(1) The faithful teachers of God's word, who are appointed by him for his people, must both take good heed of those who corrupt the purity of doctrine with smooth speech, and also take pains through the help of God to set forth sincere doctrine, openly and without fear.
(a) Literally, "ten thousand of people", a certain number which is given for an uncertain number.
(2) Although hypocrites have princes to execute their cruelty, yet there is no reason why we should be afraid of them, even by the smallest amount that may be, seeing that they can do nothing except that which pleases God, and God does not will anything that may be against the salvation of his elect.
(b) He warns them of dangers that presently hang over their heads, for those that come upon one suddenly make a greater wound.
(3) Great is the reward of a constant confession: and horrible is the punishment for denying Christ; yea, it will be impossible to call the punishment back again, if on purpose, both with mouth and heart we blaspheme a known truth.
(4) It is a great and difficult conflict to confess the truth, yet God who can do all things and is almighty will provide strength to the weakest who struggle greatly and do battle in God's appointed time.
(5) For three reasons Christ would not be a judge to divide an inheritance. First, because he would not support and uphold the fleshly opinion that the Jews had of Messiah: secondly, because he wanted to distinguish the civil government from the ecclesiastical: thirdly, to teach us to beware of those which abuse the show of the gospel, and also the name of ministers, for their own private well-being.
(c) By covetousness is meant that greedy desire to get, commonly causing hurt to other men.
(d) God is the author and preserver of man's life; goods are not.
(6) There are none more mad than rich men who depend upon their riches.
(e) Or rather country, for here is set forth a man that possesses not only a piece of ground, but a whole country, as they do who join house to house, and field to field; (Isaiah 5:8).
(f) Reckoned with himself, which is the characteristic of covetous surly men who spend their life in those trifles.
(g) Be merry and make good cheer.
(h) Caring for no man but for himself, and making sure to trust in himself.
(7) Earnestly thinking upon the providence of God is a present remedy for this life against the most foolish and wasting worry of men.
(i) A metaphor taken of things that hang in the air, for those that care too much for this worldly life, and rely upon the arm of man, always have wavering and doubtful minds, swaying sometimes this way, and sometimes that way.
(8) They will lack nothing who are diligent for the kingdom of heaven.
(9) It is a foolish thing not to look for small things at the hands of him who freely gives us the greatest things.
(10) A godly bountifulness is a proper way to get true riches.
(k) This is the figure of speech metonymy, for by this word "alms" is meant that compassion and friendliness of a heart that cares tenderly for the misery and poor condition of a man, and shows this feeling by some gift, and has the name given to it in the Greek language of mercy and compassion: and therefore he is said to give alms who gives something to another, and gives to the poor, showing by this that he pities their poor condition.
(11) The life of the faithful servants of God in this world is certainly a diligent journey, having the light of the word going before the journey.
(12) None need to watch more than they that have some degree of honour in the household of God.
(l) That is, every month the measure of corn that was given to them.
(m) More than the one who did not receive as much.
(13) The gospel is the only reason of peace between the godly, and so it is the occasion of great trouble among the wicked.
(14) Men who are very quick to see with regard to earthly things are blind with regard to those things which pertain to the heavenly life, and this through their own malice.
(n) Which appears, and gathers itself together in that part of the air.
(15) Men that are blinded with the love of themselves, and therefore are detestable and stubborn, will bear the punishment of their folly.
(o) To him that has to demand and gather the fines from those who were fined at the discretion of the court, people who had wrongly troubled men: moreover, the magistrate's officers make those who are condemned pay what they owe, yea and often if they are obstinate, they not only take the fine, but also imprison them.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 12". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany