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Bible Commentaries

Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

1 Kings 15

Verse 2

Years, wanting some months. Maacha. She is called elsewhere, Michaia, daughter of Uriel; but is was a common thing, in those days, for a person to have two names. (Challoner) --- Abessalom and Absalom, the son of David are the same, 2 Paralipomenon xi. 21. (Calmet) --- St. Jerome (Trad.) is of a different opinion. (Menochius) --- Josephus ([Antiquities?] viii. 10.) intimates that Maacha was the daughter of Thamar. The eldest daughter, in the kingdom of Gessur, seems to have been usually styled Maacha, ver. 10. (Tirinus)

Verse 4

Lamp, son; (chap. xi. 36.) though he deserved to have his family exterminated. (Calmet) --- He is preserved for his father’s sake. (Worthington)

Verse 5

Hethite. This could not be excused. But all his other imperfections might not appear criminal in the eyes of the world, as they had some pretext of virtue; so that God reserves the judgment of them to himself, and to David’s conscience, who confessed that he had sinned, 2 Kings xxiv. 10. (Tirinus) --- Except David, Ezechias, and Josias, all the kings of Juda committed sin; (Ecclesiasticus xlix. 5.; Calmet) and not one of those who ruled over Israel, gave an example of virtue. (Haydock) --- David soon entered into himself, with respect to his other failings. But he continued for a long time involved in the guilt of adultery and murder. (Sanchez)

Verse 6

Roboam. This had been remarked, chap. xiv. 30. (Haydock) --- There was a domestic quarrel between the two families. (Calmet) --- Some suspect that Roboam is placed to designate his successors, or that we ought to read, Abia. (Sanchez) --- Castalion rashly ventures to alter the text. (Calmet) --- Abiam gained a decisive victory over Jeroboam, ver. 7., and 2 Paralipomenon xiii. 3.

Verse 9

Year complete, when the 21st was running on. (Usher) --- Septuagint, "the 24th." (Calmet) --- But Grabe’s edition agrees with the Hebrew. (Haydock)

Verse 10

His mother’s, &c. That is, his grandmother; unless we suppose, which is not improbable, that the Maacha here named is different from the Maacha mentioned [in] ver. 2. (Challoner) --- She was probably another grand-daughter of David’s son, (Calmet) as such are frequently styled simply daughters. So David is called the father of Asa, (ver. 11.; Haydock) though he was really his great-grandfather. (Menochius)

Verse 12

Effeminate. See chap. xiv. 24. Yet his zeal could not entirely eradicate this evil. There was room for the exertions of his son Josaphat, chap. xxii. 47. (Calmet) --- The king punished with death such as he could discover. (Haydock)

Verse 13

Priapus. He would not spare such abominations in his own family. (Menochius) He took from his mother the direction of the palace, (Vatable) and her guards. (Grotius) --- Hebrew, "even her he removed from being queen, because she had made a Miphlatstah." (Haydock) --- Septuagint render this term a synod, "meeting," or something shameful; also a cavern, or den; and in Paralipomenon, the "idol" Astarte. St. Jerome also gives different meanings; so that the precise import is not well known. Most people translate, "a scarecrow;" (Calmet) terriculum. In the gardens of Greece and or Rome, the figure of Priapus was set up (Du Hamel) to frighten thieves and birds away. Inde ego furum aviumque

Maxima formido. (Horace, Sat. l. 8.)

Others understand that Pan, another frightening idol, is here meant; (Castalion) or the abominations of Phallus and Ithyphallus, derived from the same Hebrew word. (Seldon) --- As the goddess Astarte, or Asera, "the grove," here the object of adoration, was the wife of Adonis, it is probable, that the same obscenities were carried in triumph, as Herodotus (ii. 28., and 49.) specifies in the description of the festival of Bacchus, celebrated by the Egyptians. --- To him. Protestants, "She had made an idol in the grove." Hebrew also, "to Asera; and Asa destroyed her idol, (miphlatstah) and burnt it." (Haydock)

Verse 14

The high places. There were excelsa, or high places, of two different kinds. Some were set up and dedicated to the worship of idols, or strange gods: and these Asa removed, 2 Paralipomenon xiv. 2. Others were only altars of the true God, but were erected contrary to the law, which allowed of no sacrifices but in the temple; and these were not removed by Asa. (Challoner) --- They had been built before the temple, and tolerated by the prophets; (Calmet) and, though they were now improper for sacrifices, (Haydock) Asa thought it would be imprudent to molest them, (Calmet) as perhaps he could not take them away. (Du Hamel) --- He left also the ruins of (Haydock) the temples built by Solomon, (Worthington) on Mount Olivet, (4 Kings xxiii.; Menochius) as no longer dangerous. (Salien) --- Lord. Asa had his faults; but never forsook the worship of the Lord. (Challoner) --- In the same sense, David is so often praised as a just prince. Asa threw a prophet into prison, and placed his trust as much in physicians, &c., 2 Paralipomenon xvi. 10, 12. But he did penance, and deserves to be ranked (Calmet) among the few just kings of Juda. (Haydock)

Verse 15

Vowed. Hebrew, "which he himself had dedicated," or vowed, 2 Paralipomenon xv. 18. (Haydock) --- Asa made liberal presents to the Lord, and gave what his father had promised, (Menochius) probably during the famous battle against Jeroboam, 2 Paralipomenon xiii. 5. (Abulensis, q. 17.) --- Abiam was a wicked prince, and had neglected this duty, though he reigned three years. Hence he was slain by God, ibid. v. 20. It seems that heirs were bound to execute the vows of their parents, though Moses does not express it. (Calmet)

Verse 16

Their days: not that they were always fighting. (Haydock) --- Open war was declared only in the 35th year of Asa, (2 Paralipomenon xv. 19.) which must be dated from the schism, and not from the commencement of his reign; since his rival, Baasa, enjoyed the sovereignty only 24 years, and died in the 26th of Asa, which was the 36th from the division of the two kingdoms. Thus Hardouin observes that the years of Commodus, in some ancient Egyptians medals, are dated from the reign of M. Aurelius, chief of that family; so that the first of Commodus is inscribed the twenty-first of Aurelius. Asa defeated Zara in the fifteenth, and attacked Israel in the sixteen year of his reign. (Usher) (Tirinus) (Calmet) --- Others would substitute 25 for 35, (Grotius; Capel.) though contrary to the text, and to all the versions. (Calmet)

Verse 17

Rama, fortifying it with a wall all round, 2 Paralipomenon xvi. (Haydock) --- Rama signifies, "a height." This fort commanded a narrow pass, between the two kingdoms, (Calmet) and cut off all communication; which Baasa dreaded, lest his subjects should return to the service of the true God, and of Juda. (Haydock) --- Josue (xviii. 25.) mentions Rama, near Gaboan, (Calmet) about five miles north of Jerusalem. (St. Jerome) --- There was another towards the south. (Menochius) --- But there the king of Israel would have no power. (Haydock)

Verse 18

House. Sesac had not carried off all the treasures, (Calmet) and the losses had been since in a great measure repaired, ver. 15. (Haydock) --- Asa thought himself justified in employing these treasures in such a pressing necessity, (Calmet) perhaps (Haydock) without reason, as the danger was not so great; and he might have gained the victory without having recourse to an infidel, if he had placed more confidence in God, 2 Paralipomenon xvi. 7, 9. (Menochius) --- He had already discomfited Zara, king of Ethiopia, and had an army of 580,000 men. (Calmet) (2 Paralipomenon xiv. 8.) --- Tabremon, "Good Remmon," idol of Damascus. (Haydock) --- Hezion, the same with Razon, chap. xi. 23. (Menochius)

Verse 19

League. The infidel is ready to take part with the best bidder. (Haydock) --- Benadad gains a double reward, as he plunders the conquered. (Menochius)

Verse 20

Ahion, or Ain, remote in the north, whence Theglathphalasar took away captives, (4 Kings xv. 29.) is perhaps the Enan of Ezechiel xlviii. 1., and Numbers xxxiv. 9. --- Maacha. In Paralipomenon, Abel-maim, "Abela of the waters," 2 Kings xx. 14. --- Ceneroth, near the sea of Tiberias, Josue xi. 2. Benadad kept possession of some of these places, and even built streets in Samaria, chap. xx. 34.

Verse 21

Returned. So the Septuagint. Hebrew, "dwelt." (Calmet) --- He returned to protect his own dominions, (Menochius) and shut himself up in his capital. (Calmet)

Verse 22

Excused. "When the country is to be defended, all exemptions cease." (Leg. ult.) (Calmet) --- Septuagint seem to preserve the terms of the original untranslated, "Asa called Annacim." Hebrew en naki, (Haydock) means, "no one exempt." (Calmet) --- Rama belonged to the enemy; and, as it appears from this passage, was in the vicinity of Maspha. (Haydock) --- Gabaa, the city of Saul, (Menochius) adding fresh fortifications, as this and Maspha were frontier towns, against the inroads of Israel. (Haydock)

Verse 23

Strength. Septuagint, "dynasty," or power, whether of his dominions or of his person. (Calmet) --- Feet, with the gout, (Menochius) three years before his death. He did not confide in the Lord sufficiently, 2 Paralipomenon xvi. 12. His body was embalmed or burnt, unless aromatic spices evaporated with it was laid on a bed of state, before it was consigned to the tomb, which Asa had prepared for himself in the city of David, 2 Paralipomenon xvi. 14.

Verse 25

Two years, incomplete; since he commenced his reign in the second, and died in the third year of Asa, ver. 28. (Calmet) --- Petau only allows him, "a few months;" and supposes, that he had been associated on the throne with Jeroboam. But this is unnecessary. (Houbigant) --- Nadab was the first king of Israel, who fell a pray to the fury of his subjects. (Salien, the year before Christ 971.)

Verse 27

Gebbethon, of the tribe of Dan, occupied by the Philistines. It was often attacked, chap. xvi. 15. (Calmet) --- The occasion of this war is not known. (Menochius)

Verse 29

Jeroboam. The author of schism is punished in his posterity. (Worthington) --- The body of Nadab was left unburied, chap. xiv. 11. (Menochius)

Verse 31


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Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 15". "Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". 1859.