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Bible Commentaries

International Critical Commentary NT

2 Thessalonians 1

Verses 1-99

COMMENTARY ON THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS

I. SUPERSCRIPTION (1:1-2)

1Paul and Silvanus and Timothy to the assembly of Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 2Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

1-2. The superscription differs from that of I 1:1 (q. v.) in adding after πατρι the ἡμῶ, thus expressing the sense of common fellowship in the Father (cf. I 1:3); and in adding after εἰρήν the clause with

The clause with Colossians 1:1, however, omits καὶ κυρίου Ἰ.Χ Usually ἡμῶ (אA, et al., omit) is found after πατρό (BD, et al., here; אA, et al., in Galatians 1:3), except in Galatians 1:3 (BD, et al.) where it is put after κυρίο On the inscription πρὸς θες B (אBA, et al.), see on I 1:1.


II. THANKSGIVING AND PRAYER (1:3-12)

Word has come to Paul, probably by letter, informing him of the increased discouragement of the faint-hearted (1:3-2:17) and the continued troublesomeness of the idlers (3:6-15). Cast down by the persistent persecution, worried by the assertion of some that the day of the Lord is present, and anxious lest they might not be deemed worthy of entrance into the kingdom, the faint-hearted had given utterance to their despair by saying that they were not entitled to the praise of their faith and love, and especially of their endurance which Paul had generously given in his first epistle. To these utterances, reflected in the letter from Thessalonica, Paul replies at once in the Thanksgiving (vv. 3-10) and Prayer (vv. 11-12) by insisting that he ought to thank God for them, as is most proper under the circumstances because their growth in faith and brotherly love is steady (v. 3). In fact, contrary to their expectations, he is boasting everywhere of their endurance and faith in the midst of persecution (v. 4). They need not worry about their future salvation, for their constant endurance springing from faith is positive proof that God the righteous Judge will, in keeping with his purpose, deem them worthy of entrance into the kingdom on behalf of which they as well as Paul are suffering (v. 5). It will not always be well with their persecutors, for God, since he is righteous in judgment, will recompense them with affliction as he will recompense the converts with relief from the same, a relief which Paul also will share (vv. 6-7a). God will do so at the Great Assize (vv. 7b-10) when the wicked, those, namely, who do not reverence God and do not obey the gospel of the Lord Jesus, will receive as their punishment separation forever from Christ, on the very day when the righteous in general, and, with an eye to the faint-hearted, all who became believers will be the ground of honour and admiration accorded to Christ by the retinue of angels. In order to reach this glorious consummation, however, the converts must be blameless in goodness and love; hence Paul prays as the converts were praying not only that God may deem them worthy of his call, that is, acquit them at the last day, but also, to insure this acquittal, that he may perfect them morally; in order that finally the name of the Lord Jesus may be glorified in virtue of what they are, and that they may be glorified in virtue of what the name of our Lord Jesus has accomplished. This glorification is in accordance with the divine favour of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.

That the purpose of 1:3-2:17 is the encouragement of the faint-hearted is evident from the emphasis put on the certainty of the readers’ salvation (1:5-12, 2:13-17), and from the express statement, purposely added after the destruction of the Anomos, that the advent of the Anomos is intended not for believers, but for unbelievers who have doomed themselves (2:8-12). That Paul is replying to a letter from Thessalonica is a hypothesis (not excluded by

Since καθώ in Paul is slightly causal (Bl 78:1), it cannot indicate the degree (Th. Mops.) or the manner (Wohl. who refers to 1 Corinthians 8:2) of εὐχαριστεῖν but must resume and explain ὀφείλομε (Born Dob.). If ὀφείλομε stood alone, it might be interpreted as a general expression of personal obligation (Romans 15:1) in view of the progress of the readers, or as a liturgical formula (1 Clem. 38:4; Barn. 5:3 ὀφείλομεν (ὑπερ) εὐχαριστεῖ). Similarly if we had had εὐχαριστοῦμε and καθὼς ἄξιόν ἐστιν the latter clause might have expressed what was proper in view of the growth of the converts or have been purely liturgical (cf. 1 Mac. 12:11 ὡς δέον ἐστὶν καὶ πρέπο). The resumption, however, of ὀφείλομεν ιν καθώς κτλ reveals not liturgical tautology (Jowett) but an emphasis due to special circumstances.—That Paul is no slave of epistolary form is evident from the present thanksgiving. Here as in 1 Corinthians 1:4, Colossians 1:3, the πάντω of the common πάντοτε περὶ πάντων ὑμῶ (I 1:2) is omitted; the prayer which is usually associated with the thanksgiving (I 1:2) is omitted here as in 1 Corinthians 1:4; here as in Romans 1:8 he passes directly from εὐχαρ. το ὅτ, while the prayer comes in Romans 1:10 and here in v. 11. In Philippians 1:3, Colossians 1:3, the thanksgiving and prayer are closely united as in I 1:2, but a further προσεύχεσθα is added in Philippians 1:9, Colossians 1:9 as in v. 11 below. The address Galatians 1:11, etc.: it does not appear at all in Col. Eph.); its place here at the start betrays at once Paul’s affection for his converts.—ἄξιο is rare in Paul, but common elsewhere in Gk. Bib.; on ἄξιο cf. 1 Corinthians 16:4, 1 Corinthians 16:4 Mac. 17:8. Th. Mops. takes it as = δίκαιο (Philippians 1:7); its presence here prepares the way for καταξιωθῆνα (v. 5) and

ὅτι ὑπεραυξάνει κτλ. With causal ὅτ dependent on εὐχαριστεῖ (I 1:1, 2:13), he gives the reason for the thanksgiving, namely, the very abundant growth (ὑπεραυξάνε) of the tree of religious life (πίστι), and the abundance (πλεονάζε) of the fruit of the same (cf. Philippians 4:17, Colossians 1:6, Colossians 1:10) in their ethical life as manifested in the brotherhood (ἡ


This thanksgiving differs from that in I where “work of faith,” “labour of love,” and “endurance of hope” are mentioned, and also from I 3:6 where faith and love (not φιλαδελφί) are referred to. In thus singling out brotherly love, Paul expresses his appreciation of the fact that love to brothers (I 4:9) is abounding as he exhorted (I 4:10) and prayed (I 3:12) in his first letter. But in order to make plain that he includes in his praise each and every one of them, even the idlers who are troublesome (3:6-15), he adds to ἡ

ὑπεραυξάνει, only here in Gk. Bib., is classic. Paul is fond of compounds with ὑπέ (see I 3:10); if he does not find them he coins them. On the simple αὐξάνει (with πίστι), see 2 Corinthians 10:15; on πλεονάζει, here as usual intransitive, see I 3:12; on ἡ πίστις ὑμῶ, see I 1:8, 3:2 ff. αὐξάνει and πλεονάζει, only here in Gk. Bib., are in synonymous parallelism; cf. πλεονάζει and περισσεύει in I 3:12 cf. 2 Corinthians 4:15). Olshausen (apud Lün.) takes ὑπεραυξάνε as indicating that the converts were guilty of extravagance in their religious zeal, thus introducing a thought like that of Ps. Sol. 5:19 (cf. 5:6) ἐὰν ὑπερπλεονάσἐξαμαρτάνε Schrader and Pelt suggest that I 3:12 is in mind, and that the omission of καὶ εἰς πάντα shows that the converts do not love the Gentiles. Schmiedel and Holtzmann, on the assumption that II is a forgery, find here a literary reminiscence of I 2:11 (ἑνὸς ἑκάστο) and 3:12. Wrede (85) is less certain, but thinks that πάντω might easily come from I 1:2 (so Schmiedel).—The emphasis on the progress of faith (ὑπεραυξάνε, not αὐξάνε, as Chrys. notes) is evidence that II is written after, not before (Grot. Ewald), I.


4. ὥστε αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶς κτλ The consequence (ὥστ) of their progress in faith and brotherly love is that Paul and his associates (ἡμᾶ) can and do boast of them everywhere. We have, however, not ἡμᾶ alone but αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ; a contrast is intended. In I 4:9, αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖ finds its antithesis in ἡμᾶ supplied from the subject of γράφει; here no antithesis to αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ is distinctly stated, though ἐν ὑμῖ, the emphatically placed object of καυχᾶσθα, suggests the Thessalonians. Precisely what prompts the expression is uncertain; probably Paul has in mind the utterances of the faint-hearted to the effect that their faith and love, and especially their endurance (which, as ὑπέρ κτλ shows, is the main theme of Paul’s exultation) were not worthy of the praise bestowed by the Apostle in I. To these remonstrances he replies: “So that we ourselves, contrary to your expectations, are boasting.”

Had Paul written not αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ but καὶ ἡμᾶ, the point would have been that the converts as well as Paul found the Thess. an object of boasting; or that Paul as well as others in general or in particular the αὐτοι of I 1:9 found the Thess. an object of boasting. But αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ indicates not a reciprocal relation but a contrast. Bacon (Introd. 74) interprets differently: “The Thess. had written that they boasted of the apostles against the slanderers; cf. 2 Corinthians 1:14.” In this “significant and inimitable ὥστε αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶκτλ (Bacon), Wrede (cf. Schmiedel) finds an assertion of apostolic dignity (“if we boast of any one, that means more than if others do it”), and also a literary reminiscence of I 1:8-9 ὥστἡμᾶαὐτοι—In αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ (Bא, et al.; cf. αὐτὸς ἐγω Romans 7:25, Romans 7:9:3, Romans 7:15:14, 2 Corinthians 10:1, 2 Corinthians 12:13), αὐτού gets the emphasis; in ἡμᾶς αὐτού (ADGFKL, et al.; cf. 1 Corinthians 5:13, 1 Corinthians 7:35, 1 Corinthians 11:13, Romans 16:2) ἡμᾶ

ἐν ὑμῖν. ἐνκαυχᾶσθαι κτλ The two clauses with ἐ specify respectively the object and the place of boasting. By putting the contrasted persons ἡμᾶ and ἐν ύμῖ side by side, and by choosing ἐνκαυχᾶσθα instead of καυχᾶσθα, he intensifies the point (cf. ὑπεραυξάνε). The place is described, as in 1 Corinthians 11:16, without geographical limitations, as “the churches of God” (I 2:14). To insist that every church founded up to this time has heard Paul boast, orally or in writing, of the Thessalonians, or to restrict the reference to the churches of God in Corinth and its vicinity (or more exactly to the church of God in Corinth and the brethren round about), is to forget the enthusiasm of Paul and the compliment which he is paying to his readers (cf. ἐνπαντὶ τόπῳ I 1:8).

On this interpretation, see Dob. For ἐνκαυχᾶσθα (BאA; ἐγκαυχᾶσθα P), DEKL, et al., have καυχᾶσθα, and GF καυχήσασθα The compound is rare in Gk. Bib. (Psalms 51:3, 73:4, 96:7, 105:47; cf. Psalms 100:1 Clem. 21:5); it is always construed with ἐ of the object. Of the mainly Pauline words καυχᾶσθαι, κατακαυχᾶσθαι, καύχημ and καύχησι (I 2:19), καυχᾶσθα is in Gk. Bib. usually construed with ἐ, rarely with ἐπι (Psalms 5:12, Psalms 48:7, Sir. 30:2, Proverbs 25:14); cf. Romans 5:2 with 5:3. Here, as in Galatians 6:13, the clause with ἐ precedes the verb. Polycarp 11:3 has our verse in mind when he writes de vobis etenim gloriatur in omnibus ecclesiis; cf. 11:4 et non sicut inimzicos tales existimetis with 3:15 of our letter.

ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑπομονῆς κτλ The clause with ὑπέ resumes ἐν ὑηῖ, and specifies the qualities about which he boasted, namely, their endurance and faith manifested in persecutions. Though faith and persecution are inseparable, as the omission of the article before πίστεω reveals, the ethical (ὑπομονη) takes precedence of the religious (πίστι) from which it springs and of which it is the fruit and evidence (Calvin). The selection not of faith and brotherly love (v. 3) but of faith and endurance, and the position of ὑπομονη before πίστι (cf. Philemon 1:5) are probably due to the utterances of the faint-hearted who had remonstrated against Paul’s praise of their endurance and faith (I 1:3) in his first epistle.



Here ὑπέ (contrast 2 Corinthians 7:14, 2 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Corinthians 12:15) is equivalent to περι (2 Corinthians 10:8; see below 2:1 and cf. I 5:10). In view of the context and of the usage elsewhere in I, II, πίστι is “faith” not “faithfulness” (Bengel, Lün., Born; cf. Galatians 5:22). Unnecessary is the assumption of a hendiadys whether fidei vestrae firmitatem (Th. Mops.) or ὑπομονὴ ἐν πίστε (Grot.).

ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς διωγμοῖς κτλ The fourth prepositional phrase in this verse (cf. I 3:7-8 for a similar heaping up of prepositions), namely, ἐν πᾶσιGalatians 2:4 τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμῶν ἣν ἕχομε), that they are still going on; while the emphasis on both πᾶσι and

The construction assumed above is on the whole the simplest. Some commentators (e. g. Lün.), forgetting that the presence of ταῖ (which DGFP omit) does not prevent ὑμῶ from uniting the synonymous words (cf. I 2:9 where there is an article before μόχθο), attach πᾶσι to διωγμοῖ alone (cf. 2 Corinthians 8:7), making αἶς Philemon 1:5, and Colossians 1:4 τὴν πίστιν ὑμῶν καὶ τὴν Lamentations 3:19, Mark 4:17, Matthew 13:21, Romans 8:35, 2 Corinthians 12:10). On the meaning of θλίψι, see I 1:6. The persecutions which marked the beginnings of Christianity in Thessalonica (I 1:6, 2:14) and which were going on when Paul wrote I (3:3; cf. 2:14 ff.) still continue, as the presents Genesis 45:1, Isaiah 46:4, Isaiah 63:15, Isaiah 46:2 Mac. 9:12 and N. T.) or with accus. (Job 6:26 (where A has gen.) Isaiah 1:13, Isaiah 1:3 Mac. 1:22, Malachi 1:4 Mac. 13:27), αἶ is probably not directly governed by Galatians 5:1, Galatians 5:3 Mac. 6:10; with ἐ and dat. Ezekiel 14:4, Ezekiel 14:7). But not even Weiss (35) accepts the reading of B. On the change of Galatians 5:1 where D and a few minuscules read 1 Corinthians 4:12 διωκόμενοι

5. ἔνδειγμα κτλ The faint-hearted need not worry about their future salvation, for the fact of their unexceptional endurance and faith in all their persecutions is itself a “token,” “guarantee,” “positive evidence” of the righteous judgment of God (Romans 2:5), already in purpose and soon to be declared, that they be deemed worthy of the kingdom of God, for which they, and Paul too, are continually suffering. The εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆνα expresses the purpose of δικαίας κρίσεω

Since the object of boasting specified in v. 4 is not suffering, but the constancy of their endurance and faith in the midst of persecution, ἕνδειγμ is to be taken not with the idea of suffering alone, whether with Romans 8:3, Romans 12:1); but it may be a nominative, in which case ὅ ἑστι is to be supplied on the analogy of Philippians 1:28. Ephr. and some minuscules read ἐνδείγματ; Theophylact and Codex 442 have εἰς ἔνδειγμ (cf. Romans 3:25); so similarly g, Vulg Ambst Syr. Arm have in exemplum. The distinction between the passive ἕνδειγμ (only here in Gk. Bib., but classic; cf. Plato, Critias, 110 C) and the active ἔνδειξι (in Gk. Bib. confined to Paul; Romans 3:25 f. 2 Corinthians 8:24, Philippians 1:28) is negligible; the meaning is demonstrationem (Th. Mops.), ostentamen (Tert. apud Swete). That εἰς τό κτλ is to be connected not with Luke 20:35, Acts 5:41, Acts 5:4 Mac. 18:3). It intensifies the simple άξιό (a word used by Paul only in v. 11, but found elsewhere in the N. T. and frequently in Lxx). In the N. T. καταξιό and Acts 15:38, Acts 28:22 where the meaning is “beseech,” “command,” as regularly in the Lxx) are to be rendered not “make worthy,” but “deem worthy” (cf. SH 30 ff.). Dalman (Worte Jesu, I, 97) observes that “to be worthy of the future æon” is a common rabbinical expression. On βασιλεί, see I 2:12.


ὑπὲρ ἦς καὶ πάσχετ. “For which you too (as well as we, that is, the writers) are suffering.” The present tense (πάσχετ; cf. v. 4

It is probable that και here and μεθʼ ἡμῶ (v. 7) are due to Paul’s experiences in Corinth (cf. 3:2); on και, cf. I 2:13, 3:5, 5:25, 2 Corinthians 1:6. Most commentators, however, interpret και (which F omits) as implying a correspondence not between Paul and his readers in reference to suffering, but between present suffering and future glory; so, for example, Lft., who compares 2 Timothy 2:12, and Ell. who notes Romans 8:17, Acts 14:22 and says: “και with a species of consecutive force supplies a renewed hint of the connection between suffering and the καταξιωθῆναι κτλ” (cf. also Wohl., Dob. and others). In the phrase πάσχειν ὑπέ (Philippians 1:29, 1 Peter 2:21, Acts 9:16), ὑπέ may indicate advantage (Lft.), “object for which” (Ell.), the motive or goal (“to gain which”; Lün. Schmiedel, Dob.); but it is probably equivalent to περι (cf. v. 4, 2:1; also πάσχειν περι 1 Peter 3:18 B and 2:21 A). On the thought of v. 5, cf. especially Philippians 1:28-30.

6-7a. εἴπερ δίκαιον κτλ. The “righteous judgment of God” (v. 5) is not only positive, the salvation of the readers (v. 5), but also (δίκαιον παρὰ θεῷ resuming τῆς δικαίας κρίσεως τοῦ θεου) positive and negative, in keeping with the principle of recompense sharply stated as the ius talionis, namely, θλίψι for your persecutors and ἄνεσι for you who are persecuted (cf. Luke 16:25). The principle is put conditionally (εἴπε), “not indeed as if there were the least doubt respecting the righteousness of any part of the divine procedure in judging the world. On the contrary, it is the very certainty of that truth, as something altogether beyond cavil, that emboldens the writer, by a sort of logical meiosis, to argue from it conditionally” (Lillie; cf. Pelagius: hic “si tamen” confirmantis sermo est, non dubitantis).

ἄνεσιν μεθʼ ὑμῶ. As there is a present fellowship of readers and writers in suffering (καὶ πάσχετ v. 5), so also will there be a future fellowship in “rest” or “relief” from suffering,—a genuinely Pauline touch (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:8, 2 Corinthians 1:6 ff. Philippians 1:30).

On the positive side, ἄνεσι is entrance into the kingdom (v. 5) and eternal fellowship with the Lord (v. 10 as contrasted with v. 9; cf. I 4:17 πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ). θλίψι is, according to v. 9, eternal separation from Christ, the precise opposite of I 4:17. The moral ground of ἅνεσι, not expressed at this point, is faith leading to endurance as v. 4 shows, the ὑμῖ who are persecuted being those who have exhibited an unusual endurance inspired by faith. The same stress on faith is seen in v. 10, “all who became believers,” and in the explanatory clause with ὅτ The moral ground of θλίψι, not stated in our verse, is, in the light of v. 8, which describes “those who do not reverence God and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus,” the lack of faith and its moral expression. Though the ius talionis is here exhibited in its clearest form (Ell.), the persecutors of the readers are not the only ones who are to receive θλίψι, as is evident from Romans 2:8 ff. where the disobedient receive ὀργὴ καὶ θυμός, θλίψις καὶ στενοχωρί (cf. also I 4:6, Romans 12:19, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Colossians 3:24 ff., etc.). In Romans 8:18 ff., the believers are to get δόξ for their παθήματ; in 2 Corinthians 4:17, δόξ for θλίψι On the Mosaic lex talionis, see the notes of Charles on Jub. 4:31, 48:14 and Montefiore on Matthew 5:38 ff.—εἵπε is found in Gk. Bib., apart from Paul, only Judith 6:9 Sus. (Th.) 54, 4 Mac. 11:7. The condition is of itself colourless, the truth or error of the assumption being found, if at all, in the context; here and elsewhere (unless 1 Corinthians 8:5 is excepted), the context implies the truth of the condition with εἴπε (Romans 3:30, Romans 3:8:9, Romans 3:17, 1 Corinthians 15:15, 2 Corinthians 5:3). Chrys. makes εἴπε = ἐπείπεπαρὰ θεῷ (1 Corinthians 7:24) or παρὰ τῷ θεῷ (so A here; cf. Romans 2:11, Romans 2:13, Galatians 3:11, 1 Corinthians 3:19) = “in the eyes of,” indice Deo; the day of judgment may here be in mind.—On δίκαιο, cf. Philippians 1:7; on θλίβει, I 3:4; on Romans 12:19 = Deuteronomy 32:35; also Isaiah 35:4, Isaiah 59:18, Isaiah 63:7, Isaiah 66:4, Isaiah 35:6, Jeremiah 28:6, 24, 56 f. Sir. 32:11, etc.—ἄνεσι (2 Corinthians 2:12, 2 Corinthians 2:7:5, 2 Corinthians 2:8:13; Acts 24:23; Lxx) denotes a let up from restraint; hence “liberty,” “license,” or, as here and 2 Corinthians 7:5, 2 Corinthians 7:8:13, “relief” as opposed to θλίψι; cf. Acts 3:19. ἡμῶ refers here not to all Christians (De W.), not to the saints in Israel (Bengel, Ewald), but, in view of the specific ὑμᾶ and ὑμῖ and of καὶ πάσχετ, which balances μεθʼ ἡμῶ, to Paul and his two associates (Lün., Ell., Lft., Born, Mill., Dob.). In μεθʼ ἡμῶ as in αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶ (v. 4), Schmiedel inclines to see the hand of a forger putting Paul in a position of apostolic eminence. On the other hand, Dob. remarks on μεθʼ ἡμῶ: “these two little words belong to the genuine Pauline touches for the sake of which no one, with any feeling for the way in which the mind of Paul works, can give up the authenticity of this brief epistle.”

7b-10. The description of the advent unto judgment begins with a temporal phrase, ἐν τῇ Isaiah 2:10; cf. ὄταν ἕλθῃ 2:10 and ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ 2:11).

The passage abounds in allusions to or reminiscences of the Lxx, but the only exact quotation is in v. 9, taken from the refrain of Isaiah 2:10 which is repeated in 2:19, 21: Isaiah 66:15: ἰδοὺ γὰρ κύριος ὡς πῦρ ἣξει καὶ ὡς καταιγὶς τὰ ἄρματα αὐτοῦ Jeremiah 10:25 (cf. Psalms 78:6): ἔκχεον τὸν θυμόν σου ἐπὶ ἓθνη τὰ μὴ εἰδότα σε καὶ ἐπὶ γενεὰς αἳ τὸ ὄνομά σου ἐπεκαλέσαντ and Isaiah 66:4: ὅτι ἐκάλεσα αὐτοὺς καὶ οὐχ ὑπήκουσάν μου, ἐλάλησα καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσα (cf. Isaiah 65:12) may have been running in his mind. In v. 10, where ἐνδοξασθῆνα and θαυμασθῆνα are in parallelism (cf. the description of God in Exodus 15:11), there seems to be a reminiscence of Psalms 88:8: ὁ θεὸς ἐνδοξαζόμενος ἐν βουλῇ ἁγίων, μέγας καὶ φοβερὸς ἐπὶ πάντας τοὺς περικύκλῳ αὐτου, and of Ps. 67:35 (א): θαυμαστὸςθεὸς ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτου; cf. also Isaiah 49:3 and 66:5: εἴπατε, Jude 1:3:10 and Eth. En. 61:10 “the angels of power”), ὅλεθρος αἰώνιο (4 Mac. 10:15 (A); cf. Eth. En. 84:5 Ps. Sol. 2:35 (cf. 3:13) Numbers 31:3, Sir. 12:6, 32:23). The aorist πιστεύσασι (v. 10) instead of the present is due to the situation. It happens that “the gospel of our Lord Jesus” like “the gospel of his Son” in Romans 1:9 is unique in Paul.

While McGiffert (EB 5054) throws out the hint that vv. 6-10 are a possible interpolation, Born (cf. Find. lvii and Moff. Introd. 80) suggests that in vv. 6-10a or vv. 7b-10c Paul is citing or alluding to a Christian hymn. It has also been conjectured (cf. Encyc. Brit.11 XXVI, 841) that in vv. 7b-10 Paul is adapting to his own purposes a fragment of a Jewish apocalypse or a psalm like one of the Psalms of Solomon. The adaptation would consist in the insertion of Ἰησου (vv. 7, 8) and of the parenthesis ὅτἐφʼ ὑμᾶ (v. 10); and in the substitution of εὐαγγελίῳ (v. 8) for, say, λόγῳ (cf. 2 Chronicles 11:4 A), and of πᾶσι and πιστεύσασι (v. 10) for, say, πιστεύουσι (Isaiah 28:16 B). The insertion of Ἰησου would occur to any Christian; but the change from λόγῳ to εὐαγγελίῳ betrays the hand of Paul, for ὑπακούειν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ is found elsewhere in N. T. only Romans 10:16 (First Peter would have used not ὑπακούει but

7b. ἐν τῇ 1 Corinthians 1:7; cf. Luke 17:30) of the Messiah, just as in the first epistle of Peter” (Briggs, Messiah of the Apostles, 90 ff.; cf. 1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:13).

Of the twenty-two instances of 1 Corinthians 1:7, it is equivalent to παρουσί Underlying this use of 1 Corinthians 1:7). Mill., however, who discusses carefully (141-151)

ἀπʼ οὺρανοῦ κτλ. With three prepositional phrases (cf. I 4:16), the revelation is described in reference to the place “from heaven,” to the attendant retinue “with his angels of power,” and to the manner “in a fire of flame.” (1) The Romans 1:18), namely, by coming down from heaven (I 4:16) either toward the earth and within the range of human vision, or to the earth. (2) The ἄγγελοι δυνάμεως αὐτου suggests the ἄγγελος δυνάμεω (Test. xii, Jude 1:3:10) and “all the angels of power and all the angels of principalities” (Eth. En. 61:10); and invites the translation “his angels of power” (cf. αὐτου in Revelation 13:3, Hebrews 1:3, Colossians 1:13). (3) The manner in which the revelation is pictured, ἐν πυρὶ φλογί, is in keeping with the descriptions of theophanies in the O. T., for example, Exodus 3:2 where the ἄγγελος κυρίο appears ἐν πυρὶ φλογὸς ἐκ τοῦ βάτο and Isaiah 66:15 κύριος ὡς πῦρ ἥξε (cf. Psalms 49:3, etc.).

Usually αὐτου is taken solely with δυνάμεω and the gen. is explained as possessive: “which serves to mark that to which the ἄγγελο appertained and of which they were the ministers; exponents and instruments of his power” (Ell.). Dob. regards “his power” as a periphrasis for “his.” Calv. observes: angelos potentiae vocal in quibus sham potestatem exseret (cf. Bengel and Schmiedel). Some Gk. fathers (e. g. Theophylact and Œcumenius) and some moderns (e. g. Piscator, Flatt, Jowett) interpret with A. V. “his mighty angels.” Still others (see Lillie, ad loc.), taking δύναμι = “host” (cf. Psalms 32:6, Psalms 32:4 Reg. 21:5, etc.), translate “the host of his angels” (cf. Pesh). Hofmann avoids the difficulty but spoils the rhythm by joining αὐτου with διδόντο Since the position of αὐτου allows it, it is simpler to take “angels of power” as a class and αὐτου as a gen. poss. governing both ἄγγελο and δυνάμεω On ἄγγελο, see on I 4:16 and Charles’s notes on Eth. En. 61:10 and Slav. En. 20:1.—The phrase ἐν πυπὶ φλογό (אAKLP, etc.) is found also in Sir. 8:10, 45:19 (+ αὐτου) Exodus 3:2 (B) Ps. Sol. 12:5, Acts 7:30 (ACE); the easier reading ἐν φλογὶ πυρὀ (BDEGF, et al.) occurs also in Isaiah 66:15, Exodus 3:2 (AF) Acts 7:30 (אDB, et al.); compare the rather frequent φλὸξ πυρό (Isaiah 29:6, Daniel 7:9, Sir. 21:9, etc.). The reference is to the glorious brilliancy of the revelation. Some commentators however (see Lillie), because of the present connection with judgment, assume that the fire is a burning, purifying fire (cf. the ποταμὸς πυρό in Daniel 7:10) as in 1 Corinthians 3:13; and join the ἐ closely with διδόντο, thus specifying the manner or instrument of punishment. Still others (e. g. Lft., Dob.) are inclined to make the fire do double service. On the idea involved, see Bousset, Relig2 320.

8. διδόντος ἐκδίκησιν κτλ. The revelation of the Lord Jesus is further described by the loosely attached διδόντο (agreeing not with φλογό, which is feminine, but with τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησου) as a revelation unto judgment, resuming the thought of v. 6 but putting it generally. The objects of the divine justice are defined in a unique parallelism as “those who do not know (that is, respect and worship) God and those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus.” Since ἔθνεσι does not appear in the first member (contrast I 4:5, Jeremiah 10:25, Psalms 78:6), and since the repetition of the article is not incompatible with synonymous parallelism (cf. Psalms 35:11), it is not certain, though the usage of Paul makes it probable, that the Gentiles are in mind in the first member (cf. I 4:3, Galatians 4:8, Romans 1:28, Ephesians 2:12) and the Jews in the second member (cf. especially Romans 10:16). Though the statement is general, Paul may have had in mind distinctly τοῖς θλίβουσιν ὑμᾶ (v. 6) who were both Gentiles, the official persecutors and Jews, the instigators of persecution.

The distinction, assumed above as probable, is made among others by Ephr., Grot., Lün., Lillie, Ell., Dob. On the other hand, since ἔθνεσι is omitted and the article repeated in the second member is unobjectionable, the parallelism may be synonymous (cf. v. 10 ἁγίοι and πιστεύσασι), and non-Christians, irrespective of race, may be meant (e. g. Calv., Vincent, Mill.); in fact, Paul refers to the disobedience of the Gentiles (Romans 11:30); but does not, as the O. T. (e. g. Jeremiah 9:6) does, speak of the Jews as not knowing God. Still other interpreters, while distinguishing two classes, take the first member as referring to the Gentiles with a distinct allusion to Jeremiah 10:25, and the second as referring to both Jews and Gentiles (e. g. Lft., Schmiedel, Born, Wohl.).—Though the first member of the parallelism may have been influenced unconsciously by Jeremiah 10:25 and the second by Isaiah 66:4, yet the parallelism as a whole is unique and the second member distinctly Pauline; for ὑπακούειν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ is not found in Lxx, Ps. Sol., Test. xii, or Apost. Fathers, and is found elsewhere in N. T. only Romans 10:16.—The exact phrase “the gospel of our Lord Jesus” is, like “the gospel of his Son” in Romans 1:9, unique in the N. T. The substitution of “our Lord Jesus” for “Christ” is natural in view of the divine name ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ (see on I 2:19); and in Romans 1:9 “the gospel of his Son” is natural in view of Romans 1:3 τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτου In our passage, אAGF add Χριστου to Ιηστου—On διδόναι ἐκδίκησίν τιν, cf. Numbers 31:3, Sir. 12:6 Deuteronomy 32:43, Sir. 32:23 Exodus 12:12, Numbers 33:4, Ezekiel 25:17, etc.). On ἐκδίκησι (Romans 12:19, 2 Corinthians 7:11), see ἔκδικο I 4:6.—GF insert και before ἐν πυρι; DGF read διδού for διδόντο; Stephanus begins v. 8 with in flamma ignis; PL insert τό before θεό conforming to I 4:5.—ὑπακούει (Romans 6:12 ff.) is common in Lxx and construed usually with gen., sometimes with dat. (2 Chronicles 11:4 (A) Jeremiah 3:25).


9. οἵτινες δίκην κτλ. “Men who shall pay the penalty of eternal destruction from the presence of the Lord Jesus and from the glory of his strength.” With οἵτινε, designating a class, τοῖς μὴ εἰδόδιἸησου (v. 8) is resumed; similarly with δίκην τίσουσι, the διδόντος ἐκδίκησι (v. 8) is resumed. An advance over v. 8 is, however, made in that the penalty is announced as an eternal banishment from Christ.

ὄλεθρον αἰώνιο. This phrase, in apposition with δίκη, occurs elsewhere in the Gk. Bib. only 4 Mac. 10:15 (A); it is equivalent (see I 5:3) to Mark 3:29, Matthew 25:46; cf. Daniel 12:2). Beyond the statement of the fact of an eternal banishment and separation, Paul does not go; he says nothing of πῦρ αἰώνιο (Jude 1:7, Matthew 18:8, Matthew 25:41).

ἀπὸ προσώπου κυρίον κτλ. The banishment from Christ is expressed in language drawn from the refrain of Isaiah 2:10, Isaiah 2:19, Isaiah 2:21:

The classic distinction between ὅ and ὅστι (found in every letter of Paul except I and Phile.) is apparently observed by Paul (Bl 50:1); hence quippe qui, “men who” (Ell., Lft., Mill.; also SH. on Romans 1:25).—δίκ, a classic word, rare in N. T. (Jude 1:7, Acts 28:4) but common in Lxx, means either “justice” (Sap. 1:8), “suit at law” (Job 29:16) or “punishment” (Sap. 18:11, 2 Mac. 8:11, 13, 4 Mac. 6:28, 9:32). τίνει is found elsewhere in Gk. Bib. only Proverbs 20:22, Proverbs 20:24:22, 44, Proverbs 20:27:12 (τίει); the phrase τίνειν δίκη is classic, but is not found elsewhere in Gk. Bib.; it is equivalent to τίνειν ζημία (Proverbs 27:12), or ζημιοῦ (1 Corinthians 3:15); cf. ἐκδικεῖν δίκη (Leviticus 26:25, Ezekiel 25:12); Deuteronomy 32:41, Deuteronomy 32:43).—With the phrase ὄλεθρος αἰώνιο (see Vincent, ad loc.) is to be compared ζωὴ αἰώνιο (Romans 2:7, Romans 5:21, Romans 6:22 f. Galatians 6:3), destruction being the opposite of life. The adjective or its equivalent αἰῶνο is common in the Lxx (e. g. Sir. 15:6, 17:12, 45:15; Ps. Sol. 2:35); its meaning is to be determined not from Greek etymology but from the usage of עולם, that is, long duration whether looking forward or backward, to futurity or antiquity (BDB). The exact duration intended depends upon the writer; in Eth. En. 10:11 the ζωὴ αἰώνιο is five hundred years; in Daniel as in the N. T. the age to come is of unlimited duration; hence αἰώνιο “belonging to the age” means to Paul “eternal” and “everlasting.” A reads ὀλέθριο (cf. 3 Reg. 21:42 Sap. 18:15). On the duration of punishment in Jewish literature, see Bousset, Relig2 320, Volz, Eschat 286 ff., and Kennedy, Last Things, 316; on αἰώ, see Dalman, Worte Jesu, I, 120 ff.—That Galatians 5:4, Romans 9:3, 2 Corinthians 11:3, is generally admitted (Piscator, Riggenbach, Lün., Ell., Lft., Born, Vincent, Mill., Dob. et al.). Grammatically possible, however, is (1) the causal sense of Acts 3:19; so apparently Grot., Schmiedel, Find., Wohl.). (3) Possible also grammatically but “pointless in sense” (Find.) is the explanation of Acts 5:41, Acts 7:45, Revelation 6:16, Revelation 12:14, Revelation 20:11) κυρίο is due to the influence of Isaiah 2:10.—On δόξ, see I 2:6; on ἰσχύ (Ephesians 1:19, Ephesians 6:10), rare in N. T. but common in Lxx, see especially 1 Chronicles 16:28, Psalms 146:5.—DGF omit του before κυρίο—In his references to the destruction of the wicked (vv. 6 a, 8-9), Paul refrains from details, contenting himself with the fact of eternal separation. Furthermore, since ἐν πυρὶ φλογό describes not the means of punishment but the manner of the Christophany, it is probable that “his angels of power” are not the angels of punishment (Eth. En. 62:11 f.) but the attendant retinue of angels who accord to Christ glory and admiration by reason of his saving work manifested in the saints and believers who stand before the βῆμα Χριστου (v. 10).


10. ὅταν ἔλθκτλ. With this relative conditional sentence designating the time of δίκην τίσουσι, Paul resumes the point of vv. 5, 7a and indicates the beginning of the future salvation of the readers which is eternal fellowship with the Lord. This indication is put in a unique parallelism the language of which betrays the influence of the Lxx: “when he comes (ὅταν ἔλθῃ balancing ἐν τῇ

Both ὅτα and ἐν τῆ ἡμέρᾳ (a phrase only here in Paul; cf. Luke 10:12, Luke 10:17:31, 2 Timothy 1:18, 2 Timothy 4:8) seem to have been influenced by Isaiah 2:10 ff.; on the other hand, the total phrase ἐνδοξασθῆνατοῖς πιστεύσασι, though it shows traces of resemblance to Psalms 88:8, 67:36 (א) Isaiah 49:3, Isaiah 66:5, is unique. The verb ἐνδοξάζεσθα, here and v. 12 (cf. Isaiah 66:5), like ἐνκαυχᾶσθα (v. 4), is unclassic; it is found about thirteen times in the Lxx, usually with ἐ (cf. Exodus 15:11 δεδοξασμένος ἐν ὑμῖν, θαυμαστὸς ἐν δόξαι). This ἐ (which is also frequent with the more common δοξάζεσθα) is in the Lxx to be explained either as (1) of place where (Psalms 88:8 ἐνδοξαζόμενος ἐν βουλῆ ἁγίω; Ps. 67:36 (א) θαυμαστὸς ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτου; cf. 1 Malachi 3:14 א); (2) of instrument (Isaiah 49:3 (B); cf. δοξάζεσθαιIsaiah 5:16, etc.); or (3) of ground (Isaiah 45:25, Sir 38:6; cf. δοξάζεσθαι ἐ Sir. 48:4; θαυμάζεσθαιIsaiah 61:6 (B). The ἐ is not δια (Sir. 10:30) or ὑπο (Sir. 3:20)). Were Paul distinctly quoting Psalms 88:8, 67:36, it would be natural to take ἐ of place where, “among” (Michaelis, Van Ess., and others noted by Lillie; so also Dob.), in spite of the fact that the local sense does not fit v. 12 (ἐν αὐτῷ). This theory, however, does not compel us to assume that the persons who accord the glory and admiration are not “his angels of power” but Christians. On the other hand, since Paul is not quoting, and since his interest is not in the external features of the judgment but is in the character of the people (cf. v. 8) present, it is more probable that ἐ is to be understood not of place, or even of instrument (Chrys., Bengel; ἐ = δια with gen.), but of ground (Grot., Lün., Ell., Lillie, Lft., Schmiedel, Born, Find., Wohl., Mill., et al.); cf. Pelagius: “he himself is to be glorified in his members which shall shine with the brightness of the sun” (on this ἐ, see Galatians 1:24, 1 Corinthians 6:20). In virtue of what the saints and all believers are (by reason of the death and the indwelling of Christ), the attendant angels ascribe glory and admiration to Christ. This view of ἐ is also applicable to the ἐ of v. 12. There is no hint that the glory which proceeds from the Lord has already entered into the Christians.—On θαυμάζεσθαι ἐ, cf. Sap. 8:11 (ἐ of place), Sir. 33:4 (א; ἐ of instrument), and Isaiah 61:6 (B; ἐ of ground).—οἱ ἅγιοι αὐτου is in synonymous parallelism with πάντες οἱ πιστεύσαντε; both refer to Christians irrespective of race.—That ὅτὑμᾶ is parenthetical was noted by Th. Mops., Zim. and Wohl. less naturally connect ὅτ with the preceding infinitives, “to be glorified and admired in the fact that our witness,” etc.—τὸ μαρτύριο (see I 1:5) = τὸ εὐαγγέλιο (v. 8); τὸ μαρτύριον ἡμῶ (which is equivalent to τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶ 2:14, I 1:5 and τὸ κήρυγμα ἡμῶ 1 Corinthians 15:14) is the witness, inspired by God (1 Corinthians 2:1) or Christ (1 Corinthians 1:6), which we preach. It is the witness which (sc. το) is (not “against” you; Luke 9:5, Numbers 35:30 A; but) “over” you (1 Mac. 2:37 μαρτυρεῖ ἐφʼ ὑμᾶςοὐρανὸς καὶγη).—ἐπιστεύθ = “was believed,” as πιστεύσασι suggests, the reference being to the welcome given to the gospel at the beginning. It is interesting that πιστεύεσθα in this sense is used with an impersonal subject elsewhere in the N. T. only Romans 10:10 (contrast 1 Timothy 3:16). Lft. joins ἐπιστεύθ with ἐπι and paraphrases thus: “belief in our testimony directed itself to reach you.” Hort and Moff. accept Markland’s conjecture ἐπιστώθ (which Cod. 104 reads). Hort explains in connection with vv. 4-5 that “the Christian testimony had been confirmed and sealed upon the Thessalonians.” He compares 1 Corinthians 1:6, Psalms 92:4, Psalms 92:5 and πιστοῦσθαι ἐπί τιν 1 Chronicles 17:23 (which is doubtful) and 2 Chronicles 1:9. The conjecture, however, is unnecessary.


11-12. Though the faint-hearted may thus be assured of their being deemed worthy of the kingdom, yet (cf. I 5:8 ff.) they must be blameless (cf. I 3:13) in order to enter into the same. Since blamelessness is possible only through the power of God, Paul adds a prayer: “to which end (namely, the future salvation implied in v. 10; cf. ἄνεσι v. 8 and εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆνα v. 5), we too as well as you pray always that our God may deem you worthy (that is, acquit you at the judgment) of the calling (of God mediated by the preaching of our witness; cf. 2:14) and (that the acquittal may follow) bring to completion every resolve after goodness and every work inspired by faith in power” (that is, of the Spirit). This prayer for moral perfection is to the eventual end “that (ὅπω) the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you (that is, as in v. 10, in virtue of what you are) and you may be glorified in it” (that is, in virtue of what his name accomplishes). And this blessed consummation is “in accordance with the divine favour of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.”

11. εἰςκαὶ προσευχόμεθα κτλ. Though εἰς ο is loosely attached to the preceding and refers to the idea of salvation implied in v. 10, it is yet tempting (with Lft.) to connect it directly with εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆνα (v. 5), the controlling idea of vv. 5-12 being that the faint-hearted may be assured of their being deemed worthy of the kingdom. In this case, εἰς ο denotes purpose “to which end,” and is resumed by ἴν (likewise telic) Colossians 1:9).

That εἰς ο indicates purpose is recognised by De W., Riggenbach, Lillie, Lft., Born, Vincent, Find., Mill., and others. The objection that it is logically impossible (e. g. Lün., Dob.) overlooks Paul’s recognition of the facts of religious experience and his interest in righteousness as essential unto future salvation (cf. I 3:13, 5:8-9). To be sure salvation is assured to those who are in Christ, but the test of being in Christ is ethical. Those who deny the telic force of εἰς ο take it of reference (Lün., Ell., Schmiedel, Dob., et al.). On εἰς τοῦτο ἵν, cf. Romans 14:9, 2 Corinthians 2:9; on ἵνεἰςκαι, cf. Colossians 1:28 f.; on εἰς ο, see further 2:14, Philippians 3:16.—Bacon sees the force of και but interprets differently: “it is clear that they had assured him of their prayers in his behalf, as requested I 5:25” (Introd. 72). Others see in και the intimation of a correspondence between prayer on the one hand and on the other hope (Ell.), witness (Find.), or thanksgiving (Riggenbach, Wohl., Dob., Moff.).—Influenced by I 5:25 D inserts a second και before περὶ ὑμῶ On πάντοτ, see I 1:2; on προσεύχεσθαι περι, see I 5:25. For the prayer at this point, cf. Philippians 1:9, Colossians 1:9.

ἵνα ὑμᾶς 1 Corinthians 7:20, Ephesians 4:1) is, in view of “our God,” to be interpreted not as “your calling” (1 Corinthians 1:26, Ephesians 4:4) but as “God’s calling” (Romans 11:29, Philippians 3:14; cf. Vulg vocatione sua), the reference being to God’s act of calling in the past (I 2:12, 4:7, 5:24) mediated through the preaching of the gospel (2:14), i. e. “our witness to you” (v. 10). ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶ, a characteristic phrase in our letters (see I 2:2), intimates that just as there is a common suffering of Paul and his readers (καὶ πάσχετ v. 5), and a common relief (μεθʼ ὑμῶ v. 7), so also there is a common fellowship in God, the ultimate source of salvation.

Many interpreters find difficulty in referring κλῆσι to the past, on the ground, apparently, that the historical call of God of itself involves future salvation. Paul, however, while practically certain that all believers will be acquitted at the βῆμα Χριστου because of the presence in them of Christ or the Spirit as the power unto righteousness, reckons with the possibility that believers may fall out of the realm of grace and disregard the promptings of the Spirit (cf. I 3:13, 5:8 ff. Galatians 5:4, 2 Corinthians 6:1, and the implications of Philippians 2:12). To avoid the supposed difficulty, κλοῆσι, contrary to Paul’s usage, is understood of the future glory and blessedness (Th. Mops. ut dignos vos bonorum illorum exhibeat deus, in quorum et vocati estis fruitionem; cf. Calv., Riggenbach, Ell., Lft., Mill., et al.) either on the analogy of Philippians 3:14, of ἐλπί in Colossians 1:5, or of the Synoptic “invitation” to the Messianic Supper (Matthew 22:3, Matthew 22:8; cf. Chrys., Schmiedel, Wohl. et al.). Others, contrary to usage, take 2 Timothy 1:9, Hebrews 3:1, 2 Peter 1:10, Judith 12:10 (A) Jeremiah 38:6, Jeremiah 38:3 Mac. 5:14).


καὶ πληρώσκτλ. Since

πῦσαν εὐδοκίαν Galatians 5:22, Romans 15:14, Ephesians 5:9) is a fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22) akin to χρηστότη; over against κακί it denotes singleness of heart (Sap. 1:1; cf. Colossians 3:22, Ephesians 6:5).


καὶ ἔργον πίστεω. “And every (sc. πᾶ) work of faith.” This second of the parallel objects of πληρώσῃ refers to the activity inspired by faith, that is, not specifically endurance in persecution (Chrys.), but generally, as the omission of the articles (in keeping with εὐδοκίαν

ἐν δυνάμε. “In power,” that is, in the power of God (Ephr.). The phrase, which is to be construed with πληρώσῃ, puts the stress on the energy exercised by the divine (Romans 1:4, Colossians 1:29). The δύναμις θεου is Christ (1 Corinthians 1:24) or the Spirit (I 1:5) without whose aid the resolve after goodness and the attainment of love would be impossible.



ἀλαθωσύν is quite frequent in Koheleth; cf. also Nehemiah 9:25, Nehemiah 9:35; εὐδοκί, apart from Luke 2:14, Luke 10:21, Matthew 11:26, is employed in N. T. only by Paul (of God Philippians 2:13, Ephesians 1:5, Ephesians 1:9; cf. Sir. 32:5, 41:4; of men Romans 10:1, Philippians 1:15); on its meaning, see SH or Zahn on Romans 10:1, also Kennedy, Sources, 131.—Since εὐδοκί need not refer to God’s good will, “goodness which is his good pleasure” (Grot.), “his good pleasure proceeding from his goodness” (Calv.), or “his good pleasure in the goodness of men” (Dob.), it is unnecessary, especially in a context in which moral excellence is in mind, to take ἔργον πίστεω = “work which is faith” (gen. of apposition), that is, God’s work of faith (Calv., Dob.). In fact most commentators rightly refer both εὐδοκί and ἔργο to the Thessalonians (De W., Lün., Ell., Lillie, Lft., Mill. and especially Schmiedel and Wohl. who note the progress from will (εὐδοκί) to deed (ἔργο)).

12. ὅπως ἐνδοξασθῇ κτλ. The clause with ὅπω (dependent on ἵν v. 11) states the ultimate purpose of the prayer in language reminiscent of Isaiah 66:5, and similar to but more specific than (not ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτου but ἐν ὑμῖ) that of v. 10: “that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you,” that is, in virtue of (ἐ of ground as in v. 10) what you are at the last day, blameless in holiness. Following the usage of the O. T., ὄνομ signifies what is involved in the Christian estimate of Jesus, namely, his Lordship and Messiahship (κύριο and Χριστό, Acts 2:36, Philippians 2:9 ff.). Here, however (contrast Philippians 2:11, 1 Corinthians 1:2, 1 Corinthians 1:10, 1 Corinthians 1:6:11, Ephesians 5:20), only the Lordship is mentioned (AGP, et al., add Χριστου); the name is not simply Jesus, but “our Lord Jesus” (1 Corinthians 5:4; cf. Colossians 3:17). The idea underlying the clause with ὅπω seems to be that at the last judgment, at the beginning of the eternal fellowship with Christ, the name “our Lord Jesus” is named with loud acclaims (perhaps by the attendant angelic hosts), in virtue of the goodness and love of the Thessalonians perfected by God through the Spirit. What was in God’s purpose, “that they be deemed worthy of the kingdom of God” (v. 5), will then be realised.


καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐν αὐτῷ. Advancing beyond v. 10, Paul here states explicitly that the relation in glory between the Lord Jesus and his servants is reciprocal; they too are accorded honour and glory in virtue of what the name of our Lord Jesus has done for them: “and that you may be glorified in (ἐ of ground) it,” that is, the name.

κατὰ τὴν χάριν κτλ. The glorification for which prayer is made is in accordance with the divine favour (I 1:1) of “our God” (v. 11) and the Lord Jesus Christ, just as it is with the purpose of God (v. 5). The statement is put positively; a contrast with human effort is not here indicated (contrast with Lft. Romans 4:16, Romans 11:5 f, Ephesians 2:5, Ephesians 2:8).

In view of v. 10 and of ὅπω after ἵν, it is all but certain that the reference here is not to the present (Dob.) but to the future glorification (so most). In Paul, ὅπω is much less frequent than ἵν; for the sequence here, cf. 1 Corinthians 1:27 ff. 2 Corinthians 8:13 f.—On ὄνομ, cf. Psalms 85:9, Psalms 85:12, Isaiah 24:15, Isaiah 42:10, Malachi 1:11, Daniel 3:26, and see Deiss. BS 35 ff. 143 ff., NBS. 24 ff., and TLZ 1904, 199 ff. The parallelism makes probable that αὐτῷ refers to ὄνομ (Hofmann, Lün., Schmiedel, Wohl., Dob.); the meaning would be the same were the reference to “our Lord Jesus.” Neither here nor in v. 10 is there a clear hint of δόξ entering into the believer.—GF omit καὶ ὑμεῖΧριστου—In the salutations Romans 9:5 (cf. Titus 2:13, John 20:28, 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11); Dob. would delete καὶ κυρίου Ἰ. Χ as a gloss; Hilgenfeld sees in the phrase an evidence of the spuriousness of II. Inasmuch, however, as ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶ (not θεὸς ἡμῶ) is characteristic of our letters (see I 2:2), and κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστό, without the article, is a fixed formula, it is probable that we should, with most interpreters, distinguish between “our God” and “the Lord Jesus Christ.” K omits του; the Latins naturally do not help.










אԠא (e a p r). Cod. Sinaiticus, saec. iv, now at St. Petersburg. Edited by Tischendorf, its discoverer, in 1862. Photographic reproduction by H. and K. Lake, Oxford, 1911. Contains I and II complete.

A A (e a p r). Cod. Alexandrinus, saec. v, now in the British Museum. Edited by Woide in 1786. Facsimile by E. M. Thompson, 1879. Contains I and II complete.

B B (e a p r). Cod. Vaticanus, saec. iv, now in the Vatican Library. Photographic reproduction by Cozza-Luzi, Rome, 1889, and by the Milan firm of Hoepli, 1904. Contains I and II complete.

D D (p). Cod. Claromontanus, saec. vi, Graeco-Latin, now in the National library at Paris. Edited by Tischendorf in 1852. Contains I and II complete.

Bl F. Blass, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch (1896, 19022).

Th. Theodore of Mopsuestia, in epistolas Pauli commentarii (ed. H. B. Swete, 1880-82).

Wohl Wohlenberg.

Born Bornemann.

Dob Ernst von Dobschütz,

Lün Lünemann.

Chrys Chrysostom.

Grot Hugo de Groot (Grotius).

G G (p). Cod. Boernerianus, saec. ix, now in the Royal Library at Dresden. “It is closely related to F, according to some the archetype of F” (Souter). Edited by Matthaei, 1791. Im Lichtdruck nachgebildet, Leipzig (Hiersemann), 1909. Contains I and II complete.

F F (p). Cod. Augiensis, saec. ix, Graeco-Latin, now in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. An exact transcript by Scrivener, 1859. Contains I and II complete.

K K (a p). Cod. Mosquensis, saec. ix, now at Moscow. Collated by Matthaei, 1782. Contains I and II complete.

L L (a p). Cod. Angelicus, saec. ix, now in the Angelican Library at Rome. Collated among others by Tischendorf (1843) and Tregelles (1845). Contains I and II complete.

P P (a p r). Cod. Porphyrianus, saec. ix, now at St. Petersburg. Edited by Tischendorf (1865). Contains I and II except I 3:5 μηκετιημεις οι 4:17.

E E Cod. Sangermanensis, saec. ix, now at St. Petersburg. A copy of D.

Ephr Ephraem Syrus.

Lft Lightfoot.

Mill George Milligan.

Weiss B. Weiss in TU. XIV, 3 (1896).

Zim F. Zimmer, Der Text der Thessalonicherbriefe (1893).

Calv Calvin.

De De Wette.

Lillie John Lillie, Epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians, Translated from the Greek, with Notes (1856).

Ell Ellicott.

g g Latin of the bilingual G

Vulg Vulgate.

Ambst Ambrosiaster.

Arm Armenian version.

C C (e a p r). Cod. Ephraemi Rescriptus, saec. v, now in the National Library at Paris. The N. T. fragments were edited by Tischendorf in 1843. Contains I 1:2 ευχαριστουμεν—2:8 εγενηθητε.

Vincent M. R. Vincent, Word Studies in the N. T., vol. IV, 1900.

BMT E. D. Burton, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in N. T. Greek (18983).

Lxx The Old Testament in Greek (ed. H. B. Swete, 1887-94).

SH Comm. on Romans in ICC. by W. Sanday an A. C. Headlam.

EB The Encyclopædia Biblica (London, 1899-1903; ed. J. S. Black and T. K. Cheyne).

Find G. G. Findlay.

Moff James Moffatt.

Meyer Kritisch-exegetischer Komm. über das N. T.

Pesh Syriac Vulgate.

Bousset, W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter (19062).

BDB Brown, Driver, Briggs, Heb.-Eng. Lexicon.

Volz, Paul Volz, Jüdische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba (1903).

Kennedy, H. A. A. Kennedy, St. Paul’s Conceptions of the Last Things (1904).

Kennedy, Sources of N. T. Greek (1895).

Deiss. A. Deissmann, Bibelstudien (1895).

TLZ Theologische Literaturzeitung.



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Bibliographical Information
Driver, S.A., Plummer, A.A., Briggs, C.A. "Commentary on 2 Thessalonians 1". International Critical Commentary NT. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/icc/2-thessalonians-1.html. 1896-1924.