Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, May 25th, 2024
the Week of Proper 2 / Ordinary 7
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Bible Commentaries
2 Thessalonians 2

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

PROPHECY The Day of the Lord (and the Man of Sin) V. 1-12

1) "Now we beseech you, brethren" (erotomen de humas adelphoi) "now we request you all, brethren"; a prayerful appeal or exhortation to the brethren regarding conduct and testimony in the light of the return of the Lord.

2) "By the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (huper tes parousias tou kuriou (hemon) lesou Christou) "by the (body- presence), coming or our Lord Jesus Christ"; or concerning the personal coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. The personal coming of Jesus Christ is the strongest possible moral basis of Biblical motivation for an high standard of ethical Christian conduct, Hebrews 9:27-28; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; Hebrews 10:25; Hebrews 10:35-37.

3) "And by our gathering together unto him" (kai hemon episunagogoes ep’ auton) "and our close affinity gathering to him", "in bride- bridegroom-relation of coming together with him", to rule and reign with Him in the Messianic kingdom age, Mark 13:27; Luke 22:28-30; 2 Timothy 2:12; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 19:7-9; Revelation 22:3-5; Revelation 22:16.

Verses 1-12

Da 7:25; 9:26, 27; 11;36-38, 45; Joh 5:43.


CHAPTER I The Greeting, v. 1-4. Comfort in Persecutions, v. 5-12.

CHAPTER II The Day of the Lord and what precedes It, v. 1-3. The man of Sin - Counterfeit Christ and those who follow him, v. 4-12. Instructions and comfort to the Church, v. 13-17.

CHAPTER III Request for prayers, v. 1-2. Strength to resist evil and await His coming, v. 3-5. Separation from the idle, diligence in service, v. 6-1 2. Be not weary, but persevering, v. 13-15. Final Greeting - Benediction, v. 16-18.

Salutation - V. 1-4

1) "Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus", (Paulos kai Silouanos kai Timotheos), "Paul and Silvanus and Timothy"; Paul was the writer, as in 1 Thessalonians 1:1, with Silas and Timothy as witnesses and perhaps scribes who helped in writing, as Paul instructed.

2) "To the church of the Thessalonians" (to ekklesia Thessalonikeon) "To the church of (the) Thessalonians"; a special local congregation in this city of Macedonia, the same Church addressed 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 2:14.

3) "In God our Father" (en theo patri hemon) "In God (who is) our Father"; God is here used affectionately as "our father", provider, Romans 8:15; Mark 14:36; Galatians 4:6. He is also the preserver of us, as believers in general, and as New Testament churches in particular, Matthew 16:18; Matthew 28:20; Ephesians 3:21.

4) "And the Lord Jesus Christ" (kai kurio lesou Christou) "and (In) the Lord Jesus Christ"; This letter was explicitly addressed to a church "in" God and "in" Christ Jesus our Lord, located in His Divine care, concern, and preserving pledge to perpetuate her as an institution through this age, the Millennial, and into the heaven of heaven ages, See also 2 Corinthians 11:1-2; Revelation 19:5-9; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 21:9-10; Revelation 22:16.

Verse 2

1) "That ye be not soon shaken in mind" (eis to me tacheos saleuthenai humas apo tou noos) "That you all be not quickly or impulsively shaken from (your) mind," because of unsettling reports, rendered by sophistries, away from your belief.

2) "Or be troubled" (mede throeisthai) "nor be disturbed", frightened or mentally agitated by nervous fear, in prospect of the imminent end of time, as if the end of time was at hand immediately.

3) "Neither by spirit, nor by word" (mete dia pneumatos) "Neither through a spirit, the means or instrument of a spirit, (mete dia logou) "nor through speech" - (speech out of harmony with the Word of God, feigned to be the Word of God, by a false prophet.

4) "Nor by letter as from us" (mete di’ epistoles hos di’ hemon) "nor through an epistle (a forged letter) as (coming) through or by means of us", "as purporting to come from us", Ephesians 5:6.

5) "As that the day of Christ is at hand" (hos hoti enesteken he hemera tou kuriou) "as that is come (already), the day of the Lord", "as if the day of the Lord were already present"; Some appeared to have been crying "Lo here! or Lo there is Christ!" Matthew 24:4; Matthew 24:23; Colossians 2:4; Colossians 2:8; Colossians 2:18.

Verse 3

1) "Let no man deceive you" (me tis humas eksapatese) "Let-not anyone deceive or delude you all"; as Satan deceived Eve regarding heavenly instructions for human conduct; so may men yet be deceived regarding Divine matters; 1 John 3:7; Ephesians 4:14.

2) "By any means" (kata medena tropon) "in not (even) one way or means," Matthew 24:24; Romans 16:18.

3) "For that day shall not come" (hoti) "because" "(that day of his marriage and judgment shall not come)"; the entire time of Daniel’s seventieth week, Daniel 9:26-27.

4) "Except there come a falling away first" (ean me elthe he apostasia proton) "except, unless, or until the apostasy comes firstly", or first in order or rank of events, preceding the personal return of Jesus Christ, 1 Timothy 4:1-3.

5) "And that man of sin be revealed" (kai apokaluphthe ho anthropos tes anomias) "and is revealed the man of lawlessness", anarchy, enmity, or rebellion against Divine Law; who shall prevail for 31/2 years. Daniel 7:25; Daniel 11:21; Daniel 11:37-38; Daniel 11:45; Daniel 12:7-12; Revelation 13:5-6.

6) "The son of perdition"; (ho huios tes apoleias) "the son or heir of perdition"; John 17:12; John 5:43. The revelation (recognition or realization of who the man of sin is) appears to come some 42 months or 31/2 years after his appearance in guise, as an angel of light, Daniel 9:26-27; Daniel 7:25; Daniel 11:21; Daniel 11:24.

Verse 4

1) "Who opposeth and exalteth himself" (ho antikeimenos kai huperairomenos) "who (is) setting (himself) and exalting himself"; not only against Christianity but also against every form of existing religion, eventually claiming himself to be God.

2) "Above all that is called God" (epi panta legomenon) "over or above everything called God"; He will not only turn against, and try to abolish all Divine worship, but will also substitute for it the worship of himself, Daniel 7:25; Daniel 8:25; Daniel 11:28.

3) "Or that is worshipped" (e sebasma) “or every objector worship"; Daniel 11:36-38; Daniel 11:45.

4) "So that he as God sitteth in the temple of God" (hoste auton eis ton naon tou theou kathisai) "So that he as (if he were) God, he sits in the temple or shrine of God"; It appears that this Antichrist will appear, as an angel of light, a peaceable person, negotiate a seven year peace pact between Jews and Gentiles, permit the ancient temple to be rebuilt and program of worship instituted, and continued for about 42 months, Daniel 9:27.

5) "Shewing himself that he is God" (apodeiknunta Heauton hoti estin theos) "Shewing or displaying himself that he is a god"; After about 31/2 years of the covenant week, the anti-Christ will declare that he is God, require worship, about which time, the tribulation the great shall begin in fury, at about which time the return of Christ for His Church is to occur, John 5:43.

Verse 5

1) "Remember ye not" (ou muemoneuete) "Do you all not remember or recall", This reminder, in rhetoric form, was designed to affirm that Paul had formerly explained the matter of the future coming of the Anti-Christ.

2) "That, when I was yet with you", (hoti eti on pros humas) "that while I was still with you all," In face to face communion, Paul had explained to these brethren, based on Daniel’s prophecy and the assertions of Jesus Christ, that the return of Christ would be heralded by the cunning coming and uprising of a world deceiver.

3) "I told you these things" (tauta elegon humin) "I used to tell you, I taught you these things," that an infernal, wicked, cunning, Satanic Messiah would arise preceding Jesus Christ, a caricature of the true Messiah; Paul had taught these brethren, yet, some seemed to misunderstand, and had quit work, neglecting to provide for their own families, and taught that the day of the Lord’s judgment had to be upon them at that time, 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:7-8; 2 Thessalonians 3:12; Ephesians 4:28.

Verse 6

1) "And now ye know what withholdeth" (kai nun to katechon oidate) "and now and hereafter ye perceive the restraining (thing)," the Holy Spirit; It is as if Paul were saying that hereafter you should understand clearly, that the day of the Lord will not come, until after the appearance of the man of sin, and even the revelation of who he really is, when he requires worship.

2) "That he might be revealed in his time" (eis to apokaluphthenai auton en to autou kairo) "in order that he may be revealed in his own (proper) time, era, or season"; The Holy Spirit which came to and upon the Church on Pentecost, appears to be the restraining one, force, or power, that holds back the revelation of the man of Sin, until he ascends the temple of God, requires worship as God. It also appears from a harmony of Scriptures bearing on this event, that it will be about this time, the end of the first forty two months, of the seven years of the man of Sin’s covenant week with Israel, that the end of the two witnesses, (1) Israel’s restored worship, and (2) The Church’s witness on earth shall cease. Revelation 11:1-4. Only Israel and 1) the Church are ever referred to as 2) God’s olive trees and candlesticks--not individuals; Romans 11:24-25; Matthew 5:15-16; Revelation 1:20.

When the Church is raptured, it appears that the Holy Ghost, promised to empower her, be with and in her alway, will be taken out with the Church, in the same sense He came on Pentecost—John 14:16-17 forever; John 15:26-27; John 16:7-11; Acts 2:1-4.

Verse 7

1) "For the mystery of iniquity doth already work" (to gar musterion ede energeitai tes anomias) "For the mystery of lawlessness already (at this moment) operates", a then and now present spirit of lawless anarchy against God and holiness, 1 John 2:18. Its work is of covert, secret nature, yet deceitful, as Satan, himself, Matthew 4:1-11; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15.

2) "Only he who now letteth will let" (monon ho katechon arti) "Only (there is) the (one) restraining just now", or "only the one (Holy Spirit) holding down" (the man of sin), just now, holding him back from appearance, at this moment, "will hold him back", or restrain him. The Holy Spirit in the world, and in the Church, to empower her as He came on Pentecost, will, it appears, continue as a restrainer to the full extent of sin, until with the first resurrection, and rapture of the living Church, He will be taken out.

3) "Until he be taken out of the way" (heos ek mesou genetai) "until out of (the) midst he is gone" of his own nature, accord, or purpose; or until out of the midst he goes",--The "He" appears to be the Holy Spirit who came to be with and in the Church forever, to empower, dedicate, and comfort her, and be taken out of the world, in the same sense that He came to empower her on Pentecost. This, it appears, will occur about the time, or immediately after, the man of Sin breaks his covenant with the Jews regarding their worship, Daniel 9:26-27; John 14:16-17; John 14:26; John 16:7-11; Luke 24:29; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:1-4.

Verse 8

1) "And then shall that wicked be revealed" (kai tote) and then, at that point", (apokaluphthesetai) "will be revealed, unveiled, or come to light", (ho nomos) "who the lawless one (really is)", or the one who is lawless, referred to as "man of sin", 2 Thessalonians 2:3, who requires self-worship, 2 Thessalonians 2:4.

2) "Whom the Lord shall consume" (hon ho kurios)

whom the Lord, or master (of the situation)", (anelei) will destroy", bring to defeat, subjection, or great ruin," Daniel 7:10-11; Daniel 7:25-27; Revelation 19:19-20.

3) "With the spirit of his mouth" (to pneumati tou stomatos autou) "by (means of) the spirit of his mouth"; Isaiah 11:4; Revelation 19:15; Revelation 19:20-21.

4) "And shall destroy" (kai katarzesel) “and bring to nothing", his claim of right to worship and deity, 2 Thessalonians 2:4. Daniel 11:45. When he takes over God’s tabernacle as his own, requires self worship, as Nebuchadnezzar did, his down-hill slide is at hand, Daniel 3:1-14.

5) "With the brightness of his coming" (to epipheneia tes parousias autou) "by means or reason of his outshining or dazzling body presence appearing", though his final destruction is to come when or after the Lord comes to the earth, with his saints, and the church, to execute judgment, in ending the battle or Armageddon, and setting up His Davidic Kingdom, Judges 1:14-15; Zechariah 14:5-9; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10.

Verse 9

1) "Even him, whose coming is" (hou estin) "of whom, is", or "who exists, has his being", (he parousia) "The body presence", coming, appearance as a wicked deceiver; He comes in his own name, and the multitude of the unstable, sensational, religious, and irreligious will receive him, John 5:43.

2) "After the working of Satan" (kat’ energeian tou Satan) "according to or after the manner of the operation of Satan, the Scandalizer"; who came to Eve and to Jesus Christ in the guise of a helper, but in reality as a lying deceiver, Genesis 3:1-4; Matthew 4:3-11; All false prophets and Messiahs follow his ways, John 8:44; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15.

3) "With all" (en pase) "with or in the area of all"; all kinds of deceiving influences, revolving around the three following areas:

(a) “power" (dunamei) "dynamic power", even dreaming prophets, whose dreams and prophecies came true, were to be put to death under Law, if such were used to lead to worship of other gods, Deuteronomy 13:1-5.

(b) "and signs" (kai semeiois) "and signs"; such false prophets are presages of the "man of sin", rejectors of Jesus Christ, and the Word of God, as they did when Jesus first came, John 5:43; Matthew 24:23-24.

(c) "and lying wonders" (kai terasin pseudous) "and wonders or marvels of a lie", regarding his claims of powers; as a religious, civil, and humanitarian remedy to every need of man, and outward miraculous demonstrations, to deceive his followers; even the anti-Christ is to- come as a pious sign worker, sensationalist, Revelation 13:13-14; Revelation 16:13-16.

Verse 10

1) "And with all deceivableness" (kai en pase apate) and with all deceit"; as Satan, the Devil, is by nature a deceiver, he uses his power to hold in slavery, through demon spirits, and the sin nature, all the unsaved possible, to damn them in hell. 1 John 2:18; 2 Corinthians 4:3-6.

2) "Of unrighteousness in them that perish" (adikias tois apollumenois) "of unrighteousness in those perishing"; the Christ rejecting, unregenerated ones, 2 Corinthians 2:15; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 1 Corinthians 1:1. Responsible people, who are not born again, are said to be lost, perishing, condemned, afar off from God, because they HEED Satan, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.

3) "Because they received not the love of the truth" (anth hon ten agapen tes aletheias ouk edeksanto), "because they did not of their own accord receive the love of the truth", or the love of God revealed in truth, the truth, John 14:6. The love of the truth embraces the gospel, 1 Corinthians 15:1-4 and its call to service in the Church, Ephesians 2:10; Ephesians 3:21.

4) "That they might be saved" (eis to sothenai autous) "In order that they might be saved"; Salvation, or deliverance, in the fuller sense, refers to (1) deliverance from condemnation and hell to (2) identity and useful service for Christ in His Church, and to (3) a bodily resurrection, in the glorified likeness of Christ, for Millennial and heaven of heaven services to Him.

Verse 11

1) "And for this cause" (kai dia touto) “and therefore", as a consequence of this, on account of this, their voluntary rejection of the "love of the truth"; none is finally lost in hell, except those who have rejected the love of God, the call of the Holy Spirit, and of Jesus, to salvation, Matthew 11:28; Romans 10:13; John 6:37.

2) "God shall send them strong delusion" (pempei autois ho theos) "God sends (present tense) to them", when they reject the "love of the, truth", (energeian planes) "an operation of error", a blindness of folly, for voluntarily rejecting the "love of the truth", Proverbs 27:11, Proverbs 29:1; Proverbs 1:22-30; Hebrews 3:7-8; Hebrews 4:7.

3) "That they should believe a lie" (eis to pisteusai autous to pseudei) "for to the end that they should trust a lie", from the Father of lies or the lie" John 8:44; as the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes rejected Jesus Christ, believed a lie, that he was not the Messiah; God gave them and their race over to destruction, abandonment, so will God give over to the followers of the anti-Christ, the man of sin, an abandonment of their chosen doom of earthly and eternal consequences in judgment and hell. When they follow the sensational signs, wonders, miracles, and do obeisance to, fall down like cowed dogs to worship the anti-Christ their doom is sealed with his, Revelation 13:4; Revelation 13:12-18; Revelation 19:20.

Verse 12

1) "That they all might be damned" (hina krithosin pantes) "in order that all may be judged"; Rejection of the written Word of God, as truth, leads to, or includes, rejection of Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord, John 8:32; John 8:36; John 14:6; John 17:17, which in turn leads to worship of "the creature" more (rather than) the Creator, Romans 1:25-26.

2) "Who believed not the truth" (hoi me pisteousantes te aletheia) "the ones not having believed the truth"; referring to 2 Thessalonians 2:10. After repeated, obstinate, personal rejection of the Bible, as the Word of truth, and Jesus Christ as Savior, God withdraws the restraining power of the Holy Spirit from the presumptuous unbelieving, Genesis 6:3; Proverbs 1:22-30; Proverbs 29:11; Romans 1:28.

3) "But had pleasure in unrighteousness" (alla eudokesantes te adikia) "But having had or held (to) pleasure in unrighteousness"; the covetous, selfish, egocentric lovers of the world, who reject Divine Truth, not only follow anti-Christs today, but also shall be followers of the man of sin at the end of this age, Psalms 50:16-22; Romans 1:29-32; 1 John 2:17; 1 Corinthians 7:31.

To be given over to delusion, after having long or repeatedly rejected and spurned the truth, inevitably leads to judgment. This is Paul’s conclusion, and affirmation, regarding rejection of truth, relating to the coming of Jesus Christ, and the appearance and later revelation of the anti-Christ.

Verse 13

1) "But we are bound to give thanks" (humeis de opheilomen eucharistein) "But we ought, or are obligated, to thank", to give or offer up thanks, 1 Thessalonians 2:13-14.

2) "Always to God for you, brethren" (to theo pantote peri humon, adelphoi) "to God always concerning you, brethren", at all times, 2 Thessalonians 1:3, as it is becoming or proper.

3) "Beloved of the Lord" (egopemenoi hupo kuriou) "Having been loved ones, by the Lord"; John 13:34-35.

4) "Because God hath from the beginning chosen you" (hoti eilato humas ho theos aparchen) "Because God chose you all as a firstfruit", Ephesians 1:4.

5) "To Salvation through sanctification of the Spirit" (eis soterian en hagiasmo pneumatos) "unto salvation by sanctification of the Spirit". It is by the Spirit of God that man is instrumentally drawn to, or toward God, for repentance and faith in Jesus Christ, and to sanctified service, John 17:3; John 17:17.

6) "And belief of the truth" (kai pistei aletheias) "and faith (of) or belief in (the) truth"; The same spirit that draws to repentance, seeks to draw men to service in the Lord’s church, Romans 8:14; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4; John 16:7-11. The truth is opposed to delusions of Satan.

Verse 14

1) "Whereunto he called you" (eis ho kai ekalesen humas) "To which he called you all"; The call of God, to the common salvation, involves deliverance from past, present, and future wrong, in thought and deed, based upon one’s repentance for sin and trust in Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 1:10.

2) "By our gospel" (dia tou evangeliou hemon) "Through our gospel"; the fervent message of salvation, by which gospel the Thessalonians were saved, as others, Romans 1:14-16; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4.

3) "To the obtaining of the glory" (eis peripoiesin dokses) "unto obtainment of (the) glory", by a surrendered soul and life of service to Jesus Christ, through His church, through which His stewards and servants are to labor till He returns, Mark 13:34-35; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 15:58.

4) "Of our Lord Jesus Christ" (tou Kuriou hemon lesou Christou) "of our Lord Jesus Christ", or of the master of us, Jesus Christ"; Romans 6:5; 2 Corinthians 4:10-11; 2 Corinthians 4:17-18; Romans 8:17.

Verse 15

1) "Therefore, brethren, stand fast" (ara oun, adelphoi, stekete) "So then, brethren, stand ye"; as a sentry soldier, alert, watchful, ready, in the faith and truth, as opposed to such as follow the ways of the anti-Christ, lawlessness and rebellion, 1 Corinthians 15:1; 1 Corinthians 16:13; Philippians 4:1.

2) "And hold the traditions" (kai krateite tas paradoseis) "ana hold ye the traditions", good customs, traditions, ways the apostles and saints have trod, 1 Corinthians 11:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:6.

3) "Which ye have been taught" (has edidachthete)

which ye were taught"; Judges 1:1-3. They had been taught in the way of truth, regarding salvation, separated living, sanctification of life, and obedient service to Jesus Christ through His Church, 1 Thessalonians 2:7-14.

4) "Whether by word" (eite dia logou) "Either through (media of) speech", when Paul was with them, 1 Thessalonians 1:5-7; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-5.

5) "Or our epistle" (eite di’ epistoles hemon) "or through (media of) our epistle"; this and the previously written letter or dissertation.

Verse 16

1) "Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself" (autos de ho kurios hemon lesous Christos) "now himself, the Lord Jesus Christ", the one who called us to Himself for salvation, comfort, and service, Matthew 11:28; 1 Thessalonians 5:24; 1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 10:13.

2) "And God, even our Father" (kai ho theos ho pater hemon) "and God, the Father of us", (brethren); who sent His Son, His love for us, John 3:16.

3) "Which hath loved us" (ho agapesas hemas)”who has loved us”; and prayed for us, as an expression of His love, John 17:15; John 17:20; Ephesians 5:25.

4) "And hath given us everlasting consolation" (kai dous parklesin aionian) "and having given comfort eternal", in all our needs of comfort, 2 Corinthians 1:3-4; Hebrews 13:5.

5) "And good hope through grace" (kai elpid agathen en Chariti) "and good (genuine) hope by grace"; Ephesians 2:8-9; 1 Peter 1:3. The resurrected, and living, and interceding, and coming Christ, is the anchor of our grace, hope, and help, sure and steadfast, Hebrews 6:17-20.

Verse 17

1) "Comfort your hearts" (parakalesai humon tas kardias) "may he comfort your hearts"; your emotions, Philippians 4:17; Hebrews 4:15-16.

2) "And stablish you in every good word and work" (kai steriksai en panti ergo kai logo agatho) "and may he confirm you all in every good Word and work"; 1 Corinthians 15:58; Hebrews 12:1-2; 1 Chronicles 29:16-19.


Like as a fattier having a young infant sick of a sore disease, and unable to speak yet unintelligibly, yet, if the mother can but guess at the meaning, she will do as much as if it had been spoken very plainly; yea, though it should say one thing, and mean another, she would give it according to the meaning of it, - even so the Lord, who is filled with bowels of compassion towards us far above any father or mother, granteth not so much our words as the meaning of his Spirit, which is plentiful in us.



A little girl came home from a neighbor’s house where her little friend had died.

"Why did you go?" questioned her mother.

"To comfort her, mother," replied the child.

"What could you do to comfort her?" the father continued.

"I climbed into her lap and cried with her," answered the child.


If a task is once begun

Never leave it till it’s done. Be the labor great or small.

Do it well or not at all.


A Christian man in a Western city resolved that he would never allow a day to pass without speaking to some one on the subject of personal salvation. He was returning home late one evening, burdened with the thought that the day had gone by, and no one had been invited to Christ. He saw a man leaning against a lamp-post, put his hand gently on the shoulder of the stranger, and said, “May I ask you if you love the Lord Jesus Christ?" The stranger resented the freedom, and replied curtly, that that was a personal matter in which nobody else had any concern. But the Christian replied kindly, that they were fellow-travelers to another world, and one could not be indifferent whether others had a good hope of entering heaven. After a few more words had passed between them, they parted, the Christian fearing that he had given offence, but carrying the matter to the closet for earnest prayer. Three months after, just as he had retired for the night, a knock was heard at the door. He inquired what was wanted; and a gentleman replied he would like to see him. On opening the door, he recognized the stranger met at the lamppost. The latter grasped him convulsively by the hand, and said, "The question you put to me, “Do you love the Lord Jesus Christ?” has been ringing ever since in my ear; and I have come to ask you what I must do to be saved." They prayed and talked together; and in a few days the stranger was rejoicing in hope of pardon. He became an earnest and devoted Christian.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on 2 Thessalonians 2". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/2-thessalonians-2.html. 1985.
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