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Bible Commentaries
2 Samuel 5

Peake's Commentary on the BiblePeake's Commentary

Verses 1-16

2 Samuel 5:1-16 . David Becomes King of united Israel and Judah. He Captures Jerusalem (J). ( Cf. p. 282.)— Two notes have been added to this section ( 2 Samuel 5:4 f. and 2 Samuel 5:13-16), of the same character as 2 Samuel 2:10 a, 11, 2 Samuel 3:1-5, and probably by the same hand.

2 Samuel 5:1-3 . On the basis of terms, “ a covenant,” agreed upon between him and the elders, or Sheikhs, of Israel, David is anointed king over Israel, thus becoming king of both Israel and Judah. This act brought Judah into organic union with the other tribes, for the first time, at any rate since the Settlement in Canaan. The looseness of the bond is shown by the ease with which it was broken at the death of Solomon.

2 Samuel 5:4 f. A chronological note, accepted, for the most part, as substantially correct.

2 Samuel 5:6-12 . David takes Jerusalem, in spite of the boast of the Jebusites that the place was so strong that it could be successfully defended by the blind and lame. 2 Samuel 5:8 is unintelligible, and the text is hopelessly corrupt. The corresponding verse ( 1 Chronicles 11:6) runs, “ And David said, Whoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain. And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was made chief.” Possibly Ch. preserves the original text; the corruption would be due to the introduction of glosses, and perhaps also to the desire to give David, and not Joab, the credit for the capture. Zion is usually held to have occupied part of the eastern of the two hills covered by the modern city ( 1 Kings 8:1 *). Millo here is apparently some part of the fortifications of the citadel of Jerusalem (EBi) ( cf. 1 Kings 9:15 *). There was a “ Millo” at Shechem ( Judges 9:6).

By the establishment of the capital at Jerusalem, a fortress of exceptional strength, David did much to secure the permanence of the Jewish state, and the continuity of Revealed Religion.

David is encouraged by the friendship of the king of Tyre. His name is given as Hiram, i.e. Hiram I, the ally of Solomon; but the other data show that Hiram I cannot have been reigning so early in David’ s reign. Either the name of the familiar Hiram has been substituted for that of his less-known father, Abibaal, or the incident is transferred from the time of Solomon.

2 Samuel 5:13-16 . Note on David’ s family. Eliada is a variant of Baaliada ( cf. 1 Samuel 14:49).

Verses 17-25

2 Samuel 5:17-25 . Victories over the Philistines (J). ( Cf. p. 67.)— David twice defeats the Philistines in the Valley of Rephaim (p. 31, Isaiah 17:5 *). The growing strength of David had roused the apprehensions of his suzerains. These incidents seem prior to the capture of Jerusalem, and are sometimes supposed to have been inserted from another document; they may, however, be from (J), having been transposed by the editor. The “ hold” is perhaps Adullam. The fact that we are told that David named the place Baal-perazim, “ Baal of Breaches,” shows that the author saw nothing wrong in the use of Baal as a title of Yahweh (1 S. 4:49*.) The victors “ took . . . away” the gods (so LXX and 1 Chronicles 14:12) of the Philistines. The Chronicler, anxious that his readers should not suppose that David intended to worship them, changed 2 Samuel 5:21 b into “ and they were burned with fire,” AV here followed suit by altering “ took away” into “ burned.” In 2 Samuel 5:24, it is Yahweh who marches.

2 Samuel 5:25 . Gezer: Joshua 10:33 *, Judges 1:29 *, 1 Kings 9:16 *.

Bibliographical Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/pfc/2-samuel-5.html. 1919.
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