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Bible Commentaries

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 21



Luke 21:2 . Καί ] bracketed by Lachm. It is wanting in B K L M Q X Π א , min. Or. But A E G H S U V Γ Δ Λ , min. have it after τινα . Thus Tisch. [not Tisch. 8]. This is correct. From ignorance objection was taken to this arrangement, and καί was sometimes placed before, and sometimes was struck out altogether.

Luke 21:3 . πλεῖον ] Lachm. and Tisch. have ̔ πλείω , which would have to be adopted if it were not too feebly attested by D Q X, min.

Luke 21:4 . τοῦ Θεοῦ ] is wanting in B L X א , min. Copt. Syr. cu. Syr. jer. Deleted by Tisch. An exegetical addition.

Luke 21:6 . After λίθῳ Lachm. and Tisch. [Tisch. synopa. , but not Tisch. 8] have ὧδε , in accordance with B L א , min. Copt. Other authorities have it before λίθος . D, codd. of It. have ἐν τοίχῳ ὧδε . An addition from Matthew.

Luke 21:8 . οὖν ] is to be deleted, with Lachm. and Tisch., in accordance with B D L X א , min. vss. A connective addition.

Luke 21:14 . The reading ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις (Lachm. Tisch.), instead of εἱς τὰς κ ., is decisively attested.

Luke 21:15 . Elz. Matth. Scholz have ἀντειπεῖν οὐδὲ ἁντιστῆναι . But instead of οὐδέ , A K M R, min. Slav. Brix. Or. Cyr. Didym. Griesb. have ἤ . Sometimes with ἤ , sometimes with οὐδέ , D L א , min. Ar. p. Erp. Arm. Slav. Vulg. Or. have the two verbs in the reverse order. Hence Lachm. has ἀντιστῆναι οὐδὲ ἀντειπεῖν , and Tisch. has ἀντιστῆναιἀντειπεῖν . These variations are to be explained from the fact that ἀντειπεῖν , with ἤ or οὐδέ , on account of the similar beginning of the following verb, was passed over. So according to D, Syr. Pers. P. Vulg. ms. codd. of It. Cypr. Aug. Rinck. When the passage was restored, the verbs were placed in different order; and instead of ἤ after the previous οὐ , οὐδέ was inserted. Accordingly, read with Griesbach: ἀντειπεῖνἀντιστ .

Luke 21:19 . Elz. Matth. Scholz, Tisch. have κτήσασθε . But A B, min. Syr. omn. Arr. Aeth. Vulg. It. (not Vind. Cant.) Or. Macar. Marcion, according to Tertullian, have κτήσεσθε . Recommended by Griesb., approved by Rinck, adopted by Lachm. The Recepta is an interpretation of the future taken imperatively.

Luke 21:22 . Elz. has πληρωθῆναι . But πλησθῆναι is decisively attested.

Luke 21:23 . δέ ] deleted by Lachm. and Tisch., following B D L, Arr. It. Theophyl. An addition from the parallels.

After ὀργή Elz. has ἐν , in opposition to decisive evidence.

Luke 21:24 . ἄχρι ] Lachm. Tisch. have ἄχρις (Tisch. ἄχρι ) οὗ , on decisive evidence. Luke always joins ἄχρι to a genitive.

Luke 21:25 . ἐν ἀπορίᾳ , ἠχούσης ] Griesb. Lachm. Tisch. have ἐν ἀπορίᾳ ἤχους , on decisive evidence. The Recepta is an interpretation.

Luke 21:33 . παρέλθωσι ] Lachm. and Tisch. have παρελεύσονται , in accordance with B D L א , min. Rightly. See on Mark 13:31 .

Luke 21:35 . Lachm. and Tisch. place γάρ after ἐπελεύσεται , so that ὡς παγίς belongs to Luke 21:34 . Thus B D L א , 157, Copt. It. Meth. Marcion, according to Tertull. I regard the Recepta as being right, as the preceding clause contains a qualifying word ( αἰφνίδιος ), but what follows in Luke 21:35 needed a similar qualification ( ὡς παγίς ). Through mistaking this, and attracting ὡς παγίς a correlative of αἰφνίδ . to the preceding clause, γάρ has been put out of its right place. Instead of ἐπελεύσεται , however, read with Lachm. and Tisch., in accordance with B D א , ἐπεισελεύσεται . The doubly compounded form disappeared through error on the part of the transcribers, as frequently happened.

Luke 21:36 . καταξ .] Tisch. has κατισχύσητε , following B L X א , min. Copt. Aeth. Ar. p. Rightly; the Recepta is a very old gloss in accordance with Luke 20:35 , comp. 2 Thessalonians 1:5 .

ταῦτα is deleted by Matth. and Tisch. [Tisch. synops. , not Tisch. 8]. But most of the principal MSS. [including א c] (not א ) and vss. have it. Nevertheless, it remains doubtful whether it is to be read before (B D L X, [ א c ] Elz. Lachm. [Tisch. 8]) or after πάντα (A C* M). If πάντα ταῦτα τά is original, the omission of the superfluous ταῦτα is the more easily explained.

After Luke 21:38 four cursives have the section concerning the woman taken in adultery, John 7:53 to John 8:11 .

Verses 1-4

Luke 21:1-4 . See on Mark 12:41-44 .

ἀναβλέψας ] previously, Luke 20:45 ff., Jesus spoke to His disciples surrounding Him; now He lifts up His glance from these to the people farther off, and sees, etc. He must therefore have stood not far from the γαζοφυλάκ .

τοὺς βάλλονταςπλουσίους ] is connected together: the rich men casting in . After πλουσίους might also be supplied ὄντας (Bornemann), in which case, however, the meaning comes out less appropriately, for they were not rich people only who were casting in (comp. Mark 12:41 ).

Luke 21:2 . τινα καὶ χήραν (see the critical remarks): aliquam, eamque viduam, egenam . Comp. Plat. Phaed . p. 58 D, and thereon Stallbaum. Καί is: and indeed .

Luke 21:4 . οὗτοι refers to the more remote subject (Förtsch, Obss. in Lys . p. 74; Winer, p. 142 [E. T. 195]). Jesus points to the persons in question.

εἰς τὰ δῶρα ] to the gifts (that were in the treasury), not: guae donarent (Beza), to which the article is opposed.

Verses 5-6

Luke 21:5-6 . Καί τινων λεγ . κ . τ . λ .] These expressions gave the occasion for Jesus to utter the following discourse, and that, as is plain from the discourse itself, to His disciples (the apostles also included), to whom, moreover, the τινές belonged.

ἀναθήμασι ] Lachmann and Tischendorf, following A D X א , have the Hellenistic form ἀναθέμασι (see Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 249, 445; Paralip. p. 391 ff., 417, 424). On the many votive offerings of the temple, partly also such as the two Herods had given, and even Ptolemy Euergetes, see Joseph. Bell. vi. 5. 2; Antt. xv. 11. 3, xvii. 6. 3; c. Apion. I. 164; Ottii Spicileg. p. 176 f., and generally, Ewald, Alterth. p. 81 ff. The most splendid was the golden vine, presented by Herod the Great. See Grotius. For the votive gifts of Julia, see in Philo, p. 1036 D.

ταῦταθεωρ .] Nominative absolute. See on Matthew 7:24 ; Bernhardy, p. 69; Buttmann, Neut. Gr. p. 325 f. [E. T. 379 f.].

Verses 5-38

Luke 21:5-38 . See on Matthew 24:25 ; Mark 13:0 . In Luke a very free reproduction from the Logia and Mark. That this discourse was spoken on the Mount of Olives (Matt. Mark), there is in him no trace. Rather, according to him, it still belongs to the transactions in the temple, which began Luke 20:1 (comp. Luke 21:37 ); hence, moreover, the ἀναθήματα are found only in Luke.

Verses 7-10

Luke 21:7-10 . Ἐπηρώτ .] those τινές .

οὖν ] since in consequence of this assurance of thine that destruction shall occur; when , therefore, shall it occur?

τί τὸ σημεῖον κ . τ . λ .] not an incorrect departure from Matthew 24:3 (de Wette), but substantially as Mark 13:4 , from whom Matthew differs by a more precise statement of the point of the question.

Luke 21:8 . ὁ καιρός ] the Messianic point of time that of the setting up of the kingdom.

Luke 21:9 . ἀκαταστ .] tumults ; see on 2 Corinthians 6:5 .

Luke 21:10 . τότε ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ] then , after these preliminary warnings, entering upon the further description of the impending judgment. Casaubon, following Beza, connects τότε with ἐγερθ . In that case the insertion of ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς would be absolutely without motive. The motive is found precisely in τότε , which, however, notifies simply only a resting-point of the discourse, not “a much later point of time,” to which what follows would belong (Holtzmann, following Köstlin), which variation as to time Luke might have put into the mouth of Jesus as easily as at Luke 21:12 .

Verse 11

Luke 21:11 . Ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ belongs not only to σημεῖα (B, Lachmann: ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ σημ .), but also to φόβητρα , because in the connection the latter needs some qualifying clause. μεγάλα belongs to both. Moreover, comp. with reference to this detail which Luke has here, 4 Esdr. Luke 5:4 . On φόβητρα (terrific appearances), comp. Plat. Ax . p. 367 A; Lucian, Philop. 9; Isaiah 19:17 . As to κατὰ τόπους , see on Matthew 24:7 .

Verses 12-13

Luke 21:12-13 . Πρὸ δὲ τούτων π .] otherwise in Matthew and Mark. But Luke follows a later modification of the tradition moulded after the result. [241] In opposition to the words of the passage (for πρό means nothing else than before, previously ), but with a harmonistic end in view, Ebrard, Diss. adv. erron. nonnullor. opinion . etc. p. 34, says: “persecutiones non post ceteras demum calamitates sed inter primas esse perferendas .”

Luke 21:13 . εἰς μαρτύριου ] but it shall turn (comp. Philippians 1:19 ) to you for a witness, i.e. not: εἰς ἔλεγχου τῶν μὴ πιστευσάντων (Euthymius Zigabenus), but it will have for you the result that ye bear witness for me . The context requires this by means of ἔνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόν . μου , Luke 21:12 , and see Luke 21:14 f. The matter itself is regarded as something great and honourable ( εἰς μαρτυρίου δόξαν , Theophylact). Comp. Acts 5:41 . For the testimony itself, see for example Acts 4:11 f. The reference to martyrdom (Baur, Hilgenfeld, Holtzmann) is opposed to the context and brings in a later usus loquendi .

[241] In respect of this Baur, Evang . p. 477 (comp. his Markusevang . p. 99 f.), thinks that Luke desires to claim what has been previously said by Jesus “altogether specially for His Apostle Paul.” Comp. also Köstlin, p. 158, and Holtzmann. But then it would have been an easy thing for him to name more specially Pauline sufferings. Compare rather Matthew 10:17 f.

Verses 14-15

Luke 21:14-15 . Comp. Luke 12:11 f.; Matthew 10:19 f.; Mark 13:11 f.

ἐγώ ] stands with great emphasis at the beginning, opposed to the προμελετ . ἀπολογ . of the disciples. Bengel well says: “Jesus loquitur pro statu exaltationis suae.”

στόμα ] a concrete representation of speech . Comp. Soph. Oed. R . 671, Oed. C . 685. A kindred idea, Exodus 4:16 ; Isaiah 15:1-9 .

ἀντειπεῖν ] corresponds to στόμα , and ἀντιστ . to σοφίαν (comp. Acts 6:10 ).

The promise was to be fulfilled by the Holy Ghost as the Paraclete , John 14:0 . Comp. Acts 6:10 . But a reference to the fate of Stephen (Holtzmann) is not sufficiently indicated.

Verse 16

Luke 21:16 . Καί ] Bengel rightly says: “non modo ab alienis.” Comp., besides, Mark 13:12 f.

Verses 18-19

Luke 21:18-19 . Comp. 1Sa 14:45 ; 2 Samuel 14:11 ; 1 Kings 1:52 ; Acts 27:34 . But the meaning cannot be, “ye shall remain unharmed in life and limb ” against which interpretation the preceding καὶ θανατ . ἐξ ὑμῶν , Luke 21:16 , is decisive, since θανατ . cannot be taken, as by Volkmar, of mere danger of death; rather ἀπόληται is to be taken in a Messianic sense. Comp. the following κτήσεσθε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν . Hence: no hair of your head shall be subject to the everlasting ἀπώλεια , i.e. you shall not come by the slightest harm as to the Messianic salvation ; but rather, Luke 21:19 : through your endurance (Matthew 10:22 ; Matthew 24:13 ; Mark 13:13 ), in these persecutions, ye shall gain your souls , whereby is denoted the acquisition of the Messianic salvation; the latter is regarded as the life , and the opposite as death . Comp. Luke 9:25 , Luke 17:33 , also ζημιοῦσθαι τὴν ψυχήν , Mark 8:36 . The form of the expression θρὶξ ἐκ τ . κεφ . κ . τ . λ . has therefore a proverbial character (Matthew 10:30 ), and is not to be taken in such a manner as that God would restore again every hair at the resurrection (Zeller in the Theol. Jahrb . 1851, p. 336; comp. his Apostelg. p. 18 f.). The omission of the verse in Marcion shows that at an early period there was already found therein a contradiction to Luke 21:16 , as Gfrörer, Baur, Hilgenfeld, and others still find there. This apparent impropriety makes it the more improbable that Luke 21:18 should be a later addition (Wilke, Baur, Hilgenfeld), perhaps from Acts 17:34 .

Verses 20-22

Luke 21:20-22 . Comp. Matthew 24:15-18 ; Mark 13:14-16 . What was to happen πρὸ τούτων πάντων , Luke 21:12 , is now concluded. From this point the discourse continues where it broke off at Luke 21:12 .

κυκλουμ .] representing the object as already conceived in the situation and therein perceived (Bernhardy, p. 477; Kühner, II. p. 357), being surrounded on all sides . [242]

Luke 21:21 . οἱ ἐν τ . Ἰουδ ] refers to the Christians ; this follows from Luke 21:20 .

αὐτῆς ] has reference to Jerusalem , as subsequently εἰς αὐτήν . Theophylact: ἘΚΤΡΑΓῼΔΕῖ ΟὖΝ ΤᾺ ΔΕΙΝᾺ ΤΌΤΕ ΤῊΝ ΠΌΛΙΝ ΠΕΡΙΣΤΉΣΕΤΑΙ ΜῊ ΠΡΟΣΔΟΚΆΤΩΣΑΝ , ὍΤΙ ΠΌΛΙς ΤΕΙΧΉΡΗς ΟὖΣΑ ΦΥΛΆΞΕΙ ΑὐΤΟΎς .

ἘΝ ΤΑῖς ΧΏΡΑΙς ] not in the provinces (de Wette), but in the fields (Luke 12:16 ), in contrast to the city into which one εἰσέρχεται from the country. People are not to do this, but to flee. [243]

Luke 21:22 . τοῦ πλησθῆναι κ . τ . λ .] a statement of the divine counsel: that all may be fulfilled which is written . Without this day of vengeance, an essential portion of the prophetic predictions, in which the desolation of the city and the country is in so many different ways announced as a judgment, must remain unfulfilled. The prophecy of Daniel is, moreover, meant along with the others , but not exclusively. Comp. already Euthymius Zigabenus.

[242] Wieseler, in the profound discussion in the Gott. Vierteljahrschr . 2 Jahrg. 2 Heft, p. 210, finds in the words κυκλ . ὑπὸ στρατοπ . κ . τ . λ . an explanation of the βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως , Matthew 24:15 , which Luke gave for his Gentile-Christian readers. He thereby maintains his interpretation of the βδέλυγμα of the Roman standards, and of the τόπος ἅγιος , Matt. l.c. , of the environs of Jerusalem. Certainly our passage corresponds to the βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσ . in Matthew and Mark. But Luke did not want to explain the expression of Daniel, but instead of it he stated something of a more general character , and that from his later standpoint, at which the time of the abomination of desolation on the temple area must needs appear to him a term too late for flight. We have here an alteration of the original ex eventu .

[243] But the expressions are too general for a reference directly to the flight of the Christians to Pella (Volkmar, Evang. Marcion’s , p. 69).

Verses 23-24

Luke 21:23-24 . Comp. Matthew 24:19 ff.; Mark 13:17 ff., to both of which Luke is related sometimes by abridgment, sometimes by more precise statements ex eventu .

Ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ] on the earth , without special definition (comp. Luke 5:24 , Luke 18:8 , Luke 21:25 ). The latter is then introduced in the second member ( τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ ) by καί (and especially); but μεγάλη belongs to both. On the divine ὀργή , which is punitively accomplished in such calamities, comp. 1Ma 1:64 ; 1Ma 2:49 ; 2Ma 5:17 ; Daniel 8:19 .

τῷ λ . τ .] dependent on ἔσται .

Luke 21:24 . στόματι μαχαίρας ] by the mouth of the sword , Hebrews 11:34 . Thus frequently פִּי חֶרֶב , Genesis 34:26 ; Deuteronomy 13:16 , and elsewhere. Comp. Sir 28:18 ; Jdt 2:27 ; 1Ma 5:28 . The sword is poetically (Hom. Il. xv. 389; Porson, ad Eurip. Or. 1279; Schaefer) represented as a biting animal (by its sharpness; hence μάχ . δίστομος , two-edged). Comp. πολέμου στόμα , Hom. Il. x. 8, xix. 313. The subject of πεσ . and αἰχμαλ . is: those who belong to this people.

αἰχμαλωτ .] According to Joseph. Bell. vi. 9. 2, ninety-seven thousand were taken prisoners, and, for the most part, dragged to Egypt and into the provinces.

Ἱερουσαλ .] when conquered and laid waste (Luke 21:20 ), in opposition to Paulus, who finds merely the besetting of the city by a hostile force here expressed.

ἔσται πατουμ . ὑπὸ ἐθνῶν ] shall be trodden under foot of the Gentiles, a contemptuous ill-treatment; the holy city thus profaned is personified. Comp. Isaiah 10:6 ; 1Ma 3:45 (see Grimm, in loc.), 1Ma 4:60 ; Revelation 11:2 ; Philo, In Flacc. p. 974 C; Soph. Ant. 741.

ἄχριςἐθνῶν ] till the times of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled, i.e. till the time that the periods which are appointed to the Gentile nations for the completion of divine judgments (not the period of grace for the Gentiles, as Ebrard foists into the passage) shall have run out. Comp. Revelation 11:2 . Such times of the Gentiles are ended in the case in question by the Parousia (Luke 21:25 f., Luke 21:27 ), which is to occur during the lifetime of the hearers (Luke 21:28 ); hence those καιροί are in no way to be regarded as of longer duration, [244] which Dorner, de orat. Ch. eschatolog. p. 73, ought not to have concluded from the plural, since it makes no difference with respect to duration whether a period of time is regarded as unity, or according to the plurality of its constituent parts. See, for example, 2 Timothy 3:1 comp. with Luke 4:3 ; 1 Timothy 4:1 ; Sir 39:31 ; 1Ma 4:59 ; 2Ma 12:30 . In opposition to Schwegler, who likewise finds betrayed in the passage a knowledge of a long duration, and therein the late composition of the Gospel; see Franck in the Stud. u. Krit. 1855, p. 347 f. Hofmann, Schriftbew . II. 2, p. 643, erroneously dates the beginning of the καιροὶ ἐθνῶν not from the taking of Jerusalem, supposing, on the contrary, the meaning to be: till the time, in which the world belongs to the nations , shall be at an end, and the people of God shall receive the dominion. In answer to this, it may be said, on the one hand, that the thought of the dominion of the world (according to Daniel 7:14 ; Daniel 7:27 ) is a pure interpolation; on the other, that the καιροὶ ἐθνῶν would be the ΚΑΙΡΟΊ , which were familiar to all from the prophecies , and which had already begun to run their course , so that at the time of Jesus and long before they were regarded as in process of fulfilment . This is the reason for our having οἱ καιροί with the article (comp. Luke 19:44 ). Comp. on ΚΑΙΡΟΊ without the article, Tob 14:5 ; Acts 3:20-21 . By a perverse appeal to history, it has been explained as having reference to the fall of heathenism under Constantine (Clericus), and to the conversion [245] of the heathen-world (see in Wolf; also Dorner, l.c. p. 68). Comp. Lange, who suggests withal the thought of the Mohammedans.

[244] “Non infertur hinc, templum cultumque umbratilem instauratum iri,” Bengel. Comp. Calov. in loc. , and our remark after Romans 11:27 .

[245] Comp. Luther’s gloss: “till the heathens shall be converted to the faith, i.e. till the end of the world.”

Verses 25-26

Luke 21:25-26 . There now follows what should come to pass at the end of the said times of the Gentiles before the Parousia . Since Luke, writing in the time in which such καιροὶ ἐθνῶν are still passing, has adopted these also into the prophecy from the tradition expanded ex eventu , the Parousia in his statement could not be immediately linked on to the destruction of Jerusalem, as was the case in Mark 13:24 , and still more definitely by means of εὐθέως in Matthew 24:29 . In the midst between these two catastrophes actually already came those καιροί .

συνοχὴ ἐθνῶν κ . τ . λ .] Distress (2 Corinthians 2:4 ) of nations in perplexity at the roaring of the seas and waves . Luke alone has this fearful feature. The genitive ἠχοῦς [246] (see the critical remarks) indicates that to which the ἀπορία refers . Comp. Herod. iv. 83: τῶν Σκυθέων τὴν ἀπορίην ; Herodian, iv. 14. 1 : ἘΝ ἈΠΟΡΊᾼ ΤΟῦ ΠΡΑΚΤΈΟΥ . Groundlessly Bornemann conjectures ἘΝ ἈΠΕΙΡΊᾼ . The ΚΑΊ “vocem angustiorem ( ΣΆΛΟς , breakers ) annectit latiori,” Kypke.

Luke 21:26 . ἀποψυχ . ἀνθρώπ .] while men give up the ghost (Thuc. i. 134. 3; Bion, i. 9; Alciphr. Ep. iii. 72; 4Ma 15:15 ) for fear, etc. It might be taken, moreover, of mere faintness (Hom. Od. xxiv. 348), but the stronger expression corresponds more to the progressive colouring of the description.

αἱ γὰρ δυνάμ . κ . τ . λ .] not a clause limping after (de Wette), but an energetic declaration coming in at the close as to the cause of these phenomena. See, besides, on Matthew 24:29 .

[246] From the nominative ἠχώ (not ἦχος ); hence not to be accented ἤχους , but ἠχοῦς .

Verses 27-28

Luke 21:27-28 . Comp. on Luke 21:27 ; Matthew 24:30 ; Mark 13:26 .

Καὶ τότε ] and then ; after the previous occurrence of these σημεῖα .

ἀρχομ . δὲ τούτων ] but when these begin ; these appearances, Luke 21:25 f. They are therefore not conceived of as of long continuance.

ἀνακύψατε κ . τ . λ .] lift yourselves up , raise yourselves (till then bowed down under afflictions, Luke 21:12 ff., comp. Luke 12:32 ) erect (hopefully). Comp. Dorville, ad Charit. p. 177.

ἀπολύτρ . ὑμ .] which shall follow by means of my Parousia . Comp. the ἐκδίκησις τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν , Luke 18:7 .

Verses 29-33

Luke 21:29-33 . See on Matthew 24:32-35 ; Mark 13:28-31 .

ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν ] “etiamsi nemo vos doceat,” Bengel. Comp. Luke 12:57 ; John 18:34 ; John 11:51 ; 2 Corinthians 3:5 .

γινώσκετε is indicative in Luke 21:30 , imperative in Luke 21:31 .

Verses 34-36

Luke 21:34-36 , peculiar to Luke. Ἑαυτοῖς has the emphasis; from the external phenomena the attention of the hearers is directed to themselves . The ὑμῶν placed first contains a contrast with others who are in such a condition as is here forbidden. [247]

βαρηθῶσιν ] even in the classical writers often used of the psychical oppression that presses down the energy of the spiritual activity by means of wine, sorrow, etc. Hom. Od . iii. 139; Theocr. xvii. 61; Plut. Aem. P . 34. See generally, Jacobs, ad Anthol. VI. p. 77. On the distinction between κραιπάλη , giddiness from yesterday’s debauch, and μέθη , see Valckenaer, Schol. p. 262. The figurative interpretation (Bleek) of want of moral circumspection is arbitrary. Comp. Luke 12:45 ; Ephesians 5:18 . This want is the consequence of the βαρηθ ., whereby it happens “that the heart cannot turn itself to Christ’s word,” Luther, Predigt .

μεριμν . βιωτικαῖς ] with cares, “quae ad victum parandum vitaeque usum faciunt,” Erasmus. Comp. 1 Corinthians 6:3 ; Polyb. iv. 73. 8 : βιωτικαὶ χρεῖαι ; and see Lobeck, ad Phryn. p. 355.

αἰφνίδιος ] as one who is unexpected (1 Thessalonians 5:3 , often in Thucydides); thus conceived adjectivally, not adverbially. See Krüger, § 57. 5, A 4; Winer, p. 412 [E. T. 583].

ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ἐπιστῇ ] should come upon you , which, according to the context, is conceived of as something sudden (comp. on Luke 2:9 ). The day is personified.

Luke 21:35 . ὡς παγὶς γὰρ κ . τ . λ .] gives a reason for the warning καὶ ( μήποτε ) αἰφνίδιος ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς κ . τ . λ . All the more were they to guard against this, as the Parousia will come upon all as a snare (Isaiah 24:17 ), thus unobserved, and suddenly bringing destruction on them . This must arouse you to hold yourselves in readiness for it, because otherwise ye also shall be overtaken and hurried away by this universal sudden ruin. For the figure, comp. Romans 11:9 . It is a snare which is thrown over a wild beast.

ἐπεισελεύσεται ] (see the critical remarks) it will come in upon all. In the doubly compounded form (comp. 1Ma 16:16 , often in the classical writers) ἐπί denotes the direction, and εἰς the coming in from without (from heaven).

καθημένους ] not generally: who dwell , but: who sit (comp. Jeremiah 25:29 ), expressing the comfortable, secure condition. Comp. on Matthew 4:16 . Theophylact: ἐν ἀμεριμνίᾳ διάγοντες καὶ ἀργίᾳ .

Luke 21:36 . ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ ] belongs to δεόμενοι . Comp. Luke 18:1 ; Luke 18:7 . Others, as Luther and Bleek, connect it with ἀγρ .

ἵνα ] the purpose, and therefore contents of the prayer.

κατισχύσητε ] (see the critical remarks) have the power ; be in the position. So κατισχ . with infinitive, Wis 17:5 ; Isaiah 22:4 , and often in the later Greek writers.

ἑκφυγεῖν κ . τ . λ .] to escape from all this , etc., i.e. in all the perilous circumstances whose occurrence I have announced to you as preceding the Parousia (from Luke 21:8 onward), to deliver your life, which is to be understood in the higher meaning of Luke 21:19 .

καὶ σταθῆναι κ . τ . λ .] and to he placed before the Messiah . This will be done by the angels who shall bring together the ἐκλεκτούς from the whole earth to the Messiah appearing in glory. Matthew 24:31 ; Mark 13:27 . Nothing is said here about standing in the judgment (in opposition to Erasmus, Beza, Grotius, Kuinoel, and many others).

[247] Comp. on these warnings the expression quoted by Justin, c. Tr. 47, as a saying of Christ: ἐν οἷς ἂν ὑμᾶς καταλάβω , ἐν τούτοις καὶ κρινῶ . Similarly Clem. Alex., quis dives salv. 40, quotes it.

Verses 37-38

Luke 21:37-38 . The discourse, begun at Luke 20:1 , with its varied scenes, is now closed. There is even now a general historical communication upon those last days of Jesus in Jerusalem, from which it is plain that according to Luke He still continued to teach in the temple. There is a difference from Matthew (comp. Mark 13:1 ), according to whom He is no longer in the temple when He delivers His eschatological discourse, and does not again set foot in it after Luke 23:39 .

ἐλαιών ] Thus to be accented in this place also. See on Luke 19:29 .

ἐξερχόμενος ] participle present , because ηὐλίζετο (with εἰς , comp. Tob 14:10 ) is conceived of in the sense of the direction: going out (from the temple into the open air) He went to His nightly abode on the Mount of Olives .

Luke 21:38 . ὤρθριζε πρὸς αὐτόν ] rose up early to resort to Him , to hear Him in the temple. Thus rightly Luther (comp. Vulgate), Erasmus, Beza, Bengel, and many others, including Lange, Ewald, Bleek, and as early as Tertullian and Theophylact. Others, including de Wette, have: there sought Him eagerly , following LXX. Ps. 77:34; Sir 4:12 ; Sir 6:36 (not Job 8:5 ). But the context, according to Luke 21:37 , justifies only the above explanation, which, moreover, corresponds to the general classical usage of ὀρθρεύω (for which, according to Moeris, ὀρθρίζω is the Hellenistic form). See Theocritus, x. 58; Eurip. Tro. 182; Luc. Gall . i.; also the LXX. in Biel and Schleusner, sub voce ὀρθρίζω ; 1Ma 4:52 ; 1Ma 6:33 ; 1Ma 11:67 ( ὤρθρισαν τὸ πρωῒ εἰς τὸ πεδίον Νασώρ ); Evang. Nicod. 15 ( ὤρθρισανεἰς τὸν οἶκον Νικοδήμου ). Comp. in general, Grimm on Wis 6:14 .

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Bibliographical Information
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Luke 21". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. 1832.