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Bible Commentaries

Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Acts 22

Verse 1

Acts 22:1 . Πατέρες , Fathers ) There were present high priests and elders. νυνὶ , now ) Heretofore they had not heard him by reason of the tumult. His defence looks back to ch. Acts 21:28 ; for as there, so also here, mention is made of the person of Paul, Acts 22:3 ; of the people and of the law, Acts 22:3 ; Acts 22:5 ; Acts 22:12 ; of the temple, Acts 22:17 ; of the teaching of all men, Acts 22:15-44.22.17 ; Acts 22:21 ; and of the truth of the doctrine taught, Acts 22:6 , etc. Moreover he handles these topics with much energy, as his time was limited.

Verse 2

Acts 22:2 . Τῇ Ἑβραΐδι , in the Hebrew tongue) Many seem to have been previously ignorant, that the person about whom the commotion was raised, even knew Hebrew.

Verse 3

Acts 22:3 . Ἐγω , I ) By this defence the cry is refuted of which ch. Act 21:28 treated. For the weightiest reasons, and in a peculiar way, Paul speaks so much as he does concerning himself in this passage and ch. Acts 26:4-44.26.5 . Comp. 1 Peter 2:9 . μὲν , indeed ) There follows δὲ but , in Acts 22:6 . ἀνὴρ , a man ) This speech has a singular degree of ἐνάργεια and distinctness. παρὰ τοὺς πόδας , at the feet ) Again in turn, the teacher is said to be from the head [a capite, at or on the head ] of his disciple: 2 Kings 2:3 , “The Lord will take away thy master from thy head to-day.” The teacher sits: the disciple sits in a lower place, or else stands; sometimes disciples even prostrated themselves. ἀκρίβειαν , the truth, the accurate or perfect manner ) the choice (carefully sought out) mode of teaching, peculiar to the Pharisees: ch. Acts 26:5 . ζηλωτὴς τοῦ Θεοῦ , zealous towards God ) ζηλωτὴς is a word intermediate between a good and bad sense: ζηλωτὴς Θεοῦ , one zealous towards God , is used as ζῆλος Θεοῦ , a zeal of God , or a zeal towards God , Romans 10:2 . Both passages have some degree of Mimesis [allusion to the language or sentiments of another, whom we are refuting]: for the Jews thought, that they gave honour to God in proportion as they detracted (derogated) from Jesus Christ. καθὼς , even as ) A conciliatory argument. ὑμεῖς , ye ) ch. Acts 21:28 ; Acts 21:36 .

Verse 4

Acts 22:4 . Ταύτην , this way) Christianity. At first he speaks indefinitely. δεσμεύων , binding ) An appropriate word, employed by one that was bound .

Verse 5

Acts 22:5 . Μαρτυρεῖ μοι , beareth me witness ) It was evident that he could bear Paul witness: Paul does not doubt that he is willing to do so; hence he speaks in a kind tone. Afterwards in ch. Acts 26:5 , he speaks in a more severe tone. ἀδελφοὺς , brethren ) Jews: ch. Acts 2:29 .

Verse 6

Acts 22:6 . [ Μοι , to me ) It is an excellent thing when any one is able rightly to narrate in detail his own conversion. Many are so won to the Gospel, unless they have been hardened beyond measure, Acts 22:19 . V. g.] περὶ μεσημβρίαν , about noon ) All things were done in clear day-light.

Verse 10

Acts 22:10 . Τέτακταί σοι , it is appointed for thee ) The Divine appointment is the sphere of the godly: whatever they do is a realisation (repræsentatio, a vivid exhibition or ready performance ) of that appointment.

Verse 12

Acts 22:12 . Κατοικούντων , who dwelt ) Understand there , as in ch. Acts 13:1 , τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν , “the church which was there .” They knew Ananias well. These Jews that dwelt (there) may seem to be put in opposition to the Jews οἱ περιερχόμενοι , who wandered about , “vagabond,” ch. Acts 19:13 .

Verse 14

Acts 22:14 . Ὁ Θεὸς τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν , the God of our fathers ) ch. Acts 3:13 , note [a frequent appellation in the Acts above the other books of the New Testament, appropriate to that time, when the promises made to “the fathers” were being fulfilled]. προεχειρίσατό σε , hath appointed thee [beforehand]) Ananias affirms that this vision was vouchsafed to Paul as an act of grace, not in wrath. τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ ) His will , a righteous will, which is set forth in Christ: ch. Acts 20:27 ; John 6:38-43.6.39 . ἰδεῖν τὸν Δίκαιον , to see the Just One ) An extraordinary benefit. Christ, who was always just (righteous), is now also altogether exempt even from the sin of others, which had been imposed on Him: Hebrews 9:28 . Since His having gone to the Father, as our “Advocate” or Paraclete, 1 John 2:1 , we do not now see Him, John 16:10 : and yet He was beheld by Paul. Moreover He is the Just One, because He fulfilled all the will of the Father in (by) Himself, and fulfils it in us. This His justice, or righteousness, is the sum of the Gospel, of which Paul is made the witness. Paul also afterwards saw this Just One: Acts 22:18 , ch. Acts 26:16 .

Verse 15

Acts 22:15 . Μάρτυς , a witness ) by seeing and hearing: Acts 22:14 . πάντας , all men) even the Gentiles.

Verse 16

Acts 22:16 . Τί μέλλεις , why tarriest thou? ) Quickly, saith he, strive to pass from a state of grief to a state of peace. ἀπόλουσαι , wash away ) receiving baptism.

Verse 17

Acts 22:17 . Ὑποστρέψαντι , when I was returned or come again ) The first return of Paul is mentioned in ch. Acts 9:26 . The Genitive succeeds to this Dative, προσευχομένον μου , to which the Latin Ablative corresponds, orante me ; for these words have more connection with the trance , than the μοι ὑποστρέψαντι have. ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ , in the temple ) He shows that he pays all lawful honour to the temple .

Verse 18

Acts 22:18 . Αὐτὸν , Him ) Jesus, Acts 22:8 . σπεῦσον , make haste ) on account of the plot laid for thee, and in order that the sooner thou mayest preach elsewhere. οὐ παραδέξονται , they will not receive ) Tapeinosis [see Append.]: i.e. they will fight against thy testimony.

Verse 19

Acts 22:19 . Αὐτοὶ , they themselves ) Paul thought that the conversion of himself is so effectual an argument, that even the Jews would be moved by it; but the Lord answers, that the Gentiles rather would be moved by it.

Verse 20

Acts 22:20 . Καὶ αὐτὸς , even I myself ) The converted man retains the humble remembrance of his sins, and always confesses them.

Verse 21

Acts 22:21 . Εἰς ἔθνη , unto the Gentiles ) He implies, though not directly, that the tidings as to Jesus Christ would reach even to the Romans .

Verse 22

Acts 22:22 . Τούτου , this word) concerning the Gentiles . Nor did they willingly hear him as to JESUS. γῆς , from the earth ) They make him unworthy to be borne by the earth.

Verse 23

Acts 22:23 . Κονιορτὸν βαλλόντων , as they threw dust into the air ) with most violent agitation of mind.

Verse 24

Acts 22:24 . Ἄγεσθαι , to be led ) from the stairs, on which he had been standing. μάστιξιν ἀνετάζεσθαι , that he should be examined by scourging ) in order that he might as speedily as possible confess. ἐπεφώνουν , they were so crying against him) Hearers are said to cry in acclamation of [or in anger at] one making a speech: ch. Acts 12:22 .

Verse 25

Acts 22:25 . Προέτειναν , they stretched him out ) that the back of Paul might be the more entirely exposed to the strokes. This act of stretching him out is ascribed neither to the centurion, who merely stood by, nor to the chief captain (tribune), who did not even stand by; but to those of whom Acts 22:29 , in the beginning, speaks. τοῖς ἱμᾶσιν ) with thongs , wherewith they bound him, when making him ready for receiving the strokes. Μάστιγες , scourges , were threatened; but the ἱμάντες , thongs , differ from them, being used for binding him who was to be examined by scourges . ἀνθρώπον Ῥωμαῖον , a man that is a Roman ) It was a daring deed, as Cicero says, to bind a Roman citizen: it was a wicked deed to scourge him. Paul did not appeal to his right of citizenship against the bonds, Acts 22:29 (which subsequently made the captain “afraid”); for these had been foretold: he did appeal to it against the scourging, in order that he might defend his body and life, being hereafter about to preach the Gospel. καὶ , and ) and that too. ὑμῖν , you ) Emphatic. For it was allowed nowhere.

Verse 26

Acts 22:26 . Τῷ χιλιάρχῳ , the tribune or chief captain ) who was away at the time. γὰρ , for ) Nay, there were stronger reasons underneath for taking heed , namely, that he was the servant of GOD.

Verse 28

Acts 22:28 . Ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ , but I even ) The freedom of speech of Paul is therein indicated.

Verse 29

Acts 22:29 . [ Εὐθέως , straightway ) If thou dost purpose aught against any of the sons of GOD, immediately, when thou hast discovered that it is such a one, give over. V. g.] ἐφοβήθη , was afraid ) on account of the great penalty thereby incurred. καὶ ὅτι ) This depends not on ἐπιγνοὺς , but On ἐφοβήθη .

Verse 30

Acts 22:30 . Κατηγορεῖται , he was being accused ) He had as yet heard no accusation, but had understood that there was some accusation lying underneath. ἔλυσεν , he loosed him) for some time: for, in ch. Acts 23:18 , he is again said to be bound , ὁ δέσμιος , “the prisoner.” Comp. ch. Acts 24:27 , Acts 26:29 . ἐκέκλευσεν , he commanded ) So much diminished was the authority of the people. συνελθεῖν , to come together ) to the usual place. καταγαγὼν , having brought down ) from the camp to the city, which lay in a lower position beneath.

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Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Acts 22". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. 1897.