Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, June 22nd, 2024
the Week of Proper 6 / Ordinary 11
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Bible Commentaries
2 Samuel 5

Trapp's Complete CommentaryTrapp's Commentary

Verse 1

Then came all the tribes of Israel to David unto Hebron, and spake, saying, Behold, we [are] thy bone and thy flesh.

Then came all the tribes,i.e., Great numbers out of all tribes: out of Zebulun only, fifty thousand. 1 Chronicles 12:33 Josephus saith Lib. vii. cap. 2. that Zebulun came full and whole: and the Scripture saith that they were not of a double heart. Christ’s subjects are a willing people; Psalms 110:3 they flee to him as clouds, and as doves to their windows, Isaiah 60:8 and he reeeiveth them graciously, Hosea 14:2 though they had long stood out as these tribes had. Nimis sero te amavi. too slowly I had loved thee. August.

Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh. — We may boldly say the same to Christ, claiming kindred, inasmuch as he is "bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh." Ephesians 5:30 Hebrews 2:15-16

Verse 2

Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD said to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel.

That leddest out and broughtest in.Educebas et reducebas.

And the Lord said to thee, — viz., When thou wast first anointed by Samuel, 1 Samuel 16:13 then was this word added to that sign; though for brevity’s sake it is not there mentioned. So when Christ was baptized, there came a voice from heaven. Matthew 3:16-17 And so still he sanctifieth and cleanseth his Church "with the washing of water by the word." Ephesians 5:26-27

Verse 3

So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and king David made a league with them in Hebron before the LORD: and they anointed David king over Israel.

And king David made a league with them,sc., That he would be their liege-lord, as they would be his liege-people; that is, as the word signifieth, mutually bound each to other.

In Hebron. — Where, haply, Abraham’s altar still continued. Compare 1 Samuel 15:7 .

And they anointed David king. — As other nations crowned their kings, so the Israelites anointed them as types of the Messiah, who was "anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows," and for them also.

Verse 4

David [was] thirty years old when he began to reign, [and] he reigned forty years.

David was thirty years old. — So was Christ when he entered upon his kingdom, which he hath twofold: 1. Patientiae; of patience. 2. Potentiae, of power. Luke 3:22-23

And he reigned forty years. — Which consisting of four tens, signifieth the fulness of times, and perfection of things, saith Angelomus: wherein also David was a type of Christ.

Verse 5

In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah.

Seven years and six months. — These last six months are not reckoned in the whole sum for the roundness of the number: or, as some Rabbis Jerome in Tradit. will have it, because six months David lay sick in Hebron: or, six months he fled before Absalom; and so there is no count made of them.

Verse 6

And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither.

And the king and his men. — Those of the several tribes that came unto him at this time armed and well appointed, fit for some noble exploit.

Went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites. — Who still held the tower of Zion, Judges 1:23 ; Judges 19:10-11 being a company of ungracious people there gathered together, such as were in that city of Thracia called Poneropolis, whither King Philip had assembled all the infamous persons, and men of evil demeanour, that many places might not be troubled with them. Theopomp. xiii. Philip.

Which spake unto David.Scommate militari, by a military scoff, which did not weaken but waken David’s courage.

Except thou take away the blind and the lame. — Which are the best men that we need to set for defence of this our impregnable fort. These thou hadst best deal with first, and then with us: whom thou shalt find to have both eyes and legs to withstand thee. Others think that by "blind and lame" these Jebusites mean their tutelary gods - called by the Israelites blind and lame idols in contempt - who would not fail to defend them against all adverse forces.

Verse 7

Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same [is] the city of David.

Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion. — And the rather for their carnal confidence which God had rejected, and David soon after confuted; wherein also he became a lively type of Christ, perfectly triumphing over all our enemies, and treading Satan under our feet. Romans 16:20

Verse 8

And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, [that are] hated of David’s soul, [he shall be chief and captain]. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.

Whosoever getteth up to the gutter. — This bitter scoff had not so much encouraged as enraged David and his men to assault the fort, which they took by scaling, Joab venturing almost as hard for it, as that brave Englishman did, who, at the storming of an earthwork in the low countries, caught hold of a pike in the hand of his enemy, and was thereby drawn up to the taking of the place.

Wherefore they said. — Or, Because they had said, even the blind and the lame, He shall not come into the house, that is, into the hold. Now because they had put this scorn upon him, David was set upon it to have them out. So the king of France, jesting at William the Conqueror’s great belly, whereof he said he lay in at Rouen, so irritated him, as he being recovered of a sickness, entered France in the chiefest time of their fruits, making spoil of all in his way till he came even to Paris, where the king of France then was, to show him of his activity after his illness: and from thence marched to the city of Mentz, which he utterly sacked, … Dan Hist., 42.

Verse 9

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.

So David dwelt in the fort. — After that he had slain all the old inhabitants, save one Araunah, saith Josephus, who afterwards proved his very friend.

And called it, The city of David. — As Constantine called Bizantium Constantinople, after his own name: making it likewise the metropolis and seat of the empire.

And David built round about, from Millo. — A certain tower or fortress. 2 Chronicles 32:5 All the inside of the city David rebuilt, leaving the care of building the walls to Joab. 1 Chronicles 11:8

Verse 10

And David went on, and grew great, and the LORD God of hosts [was] with him.

And David went on, and grew great. — Heb., He went going and growing. How could he do less, who had the Lord God of hosts with him and for him? who may better say than any earthly prince, Cui adhaereo, praeest. He must needs have the better whom I take part with.

Verse 11

And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house.

And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David. — To congratulate his happy settlement in the kingdom. This Tyre was at first a poor town, built by the Phoenicians, for their fishermen to dwell in: but afterwards it became a famous city: like as Dublin, the chief city of Ireland, was at first called by the Irish Balacleigh, that is, the town upon hurdles, because the foundation thereof was laid upon hurdles; the place where it was built was so fennish and moorish.

Verse 12

And David perceived that the LORD had established him king over Israel, and that he had exalted his kingdom for his people Israel’s sake.

And David perceived that the Lord had established him. — He partly perceived it by this extraordinary kindness of Hiram toward him; but especially by the inward certification by God’s Holy Spirit, as Lyra noteth.

Verse 13

And David took [him] more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he was come from Hebron: and there were yet sons and daughters born to David.

And David took him more concubines. — Directly against God’s commandment, Deuteronomy 17:17 and his own practice in other points. Psalms 23:5-6 Apprehensions of mercy in God should work resolutions of obedience in us. David was afterwards punished in these concubines, and made to vomit up that again which now he swalloweth down with so much delight. See 2 Samuel 20:3 . They who would excuse him herein, say that he did it to strengthen himself in his kingdom by new friends and allies. But it is no good policy to leap the pale of God’s precepts upon any pretence.

Verse 14

And these [be] the names of those that were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shammua, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon,

And Nathan. — Who therefore cannot be the same with Ithream, born of Eglah, David’s wife, 2 Samuel 3:5 as some would have it.

Verse 15

Ibhar also, and Elishua, and Nepheg, and Japhia,

And Elishua. — Called also Elishama; 1 Chronicles 3:6 another of his sons being likewise called by the same name, 1 Chronicles 3:8 probably because the former was dead.

Verse 16

And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphalet.

And Elishama. — See 2 Samuel 5:15 .

And Eliada. — Called also Beeliada. 1 Chronicles 14:7

And Eliphalet. — My God heareth, my God knoweth, my God delivereth. "My God" was much in David’s mind and mouth when he named these three sons in this sort. The wicked, on the other side, have God neither in their heads, Psalms 10:4 nor hearts, Psalms 14:1 nor words, Psalms 12:4 nor ways. Titus 1:16

Verse 17

But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David; and David heard [of it], and went down to the hold.

Came up to seek David,i.e., To fight with him wheresoever they should find him: as being jealous of his growing greatness, and fearing lest they should lose their tribute. Now also was the time come when God would execute his judgments against them and their gods, as Exodus 12:12 to whom they had sacrilegiously ascribed their recent victories. See 2 Samuel 5:21 . Wicked men are even ambitious of destruction: these men came to seek their bane.

And went down to the hold. — That of Adullam likely, where he so thirsted for the water of the well of Bethlehem: 1 Chronicles 11:15 hither he went, not for fear of the Philistines, but to make preparation. 1 Chronicles 14:8

Verse 18

The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.

In the valley of Rephaim. — Of the Titans or giants, as the Septuagint rendereth it; or, "Of the dead." Psalms 7:13 God had against these Philistine Theomachi; was "preparing for them the instruments of death," and would ere long lay them in that slimy valley where were many already like them. and more should come after them. Job 21:31-32

Verse 19

And David enquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up to the Philistines? wilt thou deliver them into mine hand? And the LORD said unto David, Go up: for I will doubtless deliver the Philistines into thine hand.

And David enquired of the Lord. — Without whose direction he would not attempt anything; but said in effect, as Judges 4:8 , "If thou wilt go with me, then I will go; but if thou wilt not go with me, I will not go."

Verse 20

And David came to Baalperazim, and David smote them there, and said, The LORD hath broken forth upon mine enemies before me, as the breach of waters. Therefore he called the name of that place Baalperazim.

As the breach of waters. — Whenas, overflowing the banks, they bear all before them. See 1 Chronicles 14:11 . Or, As the division of waters; that is, as waters are easily divided with hand or foot, so God hath dispersed mine enemies with great facility. See a like place in Isaiah 25:11 , "And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst of them, as he that swimmeth spreadeth forth his hands to swim: and he shall bring down their pride together with the spoils of their hands." See also Isaiah 26:21 .

Verse 21

And there they left their images, and David and his men burned them.

And there they left their images — Heb., Their terrors. Terricula sua. The Chaldee hath it, Their errors. See Psalms 16:4 . See Trapp on " Psalms 16:4 " These idols they had brought into the field with them, in hope of help by them; and perhaps in imitation of the Hebrews, who sometimes took the ark with them. It hath been before set forth how it befell the Popish Norfolk rebels in King Edward VI’s days, with their cart load of trinkets and relics brought into the battle, and there laid in the dust. Act. and Mon., fol. 1190.

Verse 22

And the Philistines came up yet again, and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.

And the Philistines came up yet again. — They will have the other bout, though to their bane. No warning will serve obdurate hearts Cimon the Athenian triumphed over the Persians twice in one day. David shall do little less over these foolhardy Philistines.

Verse 23

And when David enquired of the LORD, he said, Thou shalt not go up; [but] fetch a compass behind them, and come upon them over against the mulberry trees.

But fetch a compass behind them. — God must be trusted; but in addition the best means must be used; and then a blessing may be expected.

Over against the mulberry trees. — The Vulgate rendereth it, The pear trees; and the ordinary gloss hath Flentes, the weepers, because there the defeated Philistines wept for the loss of their idols, or of their hopes by them.

Verse 24

And let it be, when thou hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyself: for then shall the LORD go out before thee, to smite the host of the Philistines.

The sound of a going. — A hurry noise made by God’s angels, as 2 Kings 7:6 , who are come to thy help.

Then thou shalt bestir thyself. — Break forth presently and set upon the enemy. We must also, in the spiritual warfare, observe and obey the motions of the Spirit, when he setteth up his standard; Isaiah 59:19 for those are the sound of God’s goings, the footsteps of his anointed. Psalms 89:51

Verse 25

And David did so, as the LORD had commanded him; and smote the Philistines from Geba until thou come to Gazer.

To Gazer. — Which was a city of the Philistines, saith Josephus.

Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5". Trapp's Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jtc/2-samuel-5.html. 1865-1868.
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