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Jeremiah 52:1-34 The Third Siege Against Jerusalem - Jeremiah 52:1-34 is practically identical to 2 Kings 24:18 to 2 Kings 25:30, being almost a word for word copy.
STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
Using a Theme-based Approach
to Identify Literary Structures
By Gary H. Everett
THE BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS
January 2013 Edition
All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.
All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed., Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c1925, morphology c1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong's Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author’s daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.
© Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.
Foundational Theme How to Serve the Lord with All Our Heart
Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:
And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,
and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
Structural Theme - We are Predestined to Reflect the Image of Christ
as We Follow God’s Plan for our Lives (Body)
How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people!
how is she become as a widow! she that was great among the nations,
and princess among the provinces, how is she become tributary!
Imperative Theme Fear God and Keep His Commandments: The Children of Israel Serve as a Testimony of Man’s Need of Redemption Through the Lord Jesus Christ Through Serving the Lord as a Covenant Nation
Turn thou us unto thee, O LORD, and we shall be turned;
renew our days as of old.
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF LAMENTATIONS
Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.
Introductory Material - The introduction to the book of Lamentations will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework.  These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God’s message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.
 Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel’s well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalms: (1) “a common setting in life,” (2) “thoughts and mood,” (3) “literary forms.” In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses “Form/Structure/Setting” preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol. 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).
“We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture
if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible.”
(J. Hampton Keathley) 
 J. Hampton Keathley, III, “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah,” (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23 May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Lamentations will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the book of Lamentations, writing during his public ministry.
I. The Title and Placement in the Old Testament Canon
The ancient Hebrew manuscripts entitled the book of Lamentations by its opening word אֵיכָה ( ay-kaw'), meaning “How” and placed it among the third division of their Scriptures called “The Writings.”  The rabbis called this book by the name קִינוֹת , meaning “dirges, elegies, laments.”  The LXX moved it beside the book of Jeremiah and t itled it “Threni,” from the Greek word θρηνος, meaning “laments.” Josephus apparently places this book in the division of “the Prophets” ( Against Apion 1.8),  and Eusebius tells us it was placed beside Jeremiah in the canon of Melito ( Ecclesiastical History 6.25). While the Talmud now places Lamentations in the Writings, the English bibles have followed the arrangement of the Latin Vulgate.
 The books of the Pentateuch, Proverbs and Lamentations are among those given Hebrew titles using the opening word of the book.
 C. W. Eduard Naegelsbach, The Lamentations of Jeremiah, trans. Wm. H. Hornblower, in A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, ed. John Lange (New York: Charles Scribner and Co., 1871), 1.
 Josephus writes, “For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life.” See Flavius Josephus, Flavius Josephus Against Apion, in The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, trans. William Whiston (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c1987, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), 541.
II. Historical Background
A. Internal Evidence - The book of 2 Chronicles makes a reference to a book of lamentations, “And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah: and all the singing men and the singing women spake of Josiah in their lamentations to this day, and made them an ordinance in Israel: and, behold, they are written in the lamentations .” (2 Chronicles 35:25)
B. External Evidence - If we look outside of biblical literature for clues to authorship and into other ancient Jewish literature from which much Jewish tradition is found, the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeremiah wrote his own book, Kings and Lamentations.
“And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil’am [Numbers, xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: “And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died.” Samuel wrote his book, Judges, and Ruth. David wrote Psalms, with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, Songs, and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Prophets, Daniel, and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh’s theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra’s book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah.” ( Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 
 Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol. 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.
LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)
“Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.
If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew.”
(Thomas Schreiner) 
 Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011), 11.
Within the historical setting of the early kingdom of Israel, the author of the book of Lamentations chose to write using the literary style of poetry and song. Thus, the book of Lamentations is assigned to the literary genre called “psalms.”
The book of Lamentations is written as an acrostic poem. Chapters 1, 2, and 4 consist of twenty-two verses each, with every verse beginning with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet in proper order. Chapter 3 has sixty-six verses because the Hebrew alphabet is used in proper order to begin three verses at a time, instead of a single verse. For example, Jeremiah 52:1-3 begin with the first Hebrew letter, while Jeremiah 52:4-6 begin with the second Hebrew letter and so on until all twenty-two Hebrew letters are used. Although chapter 5 has twenty-two verses, the first words of each verse are not arranged in an acrostic order. This acrostic nature of Lamentations divides the book into five clearly defined sections.
“Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework.”
(Andreas Kösenberger) 
 Andreas J. Kösenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.
Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Lamentations, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the book of Lamentations for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.
VIII. Thematic Scheme
The underlying theme of the Old Testament Scriptures is the office and ministry of God the Father as He works out His divine plan of redemption for mankind through His divine foreknowledge and sovereign intervention in the affairs of man. The underlying theme of the books of poetry in the Old Testament is how to trust in the Lord with all of our hearts. (In contrast, the historical books teach us how to trust in the Lord with all of our strength, and the prophet books teach us how to trust in the Lord with all of our mind.) No three men suffered greater than the authors of the poetic books of Job, Psalms and Lamentations; for we see in the lives of Job, David, who wrote much of the book of Psalms, and Jeremiah, who wrote Lamentations, a testimony of how to trust in God in the midst of hardships. Their hardships were not occasioned by sin in their lives, but because God needed vessels in which to work out His divine plan of redemption for mankind. When He finds a vessel who will suffer for Him, then the testimony of His Son Jesus Christ His Son can be declared to all of mankind.
A. Primary Theme (Foundational) - Poetry: How to Worship the Lord with all our Heart - The common underlying theme of the Hebrew poetry of the Scriptures is “How to Worship the Lord with all our Heart.” Poetry is primarily written to express the mood of man’s heart. When we read these books in the Old Testament, we are emotionally moved as we identify with the poet or psalmist. Although there are many poetic passages in the Scriptures, for the purposes of identifying thematic schemes, this division of the Old Testament includes Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and Lamentations, although scholars group this biblical genre differently. The first book of Hebrew poetry we encounter as we read through the Old Testament is the book of Job, which opens with an account of this man worshipping God at an altar of sacrifice (Job 1:5). The Psalms of David show us how to worship the Lord during all seasons of life while the book of Job and Lamentations teaches us how to worship during the times of the greatest tragedies in life. As we journey through this life, we will have times of ecstasy when we are caught up in worship and we will have times of trials when we cry out to God for deliverance. However, most of our days are given to simple routines and decisions that determine our future well-being. We must then look to the book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Songs for a pattern of how to worship the Lord with our hearts during such uneventful days.
The writings of Solomon provide three phases of man’s spiritual journey in learning to love God with all his heart, while Job, Lamentations, and Psalms provide real life illustrations of people who have experienced these aspects of a devout life of faith in God. Although all three writings of Solomon emphasize man’s relationship with God, it is important to note that each one places emphasis upon a different aspect of man’s make-up. Scholars have proposed themes for the writings of Solomon since the time of the early Church fathers. Origen (A.D. 185-254) recognized a three-fold aspect to the books Solomon by saying Proverbs focused on morals and ethics, Ecclesiastes focused on the natural aspect of man’s existence, and the Song of Songs focused on the divine, spiritual realm of man. He says:
“First, let us examine why it is, since the churches of God acknowledge three books written by Solomon, that of them the book of Proverbs is put first, the one called Ecclesiastes second, and the book of Song of Songs has third place….We can give them the terms moral, natural and contemplative…The moral discipline is defined as the one by which as honorable manner of life is equipped and habits conducive to virtue are prepared. The natural discipline is defined as the consideration of each individual thing, according to which nothing in life happens contrary to nature, but each individual thing is assigned those uses for which it has been brought forth by the Creator. The contemplative discipline is defined as that by which we transcend visible things and contemplate something of divine and heavenly things and gaze at them with the mind alone, since they transcend corporeal appearance…” ( PG 13, col. 74a-b) 
 J. Robert Wright, ed., Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, in Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament IX, ed. Thomas C. Oden (Downer Grover, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 278-288; Rowan A. Greer, trans., Origen: An Exhortation to Martyrdom, Prayer and Selected Writings (New York: Paulist Rowan A., 1979), 231-232, 234.
Theodoret of Cyrrhus (A.D. 393-466) makes a similar three-fold evaluation of the writings of Solomon, saying:
“It is also necessary to say by way of introduction that three works belong to Solomon: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs. Proverbs offers those interested moral benefits, while Ecclesiastes comments on the nature of visible realities and thoroughly explains the futility of the present life so that we may learn its transitory character, despise passing realities and long for the future as something lasting. The Song of Songs…brings out the mystical intercourse between the bride and the bridegroom, the result being that the whole of Solomon’s work constitutes a king of ladder with three steps moral, physical and mystical. That is to say, the person approaching a religious way of life must first purify the mind with good behavior, then strive to discern the futility of impermanent things and the transitory character of what seems pleasant, and then finally take wings and long for the bridegroom, who promises eternal goods. Hence this book is placed third, so the person treading this path comes to perfection.” ( Preface to Commentary on Song of Songs) ( PG 81, Colossians 4:0 6d-47a) 
 J. Robert Wright, ed., Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, in Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament IX, ed. Thomas C. Oden (Downer Grover, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 288; Pauline Allen, et al., eds., Early Christian Studies (Strathfield, Australia: St. Paul’s Publications, 2001), 2.32.
John Calvin (1509-1564) refers to the theme of the book of Psalms and the writings of Solomon in his argument to the epistle of James, saying:
“The writings of Solomon differ much from those of David, both as to matter and style. Solomon directs his view, chiefly, to form the external man, and to deliver to us the precepts of political life: David constantly chooses the spiritual worship of God, peace of conscience, or the gracious promise of salvation, for his theme.” ( Argument to the Epistle of James) 
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentary on the Epistle of James: Newly Translated from the Original Latin (Aberdeen: J. Chalmers and Co., 1797), iii.
Although all three writings of Solomon emphasize man’s relationship with God, it is important to note that each one places emphasis upon a different aspect of man’s make-up. (1) Proverbs and Job - The secondary theme of the book of Proverbs teaches us to make wise decisions in our life by pursuing God’s wisdom. It is structured in a way that teaches us how to take our mental journey through this life. We begin this spiritual journey by responding to wisdom’s call to learn of God’s ways as the book of Proverbs reveals. It is by the fear of the Lord that we embark upon this initial phase of learning to love the Lord by understanding and following the path of divine wisdom. The story of Job serves as an excellent illustration of a man that feared God and walked in wisdom with his fellow men, and thus serves as an excellent illustration of the teachings of Proverbs. (2) Ecclesiastes and Lamentations - As we walk in wisdom, we soon perceive that God has a divine plan for our lives in the midst of the vanities of life, as taught in the book of Ecclesiastes. It is at this phase of our spiritual journey that we offer our bodies in obedience to God purpose and plan for our lives as we continue to fear the Lord, which is the secondary theme of Ecclesiastes. The writer of Lamentations teaches us about the results of fearing God and keeping His commandments, and thus serves as an excellent illustration of Ecclesiastes. (3) Song of Solomon and Psalms - We then come to the phase of our spiritual journey where we learn to enter into God’s presence and partake of His intimacy, which is the secondary theme of Songs. The Song of Songs tells us about the intimacy and love that man can have in his relationship with God. It is structured in a way that teaches us how to take our spiritual journey through this life. The Song of Solomon teaches us to move from a level of fearing the Lord into the mature walk of loving God with all of our hearts. The Psalms of David teach us about a man that learned to love the Lord with all of his heart, and thus serves as an excellent illustration of the Songs of Solomon. Summary - Therefore, Proverbs emphasizes our minds, while Ecclesiastes emphasizes our strength, while the Song of Songs reveals to us how to worship the Lord with oneness of heart. In these three books, Solomon deals with the three-fold nature of man: his spirit, his mind and his body. These writings inspire us to commune with God in our hearts.
As a review, the foundational theme of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon is how to serve the Lord with all our hearts. The secondary theme of this three-fold series of writings is what gives these books their structure:
1. Proverbs Wisdom Calls Mankind to Understand His Ways (Mind)
2. Ecclesiastes God Gives Mankind a Purpose in Life When We Serve Him (Body)
3. Song of Solomon God Calls Mankind to Walk With Him in the Cool of the Day (Heart)
The third theme of this three-fold series of writings reveals the results of applying the book’s message to our daily lives:
1. Proverbs - The Fear of the Lord is the Beginning of Wisdom. The virtuous woman is a reflection of a person walking in wisdom and the fear of God.
2. Ecclesiastes Fear God and Keep His Commandments. The man who keeps God’s commandments has a purpose and destiny in Christ.
3. Song of Solomon Loving God is Mature as We Abide in Christ & Labour in His Vineyard. The man who abides in Christ and produces fruit that remains.
Combining these three themes to see how they flow together in each of Solomon’s writings, we see that Proverbs teaches us to serve the Lord with all of our mind as the fear of the Lord moves us to wise choices above foolishness. The outcome of this journey is the development of a person who is strong in character, symbolized by the virtuous woman. This is illustrated in the story of Job. In Ecclesiastes, the believer serves the Lord with all of his strength by obeying God’s commandments because of his fear of the Lord. The outcome of this journey is the development of a person who walks in his purpose and destiny, rather than in the vanities of this world. This is illustrated in the book of Lamentations. The Song of Solomon reveals the most mature level of serving the Lord with all of one’s heart. This person yields to God’s love being poured into him by learning to abide in constant holy communion with the Lord. The outcome of this journey is the development of a person who overflows in the fruits and gifts of the Spirit. This is illustrated in the book of Psalms.
The themes of the books of the Holy Bible can be often found in the opening verses, and we now can easily see these three themes in opening passages of the writings of Solomon. Proverb’s opening verses emphasize the need to make sound decisions through wisdom, instruction and understanding.
Proverbs 1:2, “To know wisdom and instruction; to perceive the words of understanding;”
Ecclesiastes’ opening verses emphasizes the vanity of human labour when one does not serve the Lord.
Ecclesiastes 1:3, “What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun?”
Song of Songs emphasizes the intimacy of love that proceeds from man’s heart.
Song of Solomon 1:2, “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy love is better than wine.”
Thus, it is easy to see why King Solomon would follow such a three-fold structure in his writings. Since Deuteronomy 6:4-5 was one of the more popular passages of Scripture for the children of Israel, it would make sense that Solomon, in his quest for the meaning of life, would follow this three-fold approach in his analyze of what it meant to worship God. Although the book of Proverbs places emphasis upon serving the Lord by making wise decisions, a careful study of the book of Proverbs will reveal that this three-fold emphasis upon the spirit, soul and body is woven throughout the book.
In addition, the book of Job gives us an extension of the theme of Proverbs, as both of these books serve as wisdom literature, teaching us through poetry to serve the Lord with all our mind. The book of Lamentations gives us an extension of the theme of Ecclesiastes, as both of these books serve as poetic explanations for the vanities of life, teaching us through poetry to serve the Lord with all our strength. The book of Psalms gives an extension of the theme of Songs, as both of these books serve as poetry to edify the heart, teaching us through poetry to serve the Lord with all our heart. Finally, the redemptive message of the poetical books reveals that even when a man like Job walks in wisdom, he finds himself in need of a redeemer. Lamentations reveals a nation who has a divine destiny and purpose, yet the children of Israel find themselves in need of a redeemer. The psalms of David reveal that even when man is at his best intimacy with God, like David, he still finds himself in need of a redeemer.
Figure 6 - Thematic Scheme of the Books of Poetry
C. Secondary Theme (Structural) - We are Predestined to Reflect the Image of Christ as We Follow God’s Plan for our Lives (Body) -
C. Third Theme (Imperative) - The Children of Israel Serve as a Testimony of Man’s Need of Redemption Through the Lord Jesus Christ Despite Them Serving the Lord as a Covenant Nation The third theme of the book of Lamentations reveals that despite the fact that Israel served the Lord as a covenant nations, they serve as a testimony of their need of a redeemer.
The books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Songs are structured as a spiritual journey. Each of these journeys leads us into rest. Proverbs tells us that serving the Lord with all of our mind leads us into rest. The book of Ecclesiastes teaches us that serving God with all of our strength and not mammon leads us into rest. The Song of Solomon teaches us that mature love towards God leads us into rest.
IX. Literary Structure
I. First Poem (Jeremiah 1:1-19 ) The first poem of Lamentations emphasizes God’s righteousness (Jeremiah 1:18) and man’s sinfulness and need of a comforter (and a redeemer) (Jeremiah 1:9; Jeremiah 1:16).
Lamentations 1:18, “The LORD is righteous; for I have rebelled against his commandment: hear, I pray you, all people, and behold my sorrow: my virgins and my young men are gone into captivity.”
II. Second Poem (Jeremiah 2:1-22 ) The second poem of Lamentations emphasizes the fulfillment of God’s Word upon Jerusalem (Jeremiah 2:17), which required divine judgment for her sins.
Lamentations 2:17, “The LORD hath done that which he had devised; he hath fulfilled his word that he had commanded in the days of old: he hath thrown down, and hath not pitied: and he hath caused thine enemy to rejoice over thee, he hath set up the horn of thine adversaries.”
III. Third Poem (Jeremiah 3:1-25 ) - The third poem of Lamentations emphasizes man’s journey of divine judgment and affliction because of his sins. This poem varies from the other four poems in that it is structured as a triple acrostic; that is, a group of three verses begins with a Hebrew letter, using all twenty-two letters of the alphabet, requiring sixty-six verses for this section of Lamentations. Perhaps this triple acrostic structure represents the fact that God’s purpose and plan is implemented upon earth when a man serves the Lord in the midst of affliction, as Jeremiah the prophet served Him.
IV. Fourth Poem (Jeremiah 4:1-22 )
V. Fifth Poem (Jeremiah 5:1-22 )
X. Outline of Book
Calvin, John. Commentaries on the Book of the Prophet Jeremiah and the Lamentations, vol. 5. Trans. John Owen. Edinburgh: The Calvin Translation Society, 1855.
Calvin, John. Calvin’s Commentary on the Epistle of James: Newly Translated from the Original Latin. Aberdeen: J. Chalmers and Co., 1797.
Dods, Marcus. Song of Solomon and Lamentations. In The Expositor’s Bible. In Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM]. Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2001.
Gill, John. Lamentations. In John Gill’s Expositor. In e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM]. Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.
House, Paul R. Lamentations. In Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 23B. Dallas, Texas: Word, Incorporated, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Metzger, Bruce M., David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.
Naegelsbach, C. W. Eduard. The Lamentations of Jeremiah. Trans. Wm. H. Hornblower. In A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. Ed. John Lange. New York: Charles Scribner and Co., 1871.
Wright, John R. and Thomas C. Oden, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon. Ed. J. Robert Wright. In Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament, vol. IX. Ed. Thomas C. Oden. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2005.
Allen, Pauline, et al., eds. Early Christian Studies. Strathfield, Australia: St. Paul’s Publications, 2001.
Greer, Rowan A., trans. Origen: An Exhortation to Martyrdom, Prayer and Selected Writings. New York: Paulist, 1979.
Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol. 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.
Josephus, Flavius. Flavius Josephus Against Apion. in The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged. Trans. William Whiston. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c1987, 1996. in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Keathley, III, J. Hampton. “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah.” (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23 May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Kösenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.
Rodkinson, Michael L. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol. 13. New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902.
Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011.
Singh, Sadhu Sundar. At the Master’s Feet. Trans. Arthur Parker. London: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1922 [on-line]. Accessed 26 October 2008. Available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/singh/feet.html; Internet.
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Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Jeremiah 52". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/
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