Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, April 24th, 2024
the Fourth Week after Easter
We are taking food to Ukrainians still living near the front lines. You can help by getting your church involved.
Click to donate today!

Bible Commentaries
Luke 12

International Critical Commentary NTInternational Critical

Search for…
Enter query below:
Additional Authors

Verses 1-99

12. The greater part of the utterances of Christ which Lk. records in this chapter are also recorded in different parts of Mt., for the most part either in the Sermon on the Mount (5-7.), or in the Charge to the Twelve (10:5-42), or in the Prophecy of the Last Days (24:4-51). Here they are given in the main as a continuous discourse, but with marked breaks at vv. 13, 22, 54. Lk. evidently regards vv. 1-21 as spoken immediately after the commotion at the Pharisee’s house; and there is little doubt that vv. 22-53 are assigned by him to the same occasion. How much break there is between vv. 53 and 54 is left undetermined. The fact that many of Christ’s sayings were uttered more than once, and were differently arranged on different occasions, will partly explain the resemblances and differences between Lk. and Mt. here and elsewhere. But it is also probable that there has been some confusion in the traditions, and that words which one tradition placed in one connexion were by another tradition placed in another.

Luke 12:2-9 = Matthew 10:26-33.Luke 12:51-53 = Matthew 10:34-36.

22-32 = 6:25-34. 54-56 = [16:2, 3].

33, 34 = 6:19-21. 57-59 = 5:25, 26.

39-46 = 24:43-51.

1-12. Exhortation to Courageous Sincerity. This is closely connected with what precedes. The commotion inside and outside the Pharisee’s house had attracted an immense crowd, which was divided in its sympathy, some siding with the Pharisees, others disposed to support Christ. His addressing His words to His disciples rather than to the multitude indicates that the latter were in the main not friendly. But the appeal made to Him by one of them (ver. 13) respecting a purely private matter shows that is authority is recognized by many. The man would not have asked Him to give a decision in the face of a wholly hostile assembly. But this warning to His followers of the necessity far courageous testimony to the truth in the face of bitter opposition implies present hostility. The connexion with the preceding scene is proved by the opening words, Ἐν οἶς, “In the midst of which, in the meantime.”

1. τωσν μυριάδων τους ὄχλου. Hyperbolical, as in Acts 21:20. The article points to what is usual; “the people in their myriads.” Comp. οὐ φοβηθήσομαι�Psalms 3:7).

ἤρξατο λέγειν. The ἤρξατο gives a solemn emphasis to what follows: see on 4:21, and comp. 14:18 and Acts 2:4. It may possibly refer to πρωστον; He began to address the disciples, and then turned to the people. The πρωστον means that His wor were addressed primarily to the disciples, although the people were meant to hear them. After the interruption He addresses the people directly (ver. 15). It makes poor sense to take πρωστον with προσέχετε, “First of all beware” (Tyn. Cr an. Gen.), for to beware of Pharisaic hypocrisy cannot be considered the first of all duties. For other amphibolous constructions see on 2:22.

Προσέχετε ἑαυτοισς�Acts 5:35, Acts 20:28); but in LXX πρόσεχεσεαυτωσͅ is common (Genesis 24:6; Exodus 10:28, 34:12; Deuteronomy 4:9, etc.). For the reflexive see on 21:30.

ἀπὸ τησς ζύμης. This constr. is common after verbs of avoiding, ceasing from, guarding against, and the like; παύω, κωλύω, φυλάσσομαι, κ.τ.λ. Comp. πρόσεχε σεαυτωσͅ�Matthew 7:15, Matthew 7:10:17, Matthew 7:16:6, Matthew 7:11; Deuteronomy 4:23 ?.

This warning seems to have been given more than once (Mark 8:15). Leaven in Scripture is generally a type of evil which corrupts and spreads, disturbing, puffing up and souring that which it influences. The parable of the Leaven (13:20, 21; Matthew 13:33) is almost the only exception. Ignatius (Magnes. 10.) uses it in both a good and a bad sense. In profane literature its associations are commonly bad. The Flamen Dialis was not allowed to touch leaven or leaven bread (Aulus Genius, 10:15): comp. Juv. 3:188. The proverb μικρὰ ζύμη ἅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοις, is used of pernicious influence (1 Corinthians 5:6; Galatians 5:9). Fermentation is corruption.

If τωσν φαρισαίων is rightly placed last (B L), it b epexegetic. “Beware of the leaven which is hypocrisy,—I mean the Pharisees’ leaven.” In Matthew 16:12 “the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees” is interpreted as meaning their doctrine.

2. Οὐδὲν δὲ συγκεκαλυμμένον ἐστιν. “But there is nothing covered up, which shall not,” etc. Hypocrisy is useless, for one day there will be a merciless exposure. It is not only wicked, but senseless.

3.�Ephesians 5:31). But in 1:20, 19:44, Acts 12:23 it =�Matthew 10:26, Matthew 10:27: the application is very different.

ἐν τοῖς ταμείοις … ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτων. “Store chambers” are commonly “inner chambers, secret rooms,” especially in the East, where outer walls are so easily dug through: comp. Matthew 6:6, Matthew 6:24:26; Genesis 43:30; Judges 16:9; 1 Kings 22:25. To this day proclamations are often made from the housetops: comp. ἐπὶ τωσν δωμάτων (Isaiah 15:3; Jeremiah 19:13, Jeremiah 48:38). See D. B.2 i. p. 1407; Renan, Les Evangelis, p. 262 n.

The Latin Versions give a variety of renderings: in cellariis (i l r), in promptalibus (d), in promptuariis (e), in cubilibus (Vulg. (f); om, b q). Comp. ver. 24.

4. Λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν τοῖς φίλοῖ μου. “My friends are not likely to be hypocrites, although persecution will tempt them to become such”: comp. John 15:15.

μὴ φοβηθῆτε�Leviticus 19:30, Leviticus 19:26:2; Deuteronomy 1:29, Deuteronomy 1:3:22, Deuteronomy 1:20:1; Joshua 11:6; 1 Samuel 7:7; Jeremiah 1:8, Jeremiah 1:17; Jer_1 Mac. 2:62, 8:12, etc.). It is not used of fearing God.

μετὰ ταῦτα. The plural may refer to the details of a cruel death, or to different kinds of death. Not in Matthew 10:28.

μὴ ἐχόντων. Lk. is fond of this classical use of ἔχειν: ver. 50, 7:40, 42, 14:14; Acts 14:14, Acts 14:23:17, Acts 14:18, Acts 14:19, Acts 14:25:26, Acts 14:28:19. Here (Matthew 10:28) has μὴ δυναμένων.

5. φοβήθητε τὸν μετὰ τὸ�James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:9); τὸν θεὸν φοβήθητε, τῷ διαβόλῳ�Matthew 10:28), the king with twenty ousand (see on 14:33), and the Unjust Steward (see on 16:1), are perhaps the only passages in which the same words have been interpreted by some of Satan and by others of God.

ἐμβαλεῖν εἰς τὴν γέενναν. Excepting here and James 3:6, γέεννα occurs only in Mt and Mk. in N.T. Not in LXX. The confusion caused in all English Versions prior to RV. by translating both γέεννα and ᾅδης “hell” has been often pointed out. Lft. On Revision, Pp. 87, 88; Trench, On the AV. p. 21. Γέεννα is a transliteration of Ge-Hinnom, “Valley of Hinnom,” where children were thrown into the red-hot arms of Molech. When these abbominations were abolished by Josiah (2 Kings 23:10), refuse of all kinds, including carcases of criminals, was thrown into this valley, and (according to late authorities) consumed by fire, which was ceaselessly burning. Hence it became a symbolical name for the place of punishment in the other world. D. B.2 “Geharma,” “Hinnom,” and “Hell.”

6. πέντε στρουθία …�Psalms 11:1, Psalms 84:4. The Heb. tzippor, which it often represents, is still more commonly generic, and was applied to any variety of small passerine birds, which are specially numerous in Palestine, and were all allowed as food. Tristram, Nat. Hist, of B. P. 201. It is unfortunate that�Matthew 5:26; Mark 12:42) should both be translated “farthing,” while δηνάριον, which was ten to sixteen times as much as an�

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ. A Hebraism, very freq. in Lk. (1:19, 16:15; Acts 4:19, Acts 7:46: comp. Luke 1:6, Luke 1:15, Luke 1:75; Acts 8:21, Acts 10:4). It implies that each bird is individually present to the mind of God. Belief in the minuteness of the Divine care was strong among the Jews: Non est vel minima herbula in terra cui non præfectus sit aliquis in cælo.

7.�Acts 27:34; 1 Samuel 14:45; 2 Samuel 14:11; 1 Kings 1:52; Daniel 3:27.

μὴ φοβεῖσθε … διαφέρετε. “Cease to fear (pres. imper.) … ye are different from, i.e. are superior to”: Matthew 6:26, Matthew 6:12:12; 1 Corinthians 15:41; Galatians 4:1. This use of διαφέρω is classical.

8. Λέγω δὲ ὐμῖν. The “also” of AV. (“Also I say unto you”) is impossible. The fear of men, which lies at the root of hypocrisy, as opposed to the fear of a loving God, appears to the connecting thought.

πᾶς. Nom pend. placed first with much emphasis. For similar constructions comp. 21:6; John 6:39, John 7:38, John 17:2.

ὁμολογήσει ἐν ἐμοί. The expression comes from the Syriac rather than the Hebrew, and occurs only here and Matthew 10:32. The phrase ὄμνυμι ἐν (Matthew 5:4-36) is not quite parallel. Here perhaps the second ὁμολογήσει requires ἐν, and this leads to its being used with the first. That Christ will confess His disciples is not true in the same sense that they will confess Him: but they will make a confession in His case, and He will make a confession in theirs; their confession being that He is the Messiah, and His that they are His loyal disciples. As early as the Gnostic teacher Heracleon (C. a.d. 170-180), the first commentator on the N.T. of whom we have knowledge, this ἐν after ὁμολογήσει attracted notice.1

9.�Matthew 26:34, Matthew 26:75, Mark 14:30, Mark 14:72). In Mt. we have�

10. Comp. Matthew 12:31, Matthew 12:32 and Mark 3:28, Mark 3:29, in both which places this difficult saying is closely connected with the charge brought against our Lord of casting out demons through Beelzebub; a charge recorded by Lk. without this saying (11:15-20). We cannot doubt that Mt. and Mk. give the actual historical connexion, if these words were uttered only once.

πᾶς. Here again Lk. has a favourite word (see on 7, 35): Mt has ὃς ἐάν, and Mk. has ὃς ἄν. Also for εἰς τὸν υἱόν Mt. has κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ. For this use of εἰς After βλασφημεῖν and the like comp. 22:65; Acts 6:11; Hebrews 12:3. After ἁμαρτάνειν it is the regular construction, 15:18, 21, 17:4; Acts 25:8, etc. The Jewish law was, “He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death: all the congregation shall certainly stone him” (Leviticus 24:16).

τὸ ἄγιον πνεῦμα. See on 1:15.

οὐκ ακφεθήσεται. Constant and consummate opposition to the influence of the Holy Spirit, because of a deliberate preference of darkness to light, renders repentance, and therefore forgiveness, morally impossible. Grace, like bodily food, may be rejected until the power to receive it perishes. See on 1 John 5:16 in Camb. Grk. Test., and comp. Hebrews 6:4-8, Hebrews 10:26-31. The identity of the “blasphemy against the Holy Spirit” with the “sin unto death” is sometimes denied (D. B.2 i. P. 442); but a sin which will never be forgiven must be a sin unto death. Schaff’s Herzog, i. p. 302. In each case there is no question of the efficacy of the Divine grace. The state of him who is guilty of this sin is such as to exclude its application (Wsctt. on Hebrews 6:1-8, p. 165). Blasphemy, like lying, may be acted as well as uttered: and it cannot safely be argued that blasphemy against the Spirit must be a sin of speech (Kurzg. Kom. N.T. i. P. 75). See Aug. on Matthew 12:31, Matthew 12:32; also Paschasius Radbertus, Migne, 120:470-472.

11, 12. Comp. 21:14, 15, which is parallel to both Matthew 10:19, Matthew 10:20 and Mark 13:11, but not so close to them in wording as these verses are. The connexion here is evident. There is no need to be afraid of committing this unpardonable blasphemy by illadvised language before a persecuting tribunal; for the Holy Spirit Himself will direct their words.

11. εἰσφέρωσιν ὑμᾶς ἐπὶ τὰς συναγωγάς. In all four passages their being brought before synagogues is mentioned. The elders of the synagogue were responsible for discipline. They held courts, and could sentence to excommunication (6:22; John 9:22, John 12:42, John 16:2), or scourging (Matthew 10:17), which was inflicted by the ὑπηρέτης (see on 4:20). Schürer, Jewish People in the T. of J. C. ii. pp. 59-67 ; Derenbourg, Hist. de la Pal. pp. 86 ff. The�

μὴ μεριμνήσητε πῶς ἤ τί�Romans 2:15 and 2 Corinthians 12:19,�

D 157, a b c d e ff2i l q Syr-Cur. Syr-Sin. Aeth, omit ἤ τί, which may possibly come from Matthew 10:19. If so, this is a Western non-interpolation. See note at the end of ch, 24. WH. bracket.

12. ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ. “In that very hour”: see small print 10:7 and comp. Exodus 4:12 and 2 Timothy 4:17. Renan points out the correspondence between this passage and John 14:26, John 15:26 (V. de J. P. 297, ed. 1863). Comp. Exodus 4:22.

13-15. § The Avaricious Brother rebuked. This incident forms historical introduction to the Parable of the Rich Fool (16-21), just as the lawyer’s questions (10:25-30) form the historical introduction to the Parable of the Good Samaritan. Comp. 14:15, 15:1-3. We are not told whether the man was making an unjust claim on his brother or not; probably not: but he was certainly making an unjust claim on Jesus, whose work did not include settling disputes about property. The man grasped at any means of obtaining what he desired, invading Christ’s time, and trying to impose upon his brother an extraneous authority. Facile ii; qui doctorem spiritualem admirantur, eo delabuntar, ut velint eo abuti ad domestica componenda (Beng.). Compare Christ’s treatment of the questions respecting the payment of the didrachma, the woman taken in adultery, and payment of tribute to Cæsar.

13. εἰπὲ τῷ�

14. Ἄνθρωπε. A severe form of address, rather implying disapprobation or a desire to stand aloof, 22:58, 60; Romans 2:1, Romans 9:20. Comp. Soph. Aj. 791, 1154. As in the case of the lepers whom He healed (5:14, 17:14), Jesus abstains from invading the office of constituted authorities. No one appointed Him (κατέστησεν) to any such office. Comp. Τίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν ἐφʼ ἡμῶν; (Exodus 2:14), words which may have been fliar to this intruder. Comp. John 18:36.

μεριστήν. Here only in N.T. Not in LXX. There is no need to interpret it of the person who actually executes the, sentence of partition pronounced by the κριτής The κριτής who decides for partition is a μεριστής. Syr-Sin. omits.

15. φυλάσσεσθε�1 John 5:21): it is stronger than προσέχετε�

πάσης πλεονεξίας. “Every form of covetousness”: comp. πάντα πειρασμόν, “every kind of temptation” (4:13); πᾶσα ἁμαρτία καὶ βλασφημία (Matthew 12:31). On πλεονεξία “the greedy desire to have more,” as a more comprehensive vice than φιλαργυρία, see Lft. Epp. p. 56 and on Colossians 3:5. He quotes φυλάξασθε οὖν�Jude 1:18.), and somewhat differs from Trench, Syn. xxiv. Jesus, knowing what is at the root of the brother’s unreasonable request, takes the opportunity of warning the whole multitude (πρὸς αὐτούς) against this prevalent and subtle sin.

οὐκ ἐν τῷ περισσεύειν τινι. “Not in the fact that a man has abundance is it the case that his life is the outcome of his possessions”; i.e. it does not follow, because a man has abundance, that his life consists in wealth. Some render, “For not because one has abundance, is his life part of his possessions,” i.e. so that he can secure it. But the other is simpler. Life depends for its value upon the use which we make of τὰ ὑπάρχοντα, and for its prolongation upon the will of God. It is unlikely that ἡ ζωή here means or includes eternal life; but it includes the higher life as distinct from βίος. Comp. οὐ γὰρ ἐν τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τὸ αὔταρκες οὐδʼ ἡ πρᾶξις, δυνατὸν δὲ καὶ μὴ ἄρχοντα γῆς καὶ θαλάττης πράττειν τὰ καλά· καὶ γὰρ�

ἡ χώρα. Comp. 21:21; John 4:35; James 5:4. There is no hint that the man’s wealth was unjustly acquired; and this is some slight confirmation of the view that the brother’s claim was not unjust (ver. 13). There is perhaps a reference to Ecclus. 11:18, 19 or to Psalms 49:16-20.

17. Τί ποιήσω; Comp. Ecclesiastes 5:10.

οὐκ ἔχω ποῦ συνάξω. Quasi musquam essent quibus pascendis possent impendi (Grot.). Inopum sinus, viduarum domus, ora. infantum … istæ sunt apothecæ quæ Maneant in æternum (Ambr.), Note the repetition of μον: “my fruits, my barns, my goods, my soul.” it is just here that there is some resemblance to the story of Nabal: “Shall I take my bread, and my water, and my flesh that I have killed for my shearers and give it unto men of whom I know not whence they be ?” (1 Samuel 25:11): but it is too much to say that there is an evident reference to Nabal.

18. καθελῶ First with emphasis: he is eager to set to work. But pauperum nulla mentio (Beng.). Comp.�Revelation 22:19; and see Veitch, p. 25. Note the chiasumus between καθελῶ and οἰκοδομήσω.

The text of the words which follow καὶ συνάξω ἐκεῖ is much confused, but πάντα τὸν σῖτον καὶ τὰ�

WH. give the evidence in full (ii. p. 103), and regard it as a marked instance of conflation. Comp. 9:10, 11:51, 24:51 The main facts are these. The expression τὰ γενήματα is very common in LXX for the fruits of the earth, arid the phrase συνάγειν τὰ γενήματα Occurs Exodus 23:10; Leviticus 25:20; Jeremiah 8:13. The familiar τὰ γενήματά μου was substituted in some documents for the unusual combination τὸν σῖτον καὶ τὰ�

(α) τὸν σῖτον [μου] καὶ τὰ�

κείμενα εἰς ἔτη πολλά·�James 4:13-17; Proverbs 27:1; Ecclus. 29:12:, and with φάγε, πίε comp. Tobit 7:10 and the remarkable parallel Ecclus. 11:19. The asyndeton marks the man’s confidence and eagerness.

20. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Θεός. This is a parable, not history. It is futile to ask how God spoke to him. For Ἄφρων see on 9:40 and 24:5. The ταύτῇ τῇ νυκτί is placed first in emphatic contrast to the ἔτη πολλά. See Schanz, pp, 347, 348.

τὴν ψυχήν σου αἰτοῦσιν�2 Corinthians 11:20; and see the parallel lesson Wisd. 15:8. For the impersonal plural comp. vv. 11, 48, 6:38, 16:9, 23:31. There is no need to think of ἄγγελοι θανατηφόροι (Job 33:23), or of λῃσται (10:30).

ἂ δὲ ἡτοίμασας, τίνι ἔσται; Vulg. Rhem. and RV. preserve the telling order: quæ autem parasti cujus erunt? “And the things which thou hast prepared, whose shall they be?” Comp. Psalms 39:6, 49:6; Ecclesiastes 2:18-23; Job 27:17-22. When not even his ψυχή is his own to dispose of, what will become of his�

21. θησαυρίζων αὑτῷ. Comp. Matthew 6:19; 2 Corinthians 12:14; and for the εἰς before Θεόν comp. 16:8. It is to be regretted that the εἰς is rendered differently in the two passages in both AV. (“in, towards”) and RV. (“for, toward”). “Being rich toward God” means being rich in those things which are pleasing to Him. Amassing wealth without reference to the God who bestows it is πλεονεξία, and πλεονεξία is�

The change from αὐτῷ to εἰς Θεόν, instead of Θεῷ, is intentional, and Juvenal’s dives tibi, pauper amicis (v. 113) is not quite parallel, nor at Hecato in Cic. De Off. iii. 15. 63: Neque enim solum nobis divites esse volumus, sed liberis, propinquis, amicis, maximeque rei publicæ. The whole verse is omitted in D and a b d.

22-53. God’s Providential Care and the Duty of Trust in Him (22-34) and of Watchfulness for the Kingdom (35-48) which Christ came to found (49-53). The address to the people (vv. 15-21) being ended, Jesus once more turns specially to the disciples; and it should be noticed that in doing so He no longer speaks in parables. That what follows was spoken on the same occasion as what precedes seen, to be intended by Lk., but is not stated. The διὰ τοῦτο is included in the traditional report (see Matthew 6:25), and proves nothing as to the original historical connexion. It is more to the point to notice that covetousness and hoarding are the result of want of trust in God (Hebrews 13:5), and that an exhortation to trust in God’s fatherly care follows naturally on a warning against covetousness. There is logical, but not necessarily chronological connexion. More convincing is the coincidence between details. The mention of sowing, reaping, store-chamber, and barn (ver. 24) may havedirect reference to the abundant harvests and insufficient barns in the parable (vv. 17, 18). But it does not follow, because this lesson was given immediately after the parable of the Rich Fool, that therefore it was not part of the Sermon on the Mount; any more than that, because it was delivered there, it cannot have been repeated here.

22. Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητάς. Note both the δέ and the πρός and comp. ver. 16, 7:50, 9:13, 14, 59, 62, etc. Assuming a connexion with what precedes, Διὰ τοῦτο will mean, “Because life does not depend on riches.”

μὴ μεριμνᾶτε. “Be not anxious”: comp. ver. 11 and 10:41. See Lft. On Revision, 2nd ed. p. 190; Trench, On the A.V. p. 39; T. L. O. Davies, Bible English, p. 100, for evidence that “thought” in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries meant distressing anxiety. Comp. 1 Samuel 9:5 with 10:2. S. Paul reiterates Christ’s teaching (1 Corinthians 7:32 ; Philippians 4:6).

τῇ ψυχῇ. Not, “in your soul,” but, “for your soul.” Here again the reference to the parable (ψυχή, φάγε) seems to be direct. If so, the necessity for translating ψυχή in the same way in both passages is all the stronger. The ψυχή is the source of physical life and physical enjoyment.

23. πλεῖόν ἐστιν τῆς τροφῆς. “Is something greater than the food” (comp. 11:31, 32). Therefore He who gave the greater will not fail to provide the less.

24. κατανοήσατε. A favourite verb: see on ver. 27, Mt. has ἐμβλέψατε; and for τοὺς κόρακας he has τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. Ravens are mentioned nowhere else in N. T., but often in O. T. See especially τίς δὲ ἡτοίμασεν κόρακι βοράν (Job 38:41), and καὶ διδόντι τοῖς κτήνεσι τροφὴν αὐτῶν καὶ τοῖς νοσσοῖς τῶν κοράκων τοῖς ἐπικαλουμένοις αὐτόν (Psalms 147:9). The name (Heb. ˒oreb) covers the whole of the crow tribe (including rooks and jackdaws) which is strongly represented in Palestine. Like the vulture, the raven acts as a scavenger: but it is a fable that it turns its young out of the nest, leaving them to feed themselves, and that this is the point of our Lord’s mention of them. The raven is very careful of its young; and God feeds both old and young. Tristram, Nat. Hist. of B. pp. 198-201.

Here Vulg. b f l have cellarium for ταμεῖον, while d has promptuarium See on ver. 3.

διαφέρετε τῶν πετεινῶν. See on ver. 7. “The birds are God’s creatures; but ye are God’s children”: ὁ πατὴρ ὑῶν (Mt), not αὐτῶν.

25. Τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑῶν. See on 11:5.

μεριμνῶν δύναται ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν προσθεῖναι πῆχυν. “By being anxious can add a span to his age.” That ἡλικία here means “age” (Hebrews 11:11; John 9:21, John 9:23), and not “stature” (19:3), is clear from the context. It was prolongation of life that the; anxiety of the rich fool failed to secure. Not many people give anxious, thought to the problem of adding to their stature; and the addition of a πῆχυς (the length of the forearm) would be monstrous, and would not be spoken of as ἐλάχιστον. Many persons do give anxious thought to the prolongation of their allotted age, and that by any amount, great or small. Wetst. quotes Mimnermus, πηχύϊον ἐπὶ χρόνον ἄνθεσιν ἥβης τερπόμεθα. See on 2:52, where ἡλικία probably means stature. For πῆχυς see D. B.1 iii. pp. 1736 ff.; and for the literature on Hebrew Weights and Measures, Schaff’s Herzog, iv. P. 2486; Hastings, D.C.G.M ii. p. 818.

26. εἰ οὖν οὐδὲ ἐλάχιστον δύνασθε. These words have no equivalent Mt. and are omitted in D, which for the whole verse has simply καὶ περὶ τῶν λοιπῶν τί μεριμνᾶτε. So also a b c d ff2 i l r: et de cæteris quid solliciti estis. By τῶν λοιπῶν are meant clothing (Mt.), food, and other bodily necessities.

For οὐδέ we might have expected μηδέ. But εἰ=ἐπεί and the sentence conditional in form only. “If (as is certain) ye cannot” = “Since ye cannot.” Comp. John 3:12, John 3:5:47; 1 Corinthians 11:6; Hebrews 12:25. Win. lv. 2. a, pp 600 Or we may consider οὐδέ as belonging to δύνασθε, and not to the whole sentence “If ye are unable.” Simcox, Lang. of N.T. p. 183. But the former is better.

27. τὰ κρίνα. Mt. adds τοῦ�Song of Solomon 5:13). Either the scarlet Martagon (Lilium Chalcedonicum) or the scarlet anemone (anemone coronaria) may be the flower that is thus named. Like στρουθία, however (ver. 7), κρίνα may be generic; and to this day the Arabs call various kinds of flowers “lilies.” See D.B. art. “Lily”; and comp. Stanley, Sin. & Pal. pp. 139, 430. Note that, while Mt. has καταμανθάνειν, Lk. has his favourite κατανοεῖν (ver. 24, 6:41, 20:23; Acts 7:31, Acts 7:32, Acts 7:11:6, Acts 7:27:39). For κοπιᾷ see on 5:5 : it covers the works of men νήθει that of women.

After τὰ κρίνα πῶς D has οὔτε νήθει οὔτε ὑφαίνει, while d has quomodo neque neunt neque texunt, and a has quomodo non texunt neque neunt. Several other Lat. texts have texunt. Thus, quomodo crescunt non laborant neque neunt neque texunt (b l r) ; quomodo crescunt non next neque texunt (c); quomodo crescunt non laborant non neunt texunt (ff2); and, by a curious slip, quomodo non crescunt non laborant neque neunt neque texunt (i).

28. εἰ δὲ ἐν�Psalms 20:9; Hosea 7:1, etc.); ἰπνός neither in LXX nor in N.T. Wood being scarce in Palestine, grass is commonly used as fuel. For�Job 29:14, Job 31:19), see Veitch.

29. καὶ ὑμεῖς μὴ ζητεῖτε. “And do you cease to seek”: comp Ver. 11, 6:30, 37, 7:13, 8:49, 50, 52, etc. Mt. has the aor. μεριμνήσητε.

μὴ μετεωρίζεσθε. In class. Grk. and in LXX (Psalms 130:1; Psa_2 Mac, 5:17, 2 Mac, 7:34) this would probably mean, “Be not lifted up, do not exalt yourselves, seek not high things.” So the Vulg. nolite in sublime tolli. Old Latin texts differ: nolite solliciti esse; nec solliciti sitis (c); non abalienetis vos (d): and many omit the passage. Luth. fahret nicht hoch her. Tyn. Cov. and Cran. “neither clyme ye up an high.” But most commentators interpret it as a metaphor from ships tossing at sea: “Waver not anxiously, not tossed about with cares.” Comp. μετέωρον ἐν φόβῳ of a criminal expecting punishment (Jos. B. J. iv. 2, 5); and see S. Cox, who turns the word into a parable, Expositor, 1st series, 1. P. 249, 1875. Edersheim contends for the LXX meaning, “be not uplifted” (L. & T. 2. p. 217). The verb is one of the rarer which are common to N.T., Philo, and Plutarch.

30. ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα. This is the right combination; not πάντα τὰ ἔθνη: hæc enim omnia gentes mundi quærunt. The heathen seek anxiously after all these things, because they know nothing of God’s providential care. The phrase τὰ ἔθνη τοῦ κόσμου occurs nowhere else in N.T. or LXX, but represents an Aramaic expression common in Rabbinical writings.

The plural verb shows that the different nations are considered distributively; and the compound expresses the anxiety with which they seek. Each nation seeks laboriously after the sum-total of these things. On the difference between ταῦτα πάντα here and πάντα ταῦτα, Matthew 6:32, see Win. lxi. 2, b, p. 686. In both places ἐπιζητοῦσιν is the true reading, and ἐπιζητεῖ a grammatical correction.

ὑμῶν δὲ ὁ πατήρ. But you, who know that you have such a Father, have no need to be disturbed about these wants.

31. Lk. alone has his favourite πλήν. See on 6:24. “But (dismissing all this useless anxiety) continue to seek,” etc. Mt. adds πρῶτον to ζητεῖτε.

Origen quotes εἶπε γὰρ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ Αἰτεῖτε τὰ μεγάλα καὶ τὰ μικρὰ ὑμῖν προστεθήσεται, καὶ αἰτεῖτε, καὶ αἰτεῖτε τὰ ἐπουράνια καὶ τὰ ἐπίγεια προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν (De Orat. § 2). Comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 24, P. 416, ed. Potter, and iv. 6, p. 579.

32. This verse has no parallel in Mt., and it is the only verse in this section which is entirely without equivalent in the Sermon on the Mount. The passage reads so well both with and without it, that it is difficult to see why it should have been either inserted or omitted without authority. In it the Good Shepherd assures His flock that, while the anxious seeking of the ὀλιγόπισται after god and raiment is vain, their seeking after the Kingdom of God will not be vain. He gives the Kingdom to those who seek it, and with it gives the necessaries of life. Whereas those who neglect the Kingdom that they may secure the necessaries, may lose both. Κύριος ποιμαίνει με, καὶ οὐδέν με ὑστερήσει (Psalms 23:1). The μικρὸν ποίμνιον are the disciples as contrasted with the μυριάδες τοῦ ὄχλου (ver. 1).

ποίμνιον = ποιμένιον, which is not a diminutive, and therefore μιπρόν is neither superfluous nor an epithet of affection, hut an expression of fact. On the nom. with the art. for the voc. see on 10:21; and for εὐδόκησεν see Lft. on Colossians 1:19, and comp. Romans 15:26.

33. The first half of this verse (to παλαιούμενα) has no parallel in Mt. As in 6:29, 30, we have a rule given, not that it may be kept literally, but that it may illustrate a principle. So far as attachment to our possessions is concerned, we must be ready to part with them (1 Corinthians 7:30). Our fondness for them is not our justification for keeping them. But there is no Ebionism here, no condemnation of possessions as sinful.1 As Bede points out, Christians are not commanded to retain nothing for their own use (for Christ Himself had a purse out of which He gave alms), but to take care that fear of poverty does not interfere with benevolence. Almsgiving is not to be a mere giving of what we can spare. Nor is it merely for the sake of the receiver. It is also for the good of the giver, that his heart may be freed from covetousness. The attempt to keep the letter of the rule here given (Acts 2:44, Acts 2:45) had disastrous effects on the Church of Jerusalem, which speedily became a Church of paupers, constantly in need of alms (Romans 15:25, Romans 15:26; 1 Corinthians 16:3; 2 Corinthians 8:4, 2 Corinthians 9:1). For τὰ ὑπάρχοντα see on 8:3; and for βαλλάντια see on 10:4.

ἀνέκλειπτον. Not elsewhere in N.T. or LXX. Comp. 16:9, 22:32; and, for the command, Mark 10:41. Heaven is not to be bought with money; but, by almsgiving, what would be a hindrance is made a help.2 In σής the reference perhaps is to costly garments, which are a favourite form of wealth in the East. The word occurs Isaiah 50:9, 51:8; Job 4:19, 27:18; Proverbs 14:30; but in N.T. only here and Matthew 6:19.

34. Almost verbatim as Matthew 6:21. S. Paul states a similar principle 1 Corinthians 7:32-34. Wealth stored up in this world has any enemies; that which is stored in heaven is safe from them all. The γάρ is specially to be noted. The reason why treasure must be stored in heaven is that the hearts of those who bestow it may be drawn heavenwards.

35-48. The Duty of Loyal Vigilance. From ver, 35 to ver. 38 this section has no parallel in Mt. The interpellation of Peter (ver. 41) is also peculiar to Lk. But vv. 39, 40 and 42-46 are parallel to Matthew 24:43-51. The discourse once more takes a parabolic turn, watchfulness being inculcated by the parables of the Master’s Return (35-38, 42-48) and of the Thief’s Attack (39, 40).

35. Ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέαι. The long garments of the East are a fatal hindrance to activity. Comp. 17:8; Acts 12:8; 1 Kings 18:46; 2 Kings 4:29, 2 Kings 4:9:1; Job 38:3, Job 38:40:7; Jeremiah 1:17 Tristram, Eastern Customs in Bible Lands, p. 158. Note the emphatic position of ὑμῶν and ὑμεῖς. “Whatever others may do, this is to be your condition.”

οἱ λύχνοι καιόμενοι, κ.τ.λ. This is the parable of the Ten Virgins condensed (Matthew 25:1).

36. προσδεχομένοις. Expectantibus (Vulg.) cum desiderio et gaudio (Bang.): comp. 2:25, 38, 23:51.

πότε ἄαλύσῃ ἐκ τῶν γάμων. If the rendering “when he shall return from,” etc., is correct, this is the only place in N.T. in which the verb has this meaning: Comp. 2 Mac. 8:25, 13:7, 15:28; 3 Mac. 5:21; Wisd. 2:1. The more usual sense is “break up (a feast, camp, etc.), depart”: comp. Philippians 1:23; Judith 13:1; 2 Mac. 9:1: and this may be the meaning here. See instances in Wetst. So Luther, wenn er aufbrechen wird. The wedding is not his own, but that of a friend which he has been attending. In Esther (2:18, 9:22) γάμοι is used of any banquet or festival: but the literal meaning is better here.1

For the plural of a single marriage feast comp. 14:8; Matthew 22:2, Matthew 25:10, and suee Win. 27:3, p. 219. For the constr. ἴνα έλθότος …�

37. περιζώσεται καὶ�Revelation 3:20, Revelation 3:21. Christ acted in this way when He washed the disciples’ feet: not, however, in gratitude for their faithful vigilance, but to teach them humility. Nevertheless, that was a type of what is promised here: comp. Revelation 19:9. References to the Saturnalia, when Roman masters and slaves changed places in sport, are here quite out of place. The parable 17:7-10 sets forth the usual course between master and man.

38. δευτέρᾳ. The first watch is not mentioned, because then the wedding-feast was going on. These are probably the two last of the three Jewish watches (Judges 7:19), not the two middle watches of the Roman four (Mark 13:35; Acts 12:4). See on 22:34 and D. B. art. “Watches of Night.” In D, Marcion, Irenæus, and some other authorities, the first watch (τῇ ἑσπερινῇ φυλακῇ) is inserted: WH. 2. App. p. 61.

39. γινώσκετε. Probably indic. But Vulg. Luth. Beza, and all English Versions make it imperat. There is nothing strange in the sudden change of metaphor, especially in Oriental language. The “thief in the night” is a proverb for unexpected events (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Peter 3:10; Revelation 3:3, Revelation 16:15). Comp. the changes of metaphor in the parallel passage Matthew 24:40-44.

ἀφῆκεν. “Left his house” (RV.). AV., makes no distinction between�Matthew 24:43, rendering both “suffered.” But the RV. elsewhere renders�Mark 4:29.

διορυχθῆναι. “To be dug through,” the walls being made of mud. Wic. has “to be myned” here and “to be undermynyde” in Mt. for perfodiri of Vulg. Comp. διώρυξεν ἐν σκότει οἰκίας (Job 24:16); ἐὰν δὲ ἐν τῷ διορύγματι εὑρεθῇ ὁ κλέτης (Exodus 22:2); οὐκ ἐν διορύγμασιν εὗρον αὐτούς (Jeremiah 2:34).

41. Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος. This interruption should be compared with that in 9:33. Each of them connects the discourse in which it appears with a definite incident. It illustrates Peter’s impulsiveness and his taking the lead among the Twelve. Perhaps it was the magnificence of the promise in ver. 37 which specially moved him. He wants to know whether this high privilege is reserved for the Apostles. For παραβολὴν λέγεις see on 36, and for πρός = “in reference to” comp. 18:1; Romans 10:21; Hebrews 1:7, Hebrews 1:8, Hebrews 1:11:18, and possibly Luke 19:9 and 20:19. Here πρός ἡμᾶς comes first with emphasis.

ἢ καὶ πρὸς πάντας. Peter is sure that it has reference to the Twelve: the question is whether others are included. The employment of parables would make him suppose that the multitude was being addressed, as in ver. 16; for Jesus did not commonly employ this kind of teaching with His permanent disciples. The spirit of the question resembles John 21:21, and the answer resembles John 21:22. In Mark 13:37 we have what looks like a direct answer to the question here askcd by S. Peter, “What I say to you I say to all, Watch.”

42. Τίς ἄρα ἐστίν. Christ answers one question by another which does not tell the questioner exactly what he wishes to know, but what it concerns him to know. It is enough that each who hears recognizes that he is an οἰκανόμος with responsibilities. This was true in the highest sense of the Apostles. The οἰκονόμος here is a dispensator (Vulg.) or villicus (d), a superior slave left in charge of the household and estate (see on 16:1). Other names are ordinarius, actor, procurator, the meanings of which seem to have varied at different periods and on different estates. Becker, Gallus, Excursus 3. p. 204, Eng. tr. Hatch seems to assume that dispenstor and villicus were terms of fixed and invariable meaning (Bibl. Grk. p. 62). With πιστός comp. Numbers 12:7; 1 Samuel 22:14; and with φρόνιμος comp. 16:8; Genesis 41:39. With θεραπείας (abstr. for concr.) comp. ἐχάρη δὲ Φαραὼ καὶ ἡ θεραπεία αὐτοῦ (Genesis 45:16). Contrast Luke 9:11.

σιτομέτριον. “A measured portion of food, ration.” These rations on Roman estates were served out daily, weekly, or monthly. The word occurs nowhere else, but σιτομτρεῖν is found (Genesis 47:12, Genesis 47:14). Comp. Hor. Ep. i. 14. 40. See instances in Wetst, and in Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 158.


ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν αὐτοῦ. See on 8:3. This passage and Matthew 24:47 seem to be the only instances in N.T. of this use of ἐπί. Elsewhere we have the gen. (ver. 42) or acc. (ver. 14), the former being more common (Matthew 24:45, Matthew 24:25:21, Matthew 24:23).

45. Χρονίζει ὁ κύριός μου. Comp. 2 Peter 3:3, 2 Peter 3:4; Ecclesiastes 8:11. The “But and if” of AV. is simply “But if” (RV.); “and if” being “an if,” a double conditional, which was common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

ἄρξηται. He begins to do this, but the arrival of his lord puts a stop to it: comp. 21, 13:25; Acts 11:15. This οἰκονόμος has a large familia of slaves under him. Perhaps he makes merry on what he ought to have given them. For παιδίσκκη as a vernacular word for a female slave see Kennedy, Sources of N.T. Grk. p. 40. Μεθύσκεσθαι is “to get drunk,” as distiract. μεθύειν “to be drunk” (Acts 2:15).

46. For the attraction in ἐν ὥρᾳ ᾗ οὐ γινώσκεν see on 3:19.

διχοτομήσει. To be understood literally; for his having his portion with the unfaithful servants does not imply that he still lives: their portion is a violent death. For the word comp. Exodus 29:17; and for the punishment 2 Samuel 12:31; 1 Chronicles 20:3; Susannah 59; Amos 1:3 (LXX); Hebrews 11:37. There is no example of the word being used of scourging or other severe treat ment. There is a gradation of punishments: for vile misconduct and tyranny, death; for deliberate neglect, many stripes; for unintentional neglect, few stripes. Herodotus uses διατέμνειν: ii. 139, 2, 7:39, 5. Comp. Suet. Caligula, 27: multos honesti ordinis … medios serra dissecuit.

τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν�Isaiah 17:14; Jeremiah 13:25.

Here the parallel with Matthew 24:43-51 ends. What follows is preserved by Lk. alone.

47. ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὁ δοῦλος. “But that servant,” Ille autem servus. Both AV. and RV. have “and.” The δέ marks the contrast between this transgressor and the οἰκονόμος, for μὴ ἑτοιμάσας ἢ ποιήσας πρὸς τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ is a less serious offence than the outrages which are described in vv. 45, 46, and one which all servants may commit.

δαρήσεται πολλάς. Understand πληγάς and comp. παίειν ὁλίγας (Xen. Anab. v. 8. 12). In N.T. δέρω is never “I flay,” but always “I beat.” Comp. the vulgar “hide, giving a hiding to.” In LXX δέρω does not occur, except as v.l. in Leviticus 1:6; 2 Chronicles 29:34, 2 Chronicles 29:35:11; but in all three places the meaning is “flay,” and the true reading possibly ἐκδέρω. Comp. Micah 2:8, Micah 3:3. The doctrine of degrees of punishment hereafter is taught here still more plainly than in 10:12, 14. See Aug. De Civ. Dei, xxi. 16.

There are two classes not mentioned here: ὁ γνοὺς καὶ ποιήσας and (so far as that is possible) ὁ μὴ γνοὺς καὶ ποιήσας: see on Romans 2:14.

48. ὁ μὴ γνούς. Seeing that he is a servant, he might have known his master’s will, had he been anxious to find it out. Nevertheless it is true that even he, who, in ignorance for which he is not responsible, commits ἄξια πληγῶν, has to suffer. The natural consequences of excess or transgression must follow.

In the second half of the verse it is doubtful whether the two parallel statements mean exactly the same thing or not. Either, “He who receives much is expected to exhibit much gratitude, and also readiness to make return; and is expected to do more than those who have received less”: or, “He who receives a gift (ἐδόθη), must make a proportionate return: and be who receives a deposit (παρέθεντο), must restore more than he has received.” In the latter case the second half states the principle of the parables of the Talents and the Pounds Note the impersonal plurals, and comp. ver. 20.

49-58. The discourse seems to return to its starting-point (vv. 1-2). Christ’s teaching inevitably provokes opposition and a vision between those who accept it and those who reject it. There is no parallel in Mt. or Mk. to vv. 49, 50.

49. Πῦρ. First for emphasis. “It is fire that I came to cast upon the earth.” The context seems to show that the fire of division and strife is meant: or, comparing 3:16, we may understand the fire of holiness, which excites hostility and controversy. Ignis ille non est nativus terræ (Beng.). Εἰς κρίμα ἐγὼ εἰς τὸν κόσμον τοῦτον ἦλθον (John 9:39: comp. 3:19).

καὶ τί ωέλω εἰ ἤδη�Joshua 7:7. Or, with De Wette, Weiss, and many others, “How I wish that it were already kindled!” which does rather serious violence to the Greek. Or, with Origen, Meyer, etc., we may punctuate, καὶ τί θέλω; εἰ ἤδη�John 12:27. Perhaps the first is best, meaning, “What more have I to desire, if it be already kindled.” The next verse does not imply that it is not kindled; and the history of Christ’s ministry shows that it was not kindled, although not to the full extent. Comp. Psalms 78:21. Christ came to set the world on fire, and the conflagration had already begun. Malachi 3:2. Comp. the constr. in Ecclus. 23:14.

50. βάπτισμα δὲ ἔχω βαπτισθῆναι. Having used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water. The one sets forth the result of His owning as it affects the world, the other as it affects Himself. The world is lit up with flames, and Christ is bathed in blood: Mark 10:38. His passion is a flood in which He must be plunged. The metaphor is a common one in O.T. Psalms 69:2, Psalms 69:3, Psalms 69:14, Psalms 69:15, Psalms 42:7, Psalms 124:4, Psalms 69:5, 144:7; Isaiah 43:2. Jordan in flood and mountain torrents in spate would suggest such figures. See on 9:22.

πῶς συνέχομαι ἔως ὅτου τελεσθῇ. “How am I oppressed, afflictect until it be finished”: comp. 8:37; Job 3:24. The prospect of His sufferings was a perpetual Gethsemane: comp. John 12:27. While He longed to accomplish His Father’s will, possibly His human will craved a shortening of the waiting. Comp. συνέχομαι δὲ ἐκ τῶν δύο (Philippians 1:23). With τελεσθῇ comp. τελέλεσται, John 19:28, John 19:30

51. With vv. 51. and 53 comp. Matthew 10:34, Matthew 10:35. It was the belief of the Jews that the Messiah would at once introduce a reign of peace and prosperity. Jesus does not wish His followers to live in a fool’s paradise. He is no enthusiast making wild and delusive promises. In this world they must expect tribulation.

ἀλλʼ ἤ. “Except I but.” Although the�2 Corinthians 1:13; Job 6:5; Ecclus. 37:12, 44:10. The expression is common in class. Grk.; and in Hdt. i. 49. I, ix. 8, 3 the origin of it seems to be shown. See Stallbaum on Phædo, 81 B; Win. liii:7. n. 5, p. 552.

διαμρισμός. Comp. Micah 7:12; Ezekiel 48:29; here only in N. T. Again Christ prepares them for disappointment.

52. This verse has no parallel in Mat_10 Comp. Micah 7:6, on which what follows seems to be based. Godet says that there are five persons here and six in ver. 53 There are five in both cases, the mother and mother-in-law being the same person. Excepting 2 Corinthians 5:16,�Acts 18:6). It is not rare in LXX (Genesis 46:30; Psalms 112:2, 113:26, 120:8, Psalms 124:2, Psalms 130:3, Isaiah 9:7, etc.).

53. πατὴρ ἐπὶ υἱῷ … μήτηρ ἐπὶ θυγατέρα … πενθερὰ ἐπὶ τὴν νύμφην. The change from the dat. to the ace. possibly indicates that the hostility is more intense in the case of the women. But LXX of Micah 7:6 more probably was the cause of the change. There we home ἐπὶ τήν of the women, but υἱὸς�Matthew 10:35 we have κατά c. gen. in all three cases. Lk. omits “A man’s foes shall be those of his own household.” Comp. Malachi 4:6.

For νύμφη = “daughter-in-law” comp. Matthew 10:35; Genesis 11:31, 38:11; Leviticus 18:15, etc.; Jos. Ant. v. 9, 1 In John 3:29; Revelation 18:23, etc., it has the classical meaning of “bride.”

54-59. § Ignorance of the Signs of the Times. Christ once more addresses the multitude (ver. 15), apparently on the same occasion; but it is by no means certain that Lk. means this. If so, this is a last solemn word by way of conclusion. The parallel passage Matthew 16:2, Matthew 16:3 is of very doubtful authority. It can hardly be derived from Lk., from which it differs almost entirely in wording, but perhaps comes from some independent tradition.

54. Ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ. The formula is suitable for introducing a final utterance of special point. Comp. 5:36, 9:23, 16:1, 18:1. For τοῖς ὄχλοις see on 11:29.

ἐπὶ δυσμῶν. In the West, and therefore from the Mediterranean Sea, which was a sign of rain (1 Kings 18:44). Robinson, Res. in Psa_1. p. 429; D.B. art. “Rain.”

εὐθέως λέγετε ὄτι Ὄμβρος ἔρχεται. Both the εὐθέως and the pres. ἔρχεται point to the confidence with which the announcement is made: “at once ye say, Rain is coming.” Comp. ἔρχεται ὥρα. Ὄμβρος is “heavy rain, a thunder-shower”: Deuteronomy 32:2; Wisd. 16:16; Ecclus. 49:9; Jos. Ant. ii. 16, 3.

55. ὅταν νότον ονέοντα. Understand ἴδητε. One sees, that it is a south wind by the objects which it moves. Lk. alone uses νότος of the south wind (Acts 27:13, Acts 28:13). Elsewhere it means the South, as frequently in LXX (11:31, 13:29; Matthew 12:42; Revelation 21:13; 1 Samuel 27:10, 30:1, 14, 27; 2 Samuel 24:7; 1 Kings 7:25, 1 Kings 7:39 [13, 25], etc.).

καύσων. “Scorching heat”: Matthew 20:12; James 1:11; Isaiah 49:10; Ecclus. 18:16, 43:22. Perhaps nowhere in N.T. does καύσων mean the burning east wind (Job 27:21; Hosea 12:1); but James 1:11 is doubtful.

56. ὑποκριταί. Comp. Matthew 23:14 ff. They professed to be unable to interpret signs, such as the birth, preaching, and death of the Baptist, the preaching and miracles of Jesus. But their weather-wisdom proved that they could be intelligent enough where their worldly interests were concerned.

δοκιμάζειν. “To test.” In τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ and καιρόν we have almost the only words that are common to this passage and Matthew 16:2, Matthew 16:3. With τὸν καιπόν (tempus Messiæ) comp. 19:44.

57. τί δὲ καὶ αιφʼ ἑαυτῶν. “But why even of yourselves, out of your own hearts and consciences,” without information from externals: comp. 21:30. Or possibly, “Of yourselves also, ” as readily (εὐθέως) as in the case of the weather. In either case�

58. ὡς γὰρ ὑπάεις. γὰρ sæpe ponitur, ubi propositionem excipit tractatio. Here ειν τῇ ὁδῷ stands first with emphasis; no time is to be lost. And the Latinism δὸς ειργασίαν, da operam, occurs here only. Wetst. quotes Heremogenes, De Inventione, iii. 5, 7. Excepting Ephesians 4:19, ἐργασία in N.T. is peculiar to Lk. (Acts 16:16, Acts 16:19, Acts 16:19:24, Acts 16:25). Hobart regards it as medical (p. 243), but it is very freq. in LXX. Note ὡς = “when.”

ἀπηλλάχθαι. “To he quit of him” by coming to terms with him. Christ is perhaps taking the the case of the two brothers (vv. 13, 14) as an illustration. The ὰπό before the αὐτοῦ is omitted in B, but is certainly right Acts 19:12. In class. Grk. both constructions are found, but the simple gen. is more common. Plat. Leg. 868 D; Xen. Mem. ii. 9, 6.

κατασύρῃ. Here only in N.T. and only once in LXX of ruining or demolishing: ὅτι ἐγὼ κατέσυρα τὸν Ἠσαῦ (Jeremiah 49:10). In Lat. detraho is used of dragging into court. For examples see Wetst. Mt. has παραδῷ τῷ κπιτῇ.

παραδώσει τῷ πράκτορι καὶ ὁ πράκτωρ σε βαλεῖ εἰς φυλακήν. Tradat te exactori et exactor mittat to in carcerem (Vulg.). For exactor Cod. Palat (e) has the strange word pignerarius. No where else in bibl. Grk. does πράκτωρ occur. At Athens the magistrate who imposed a fine gave notice to the πράκτορες, who entered it as due from the person fined; but they did not enforce payment, if the fine was not paid. They merely kept the record. See D. of Ant.2 art. Practores. For πράκτορι Mt. has ὑπηρέτῃ.

59. λέγω σοι. He addresses each individual. Mt. has�Mark 12:42. Can the payment be made ἐν φυλακῇ? The parable gives no answer to this question. But it teaches that the proper time for payment is before judgment is given, and that release is impossible until full payment is made. The Talmud says: “The offences between man and God the Day of Atonement Both atone for. The offences between man and his neighbour the Day of Atonement atoneth for, only when he hath agreed with his neighbour.” There is no need to interpret the details in the parable, and make the�

Tyn. Tyndale.

Gen. Geneva.

B B. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. 4. In the Vatican Library certainly since 15331 (Batiffol, La Vaticane de Paul 3, etc., p. 86).

L L. Cod. Regius Parisiensis, sæc. viii. National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

Vulg. Vulgate.

D. B. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2nd edition.

RV. Revised Version.

AV. Authorized Version.

1 The fragment of Heracleon, preserved by Clem. Alex. Strom. iv. 9, is translated by Westcott, Canon of N.T. P, 275, 3rd ed. syr-Sin. omits v. 9.

Wsctt. Westcott.

Aug. Augustine.

D D. Cod. Bezae, sæc. vi. Given by Beza to the University Library at Cambridge 1581. Greek and Latin. Contains the whole Gospel.

Syr Syriac.

Cur. Curetonian.

Sin. Sinaitic.

WH. Westcott and Hort.

V. de J. Vie de Jésus.

§ Found in Luke alone.

Beng. Bengel.

Grot. Grotius.

Ambr. Ambrose.

אԠאa contemporary, or nearly so, and representing a second MS. of high value;

אԠאc attributed to the beginning of sæc. 7. Two hands of about this date are sometimes distinguished as אca and אcb

T T. Cod. Borgianus, sæc. v. In the Library of the Propaganda at Rome. Greek and Egyptian. Contains 22:20-23:20.

X X. Cod. Monacensis, sæc. ix. In the University Library at Munich. Contains 1:1-37, 2:19-3:38, 4:21-10:37, 11:1-18:43, 20:46-24:53.

Harcl. Harclean.

Boh. Bohairic.

Sah. Sahidic.

Aeth. Ethiopic.

Arm. Armenian.

אԠא Cod. Sinaiticus, sæc. iv. Brought by Tischendorf from the Convent of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai; now at St. Petersburg. Contains the whole Gospel complete.

A A. Cod. Alexandrinus, sæc. v. Once in the Patriarchal Library at Alexandria; sent by Cyril Lucar as a present to Charles 1. in 1628, and now in the British Museum. Complete.

F F. Cod. Boreeli, sæc. ix. In the Public Library at Utrecht. Contains considerable portions of the Gospel.

G G. Cod. Harleianus, sæc. ix. In the British Museum. Contains considerable portions.

Wetst. Wetstein.

Rhem. Rheims (or Douay).

Tristram, Tristram, Natural History of the Bible.

D. B. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 1st edition.

Win. Winer, Grammar of N.T. Greek (the page refers to Moulton’s edition).

Luth. Luther.

Cov. Coverdale.

Jos. Josephus.

L. & T. Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.

Clem. Alex. Clement of Alexandria.

1 On the alleged Ebionism of Lk. see Introd. § 3. b, and also Alexander, Leading Ideas of flu Gospels, pp. 16b3-180, 2nd ed.

2 Margoliouth quotes from El-Ghazzali’s Revival of the Religious Sciences many striking saying attributed to Christ by Mahometan writers: among them these. “He that seeks after this world is like one that drinks sea-water. The more he drinks the thirstier he becomes, until it slay him” (iii.161). “There are three dangers in wealth. First, it may be taken from an unlawful source. And what if it be taken from a lawful source? they asked. He answered: may be given to an unworthy person. They asked, And what if it be given to a worthy person? He answered, The handling of it may divert its owner from God” (iii. 178). See Hastings, D. B.2 1. p. 68.

1 Kimchi on Isa_65 mentions a saying of R. Johanan ban Zacchai, who invited his servants without fixing a time: sapientes se ornarunt, stolidi abierunl ad opera sua. Thus some went ornati and others sordidi, when the time came, and the latter were disgraced (Keim, Jes. of Nas. v. p. 256. Comp. Schoettgen, 1. p. 216).

Wic. Wiclif.

Bibliographical Information
Driver, S.A., Plummer, A.A., Briggs, C.A. "Commentary on Luke 12". International Critical Commentary NT. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/icc/luke-12.html. 1896-1924.
adsFree icon
Ads FreeProfile