteen daughters. As the wealth of Judah depreciates the kings seem able to support a smaller and smaller harem.

The account of Abijah’s reign was kept in the chronicles of Judah. The Chronicles say it was written "in the story of the prophet Iddo." This must have been an uninspired biography of the popular king, very little of which the Lord saw fit to include in His inspired account. He appears to have continued his state of war with Jeroboam throughout his short reign. When he died he was buried with honor in the tombs of the kings in the city of David.

Abijah was succeeded by his son, Asa. He must have been quite young, though his age is unmentioned, for his father was still a young man. He continued as king of Judah for forty-one years, one year longer than any previous king of Judah, or Israel. He is said to be the son of Maachah, which means, of course, grandson, for Abijah was the son of that princess.

Asa’s early reign was a refreshment for Judah. The total subjugation of Israel allowed Judah to escape war for ten years, but there were no wars with foreign nations either. This was due to the blessing of the Lord, for Asa was a true son of David, doing what was "good and right in the eyes of the Lord." He demolished idols, images, groves, and high places, everything which was connected with idolatry and pagan worship. The sodomites (homosexuals) were put to death in accordance with the law of God by Moses. Asa led the people in a revival of the worship of the Lord in truth, which spread throughout his kingdom.

2 Chronicles 14:6

(The 1st edition Hardbound version of the commentary includes the following comments under 1 Kings 15).

Ethiopians Defeated, 2 Chronicles 14:6-15

Asa used the period of peace and time of God’s blessing to carry out some expedient moves toward national security. He is not to be censured for this, for the Lord expects men to use the abilities with which He has blessed them in a practical manner (cf. De 8:18). It was not that he lacked faith in the Lord to care for Israel’s needs, but he used his God-given ability to prepare for the defense of his county, still relying on the Lord to make it successful. So he fortified his cities, strengthening them with walls, towers, gates, and bars. Asa acknowledged that it was the blessing of God which enabled them to do this, and He blessed them because they had sought Him.

So Asa prospered in his early reign. .He equipped his army with weapons, as targets (small shields), spears, bows, etc. the army consisted of 300,000 men from Judah to wield the weapons, and 240,000 from Benjamin with their shields and bows. They were brave, well-trained, and valorous men.

As the sequel will show it seems that Judah and King Asa may have become too self-confidant in all this. God had blessed Abijah with victory over Israel, and they were enjoying the ensuing peace. It looked like the Lord was on their side, and they began to think it may have been due to the presence of the temple among them, or the good people who dwelt there, or the prophets who preached His message. Too, God had enabled them to raise and equip a formidable army and to greatly strengthen the major cities.

So the Lord sent a trial upon Judah and Asa. A huge army of Ethiopians, out of Africa, under their king, Zerah, invaded the land. It numbered one million men, soldiers and camp followers, and they possessed three hundred of the terrible war chariots which could overrun, maim and kill foot soldiers like the men of Judah. They made their camp at the valley of Zephathah, near Mareshah. This was southwest of Jerusalem, some forty or fifty miles, in the Philistine foothills coming out of Egypt. The Ethiopians set themselves here for a battle, and Asa camped here with his army also.

Asa knew that physical means were inadequate to resist this formidable enemy. so he cried to the Lord. Three points are outstanding in his prayer: 1) Judah was insufficient to meet the enemy alone, but the Lord does not count numbers in His battles; 2) Asa would leave his case, and that of Judah, in the hands of the Lord; 3) if the battle should be won and man’s expectations put to nought, it must be by the power of God.

It was the Lord who smote the Ethiopians; the Scriptures say, "before Asa and Judah," meaning that it was clearly evident that the victory was not wrought by the hand of man. Verse 13 says the Ethiopians were smitten before the Lord and before the host of His heavenly army, who fought that day on the side of Judah. The Ethiopians were routed thoroughly, turning to flee toward their homeland, too diminished to make a stand. The army of Judah pursued them all the way to Gerar, taking much battle spoil. The tribes around Gerar, who had befriended the Ethiopians, were overrun by Asa’s army. All were spoiled, and cattle, sheep, and camels were captured and returned to Jerusalem. The kingdom of Judah was greatly enriched by the outcome.

Some lessons to loam: 1) popularity with men is not often popularity with the Lord (Lu 6:26); 2) a godly ruler begets God’s blessings on the people he governs (2 Samuel 23:3-4); 3) some trials must come because God’s children become too confident in the flesh (Proverbs 3:5); 4) at the last the Lord will intercede for those who trust in Him (Psalms 27:10).

2 Chronicles 15:1-7

(The 1st edition Hardbound version of the commentary includes the following comments under 1 Kings 15).

Prophetic Warning, 2 Chronicles 15:1-7

Another prophet of the Lord appears for the first time in the Scriptures, Azariah, upon whom God’s Spirit moved. He came meeting Asa and the victorious army of Judah following the slaughter of the Ethiopians. God was sending Azariah with a message of admonition and warning. Its precepts are as true for today as they were in that long gone day. Perhaps the men of Judah and Benjamin were somewhat exultant over the great spoil of so huge an army. Men are inclined to boast in the blessings which God gives them, though it is only by the grace of the Lord they have them. God warned Israel against just such an attitude (De 8:11-18).

Notice 1) Judah and Benjamin are told to hear, that is to pay attention to the word from the Lord they are about to hear; 2) the Lord is with those who are with Him; 3) if He is sought in the proper spirit He will surely be found of the seeker; 4) but, on the contrary He will forsake those who forsake Him. There is a familiar anecdote about Abraham Lincoln, during the Civil War. A lady once asked him, "Mr. President, do you think the Lord is on our side?" To which Lincoln is said to have replied, "I do not know, but I certainly hope we are on the Lord’s side." The prophet was saying to Asa that the Lord’s blessing is assured when His people are with Him, on His side.

Azariah next gives a bit of history about the northern kingdom not elsewhere revealed in the Scriptures. He speaks of the apostasy of that kingdom under her wicked king, Jeroboam and his successors. They had forsaken the true God of Israel, and were without any who taught the law of God or a faithful priest in His service. Then trouble had come to that kingdom, specifically in their terrible loss to Judah in the Battle of Mount Zemaraim. Soon after this old Jeroboam had died, and there was a period of anarchy during which Baasha strove to make himself king by exterminating the family of Jeroboam. City was arrayed against city, the inhabitants of the land suffered great vexation, and there was no peace to be had. But Israel had sought the Lord, and He had heard them.

There were true prophets in the northern kingdom, preaching the truth of God then, though their names and their acts are not recorded. But the distress of the times caused them to seek the Lord. This seems to be part of the warning to Judah. They must not think that it was their goodness, or faithfulness over and above that of the nation of Israel for which God blessed Judah while chastising Israel. God blessed those then who repented and sought His will, then followed His will in obedience. He also blesses those now who likewise remain humble, knowing they are not better than those who are being chastised. It is obedient following which makes the difference, and the tables can be swiftly turned if the condition changes. Therefore, the prophet closed with the words, "Be strong therefore, and let not your hands be weak: for your work shall be rewarded" cf. 1 Corinthians 16:13; Galatians 6:9.

Verses 13-15

Commentary on 1 Kings 15:13-15 AND 2 Chronicles 15:8-19

Asa’s Revival

The latter verses of the Kings account are parallel with the latter verses of the Chronicles account. The Chronicles account again adds detail to that which is but briefly mentioned in the Kings account. While the account of Kings indicates a time of revival in Judah under King Ass., that of Chronicles tells some of the deeds of revival effected by the new king. Another difference appears in regard to the name of the prophet mentioned in the section studied above. Whereas he is there called Azariah, the son of Oded, he is here called Oded. It seems probable that some scribe copying the original manuscript omitted "Azariah, the son of" in the latter passage.

The challenge and admonition of the prophet had a desired effect on Asa. The Scriptures say he took courage and began to put into effect a moral reformation among the people. It extended throughout the kingdom and even into those areas of Ephraim which had been annexed by Abijah. All idols were destroyed, even that of the queen mother, Maachah, who had her own private idol and grove for fornication. Asa took his grandmother’s idol, stamped it to dust, and threw it in the Kidron valley. However, he neglected to destroy the high places, though he was a man of perfect heart all his days. This shows that a man may be saved, as Asa was, and still fall short in his duty to completely separate himself from the world. It is easy to give in to popular opinion and forego things one knows he should do (see Paul’s admonition, Galatians 5:7).

Asa’s reform program also extended to a clean-up of the temple, particularly the sacrifice altar in the court, where burnt offerings and other offerings were made. The news traveled throughout all Israel, and many devout people out of the northern kingdom gathered in Jerusalem for the occasion, in the third month. Asa took seven hundred oxen and seven thousand sheep from the spoil acquired in the Ethiopian defeat and offered them on the altar to the Lord. The people also entered into covenant to keep the commands of the God of their fathers, wholeheartedly and conscientiously. They even went so far as to agree to the death penalty (as the law prescribed) for those who would not keep the covenant, regardless of their social standing or sex. This demonstrates the harsh rigidity of the law without grace and mercy. But the people were sincere in imposing this upon themselves. They praised the Lord with loud voice, shouting, sounding the trumpets and cornets. It was a spontaneous outburst of religious fervor, in which none who might have objected dared show himself. Asa also took the gold, silver, and vessels acquired in the battles of Abijah and those of himself and dedicated them to the temple.

The lessons: 1) the danger of becoming over-confident in self needs to be constantly in one’s heart; 2) it is the Lord who brings His followers to successful service, and He must be relied on if they continue the same; 3) the rebellious and disobedient can renew their blessings by turning back to the Lord; 4) relatives and friends should no more have their sinful practices condoned than any others; 5) man can never measure up to the rigidity of the law except through the victory of Jesus Christ the Savior.

Verses 16-22

Commentary on 1 Kings 15:16-22 AND 2 Chronicles 16:1-6

As the divine record of Asa’s reign continues it passes over the rise of Baasha to the kingship of the northern kingdom, going on to tell of his conflict with Baasha before it relates the coronation of the new king of Israel. It will be learned that Asa was in his third year as king when Baasha arose (1 Kings 15:33), but this war about to be related be­tween Judah and Israel took place more than fifteen years after Asa be­came king, when Baasha had ruled in Israel at least twelve years.

The good king Asa committed a lapse of faith in the event of his war with Baasha. How could this be? It appears that he may have felt he was doing a good right thing, though not having consulted God. Remem­ber that after Asa inaugurated his reform program in Judah many of the people from the northern kingdom began coming to Jerusalem to wor­ship at the temple instead of going to Jeroboam’s calves at Bethel and Dan, thus depriving Baasha of revenues paid at the shrines. Thus Baa­sha selected Ramah (the old home of the Prophet Samuel), on the fron­tier of Judah to raise a sort of ancient iron curtain" to prevent his people from defecting to the southern kingdom. Asa may, then, have theorized without consulting the Lord or His prophets that it was a good and proper thing to take the temple money, as well as the king’s treasury, to hire an enemy to strike Baasha in the rear. Thus Baasha would have to give up his plans and the border would remain open to the devout of the northern kingdom to come to Jerusalem to worship at the temple.

So Asa sent the treasuries of the temple and the palace to Ben­hadad, the heathen king of Damascus, seeking to establish, or actually to purchase, an alliance with him against Baasha. There seems to have been some kind of agreement between Ben-hadad and Abijah, or Rehoboam, to which Asa refers. But the Syrian king was fickle, for he already had a peace alliance with the northern kingdom, which he would have to break in order to honor Asa’s request. But the ante was high enough that he gladly broke faith with Baasha and complied with Asa’s wishes. Ben-hadad invaded the northeast of the kingdom of Israel and devastated it. The cities of lion, Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah in the far northeast of Israel, the area of Merom and Cinneroth (Old Testament name of Galilee), all fell to Ben-hadad. He overran all the store cities, where, the king had stockpiles of food and armament in the tribe of Naphtali, which lay along the eastern shore of Cinneroth.

So Baasha’s attempt to re-establish his frontier against Judah failed. Asa gathered all the men of Judah by proclamation, who made an invasion of Israel, to Ramah, and confiscated the stone and timber which Baasha had brought there to build his fortification. These he carried off to his own kingdom and fortified Geba, in Benjamin, and Mizpah, which were near his frontier with Israel and on the approaches to Jerusalem.

Verses 23-24

Commentary on 1 Kings 15:23-24 AND 2 Chronicles 16:7-14

Prophetic Rebuke,

If Asa thought he was acting properly, in the will of the Lord, in sending to buy the aid of Ben-hadad he soon learned how sadly mistaken he was. God sent yet another of His prophets to remonstrate with him, Hanani, who is called a seer, or one who receives visions from the Lord.

He called Asa’s diplomacy what it was, reliance on the power of a man, the king of Syria, and the rejection of the power of God. What made this such a flagrant breach of Asa’s celebrated piety was his total disregard of his miraculous deliverance from the host of Ethiopians and Libyans who had come against him a few years earlier. He had then readily turned to the Lord and admitted his sole hope to be in Him, but now when the king of Israel come down to fortify a city on his frontier he forgets God and sends off to the idolatrous king of Syria for help. Asa had been so successful he must have begun to think he could direct his own affairs without seeking the Lord. His self-esteem is like that of the Pharisees rebuked by John (Matthew 3:9).

Hanani embarrassed the king before his men by his rebuke. He stated a truism of all ages, "The eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect toward him."

Note that the prophet did not tell Asa that the Lord’s all-seeing eye was searching for those who were disobedient to punish them, but that he was searching for those whose hearts were perfect that he might strengthen them. In other words, He was looking for an opportunity to help Asa, and Asa had said, in effect, "! don’t need your help." So Hanani told the king he had acted very foolishly. He had lost an opportunity to subjugate the Syrian king, and for that he would now have wars. He did not know the lesson Paul stressed to the Philippians (Philippians 4:13).

Asa reacted in a very ungodly manner and flew into a rage. He threw Hanani into prison and persecuted those who took the prophet’s side. the stubborn and obstinate king spent the rest of his life in defiance of God, so that there is nothing more good related of him in the Scriptures. At last the Lord struck him with a disease of his feet, which became progressively worse and gave him much pain.

Even then he refused to repent and call on the Lord, but relied on physicians alone, and they were unable to help him. He died relatively young, and the people honored him for the great things he had done. He was buried in his fine sepulchre he had prepared in the burial place of the kings in the city of David. Sweet odors and spices were burned in great quantity at his funeral. What a paradox his life had been! His reward was surely diminished by his adamant refusal to repent of his misdeed (note 2 John 1:8).

Verse 25

Bassha Seizes Kingdom,

The incident now under study goes back in time when Asa was beginning his reign, to the death of old King Jeroboam, which was studied several pages back. It is to be recalled that Jeroboam was stricken of the Lord in some mysterious manner and died. Ahijah the prophet from Shiloh had foretold the violent death of Jeroboam and all his house, their bodies to be carrion for the vultures and wild dogs. This began to be fulfilled during the second year of Asa’s reign. the account has been delayed by the inspired author until now so the reign of Asa could be recounted to its end.

Jeroboam was succeeded briefly on Israel’s throne by his son, Nadab. It appears to have been a time of great turmoil. The northern kingdom was weakened by the costly defeat at the hands of Abijah and the kingdom of Judah at Mount Zemaraim. Nadab found himself with a revolt of the Philistine cities on his hands, and at the time of his downfall was commanding a siege of the Philistine town of Gibbethon. It was learned from 2 Chronicles 15:3-6 that the years following the death of Jeroboam and uprising of Baasha were years of anarchy in which the people suffered greatly.

There must have been a great deal of dissatisfaction with the rule of Jeroboam and his son. Consequently Baasha, seizing opportunity through the unrest of the people conspired to overthrow Nadab. He came against him while he was besieging Gibbethon, a city in the tribe of Dan, which had been assigned as a Levite city after the conquest of Joshua, but from Israel had been dispossessed by the insurgent Philistines very early in their history. These Philistine towns had been subject to David and Solomon, but regained an independent status for much of the time after the division of the kingdoms.

Baasha’s father was Ahijah, but certainly not the old prophet. He was from the tribe of Issachar, which was located north of the tribe of Manasseh on the west of Jordan ft was a rich agricultural and commercial area of the northern kingdom, which may have made it a hotbed of resistance to the ventures of Jeroboam which were so economically costly.

By the third year of Asa Baasha had secured himself in the kingdom. In keeping with the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite he proceeded to totally decimate the dynasty, relatives, and adherents of the house of Jeroboam. Surely Baasha knew of the prophetic pronouncement of Ahijah, and of its cause, in the wicked practices and idolatry of Jeroboam. Nevertheless he continued the program of false worship just as Jeroboam had done, and the land was none the better by having a new king. It would seem the height of folly that one who knew why the previous dynasty was cursed should continue the same accursed policies, but this is just what Baasha did (cf. 2 Corinthians 4:4).

Baasha’s reign continued for twenty-four years, all of which he was dominated by the southern kingdom of Judah, under Asa, so that the Scriptures say a state of war existed between the brother kingdoms throughout the time. Israel still had no central political center such as Judah had at Jerusalem. Baasha continued his headquarters at Tirzah, north of Shechem, in the tribe of Manasseh. A central city would await the dynasty of Omri, a generation later.

The lesson contains some good applications for the present day, as 1) reaching decisions without the Lord will bring sorrow to those guilty; 2) the Lord is always ready to help those who will seek Him, and is long-suffering to those who are disobedient; 3) adamant rebellion against the known will of God will surely bring chastisement; 4) the exchange of one evil ruler for another is not likely to make for better conditions in a nation.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on 1 Kings 15". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/1-kings-15.html. 1985.
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