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2 Samuel 5:5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah.
2 Samuel 5:5 Comments - The reason why David changed cities is that he was the king of Judah in Hebron, but he was the king of Israel in Jerusalem.
2 Samuel 5:6 And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither.
2 Samuel 5:6 Comments - Note that Jerusalem was near the border of Judah and the northern tribes. Therefore, it was an ideal location from which to rule all of Israel.
2 Samuel 5:17-25 David’s Campaign Against the Philistines 2 Samuel 5:17-25 describes the war that David had with the Philistines, a war which essentially subdued them under the hand of the nation of Israel. Many scholars suggest that the events recorded in the previous passage of 2 Samuel 5:6-10 take place after this war with the Philistines, believing the Philistines fought with David immediately after he took the leadership over the northern tribes of Israel.  Thus, it is possible that 2 Samuel 5:17-25 reaches back chronologically in order expand upon David’s new kingship by reflecting upon his victory over the Philistines after the previous passage of Scripture gives a brief summary of his rise to power.
 A. A. Anderson, 2 Samuel, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 11, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc., 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on “ 2 Samuel 5:17-25.”
2 Samuel 5:17 But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David; and David heard of it, and went down to the hold.
2 Samuel 5:17 “But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek” - Comments - The Philistines seem to have initially accepted David as a leader in Hebron, understanding him to be their vassal with a small, ineffective cohort of men. This is possible from the fact that he offered to fight alongside the Philistines against Saul (1 Samuel 29:1-11). Once his power and influence expanded over all Israel, they interpreted this as a “declaration of independence.”  They decided it was time to subdue him, and the sooner the better; for the longer they waited, the stronger Israel might become. However, they underestimated David’s power and will be defeated by him.
 John Bright, A History of Israel, 3 rd edition (Philadlephia: Westminster Press, 1981), 198.
2 Samuel 5:18 The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.
2 Samuel 5:18 Comments - Bright understands 2 Samuel 5:18 to mean that the Philistines apparently decided to position themselves near the city of Jerusalem, now David’s stronghold, gathering just south of it in the valley of Rephaim in an effort to cut David off from the northern tribes of Israel.  The “Valley of Rephaim” is mentioned earlier in Joshua 15:8, which according to ISBE, it is located to the southwest of Jerusalem.  Thus, most scholars associate it with this general location.
 John Bright, A History of Israel, 3rd edition (Philadlephia: Westminster Press, 1981), 198.
 H. Porter, “Rephaim,” in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).
Joshua 15:8, “And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the Jebusite; the same is Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the end of the valley of the giants northward:”
2 Samuel 5:19 And David enquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up to the Philistines? wilt thou deliver them into mine hand? And the LORD said unto David, Go up: for I will doubtless deliver the Philistines into thine hand.
2 Samuel 5:19 “And David enquired of the LORD” - Comments - Anderson says David would have enquired of the Lord by either casting the lots or by using the ephod.  We know that Abiathar brought an ephod to David when he joined his band of men (1 Samuel 23:6). Afterwards, the Scriptures mention David using it to inquire of the Lord (1 Samuel 23:9; 1Sa 30:7 , 2 Samuel 6:14, 1 Chronicles 15:27). He was the only king to do so because He was a type and figure of the Messiah who would be King and Priest unto God.
 A. A. Anderson, 2 Samuel, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 11, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc., 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on 2 Samuel 5:19.
1 Samuel 23:6, “And it came to pass, when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David to Keilah, that he came down with an ephod in his hand.”
1 Samuel 23:9, “And David knew that Saul secretly practised mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the ephod.”
1 Samuel 30:7, “And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David.”
2 Samuel 6:14, “And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod.”
1 Chronicles 15:27, “And David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites that bare the ark, and the singers, and Chenaniah the master of the song with the singers: David also had upon him an ephod of linen.”
2 Samuel 5:20 And David came to Baalperazim, and David smote them there, and said, The LORD hath broken forth upon mine enemies before me, as the breach of waters. Therefore he called the name of that place Baalperazim.
2 Samuel 5:20 “Therefore he called the name of that place Baalperazim” Comments - PTW says the Hebrew name “Baalperazim” means, “lord of breaches.” Anderson says it probably refers to Mount Perazim mentioned in Isaiah 28:21, but is otherwise an unknown location near the Valley of Rephiam. 
 A. A. Anderson, 2 Samuel, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 11, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc., 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on 2 Samuel 5:20.
Isaiah 28:21, “For the LORD shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act.”
2 Samuel 5:24 And let it be, when thou hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyself: for then shall the LORD go out before thee, to smite the host of the Philistines.
2 Samuel 5:24 “the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees” - Comments - This was the sound of the marching of angels, who were going before David and his men to fight (Note Psalms 35:6). My mother and by brother have both had visions and seen the marching of heavenly angels.
Psalms 35:6, “Let their way be dark and slippery: and let the angel of the LORD persecute them.”
Note other times that the angels of the Lord fought for God's people:
2 Kings 6:17, “And Elisha prayed, and said, LORD, I pray thee, open his eyes, that he may see. And the LORD opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw: and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha.”
2 Kings 7:6, “For the Lord had made the host of the Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of horses, even the noise of a great host: and they said one to another, Lo, the king of Israel hath hired against us the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians, to come upon us.”
2 Samuel 5:25 And David did so, as the LORD had commanded him; and smote the Philistines from Geba until thou come to Gazer.
2 Samuel 5:25 Comments - Bright believes 2 Samuel 5:25 says David did not end his defensive battles this first day against the Philistines, but turned to the offensive and entered the territories of the Philistines over a period of time in order to thoroughly subdue them.  Also, in 2 Samuel 21:15-22 David and his men would later fight the Philistines again, this time killing the brothers of Goliath.
 John Bright, A History of Israel, 3rd edition (Philadlephia: Westminster Press, 1981), 198-199.
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Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/
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