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Bible Commentaries
Acts 22

Benson's Commentary of the Old and New TestamentsBenson's Commentary

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A.M. 4064. A.D. 60.

In this chapter,

(1,) By his affectionate address in the Hebrew tongue, Paul procures himself the attention of his audience, Acts 22:1 , Acts 22:2 .

(2,) He gives an account of himself, of his Jewish extraction, liberal education, former bigotry, and furious persecution of the Christians, Acts 22:3-5 ; of his miraculous conversion to Christ, Acts 22:6-11 ; of his being baptized and further instructed by Ananias, Acts 22:12-16 ; of his call from heaven to preach among the Gentiles, Acts 22:17-21 .

(3,) Enraged at the last circumstance, the Jews fly out into a violent fury against him, Acts 22:22 , Acts 22:23 .

(4,) The chief captain again rescues him, and orders him to be bound and examined on his crime by scourging, Acts 22:24 , Acts 22:25 . But,

(5,) Paul, claiming the privilege of a Roman, escapes the torture, is freed from his bonds, and brought before the Jewish council, Acts 22:26-30 .

Verses 1-2

Acts 22:1-2. Men, brethren, and fathers Of whatsoever age, rank, or circumstance of life you are; hear ye my defence Which ye could not hear before for the tumult. And when they heard that he spake in their vulgar tongue, then called the Hebrew dialect, they kept the more silence Were the more disposed, numerous as the assembly was, to hearken to him attentively.

Verses 3-5

Acts 22:3-5. I am verily a Jew, &c. This defence answers all that is objected, Acts 21:28. But he speaks closely and nervously, in a few words, because the time was short; born in Tarsus, yet brought up in this city For my parents were so warmly attached to their religion, and so desirous that I might be well instructed in it, that they sent me to be educated here; at the feet of Gamaliel That celebrated teacher. See note on Acts 5:34. The phrase of being brought up at his feet, plainly alludes to the posture in which the scholars were usually placed, sitting on low seats, or upon mats, on the floor, at the feet of their masters, whose seats were raised to a considerable height. Taught according to the perfect manner of the law Or, accurately instructed in the law: which learned education was once, doubtless, the matter of his boasting and confidence; but, not being sanctified, it made his bonds strong, and furnished him with numerous arguments against the gospel. Yet, when the grace of God had changed his heart, and turned his accomplishments into another channel, he was the fitter instrument to serve God’s wise and merciful purposes, in the defence and propagation of Christianity. And I persecuted this way With the same zeal that ye do now; binding both men and women Who professed and practised it, without any regard to sex, age, or quality. How much better was his condition now he was bound himself! The high-priest doth bear me witness Is able to testify; and all the estate of the elders All the other members of the sanhedrim; from whom also I received letters unto the brethren The Jews (for this title was not peculiar to the Christians) empowering me to act against those for whom I have now so great a regard. And went to Damascus, &c. See note on c Acts 9:1-2.

Verses 6-16

Acts 22:6-16. And as I made my journey, &c., about noon For all was done in the face of the sun; suddenly there shone a great light By whatever method God reveals himself to us, we shall have everlasting cause to remember it; especially when he has gone, in any remarkable manner, out of his common way, for this gracious purpose. If so, we should often dwell on the particular circumstance, and be ready, on every proper occasion, to recount these wonders of power and love for the encouragement and instruction of others. See notes on Acts 9:3-18, where the substance of this paragraph occurs, and is explained. They that were with me heard not the voice Distinctly, but only a confused noise. And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law A truly religious person, and though a believer in Christ, yet a strict observer of the law of Moses. The God of our fathers hath chosen thee Ananias’s giving God this appellation, the God of our fathers, shows that he was himself a Jew by birth, who observed the law of the fathers, and relied on the promises made to them: that thou shouldest know his will By immediate revelation from himself, Galatians 1:12. And see that Just One The Lord Jesus, called the Just, or Righteous One, with a reference to the conduct of the Jews, who crucified him under a pretence of his being a malefactor. This is an additional proof to what we read, Acts 9:5, (where see the note,) that Saul did really see Christ, appearing even in a human form; and hear the voice of his mouth And that in such a manner, as to be taught his will immediately from himself. This was a peculiar privilege to which Paul was chosen, namely, to see Christ here on earth, even after his ascension into heaven! Stephen, indeed, saw him at the right hand of God, but Paul saw him standing, as it were, at his right hand. This honour none had but Paul. Be baptized, and wash away thy sins Baptism, administered to real penitents, was intended to be both a means and a seal of pardon. Nor did God ordinarily, in the primitive church, bestow this on any person till he submitted to baptism; and this may explain, in some measure, in what sense baptism may be said to wash away sins, and elsewhere to save. See Acts 2:28; 1 Peter 3:21.

Verses 17-21

Acts 22:17-21. When I was come again to Jerusalem From Damascus; and prayed in the temple By this he shows that he still paid the temple its due honour, as the house of prayer; I was in a trance Or ecstasy. Perhaps he might continue standing all the while, with an intenseness of countenance which, if it were observed by any near him, might be imputed to the fixedness of his mind in his devotions; or, if he fell down, it might be looked upon as an epileptic fit. And saw him Jesus; saying to me, Get thee quickly out of Jerusalem Because of the snares that will be laid for thee, and in order to preach where people will hear: for they will not In Jerusalem; receive thy testimony But, on the contrary, will rather attempt thy destruction. And Presuming to expostulate with Christ himself on this occasion; I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned, &c. They know that I was once of their mind; that I was as bitter an enemy to thy disciples as any of them; that I excited the civil power against them; and imprisoned them And also raised the spiritual power against them; and beat them in every synagogue Particularly in Stephen’s case, they know that, when he was stoned, I was standing by Was aiding and abetting; and consenting to his death and In token thereof, kept the raiment of them that slew him That is, Lord, my former zeal against those that believed in thee is so well known to them all, by so many remarkable instances shown among them, that sure they must be convinced it is upon some certain and irresistible grounds of persuasion that I am now become a preacher of that faith I formerly destroyed and persecuted with so great zeal. And he said Overruling my plea by a renewal of his charge; Depart Reason no further on this subject, but go thy way immediately, according to my direction; for I will send thee far hence Into distant countries; unto the Gentiles And thou shalt preach my gospel, and publish the glad tidings of salvation, with much greater encouragement and success among them. It is not easy for a servant of Christ, who is himself deeply impressed with divine truths, to imagine to what a degree men are capable of hardening their hearts against them. He is often ready to think, with Paul, it is impossible for any to resist such evidence. But experience makes him wiser, and shows that wilful unbelief is proof against all truth and reason.

Verse 22

Acts 22:22. And they gave him audience Heard him with quietness and attention; unto this word Till he began to speak of his mission to the Gentiles, and this in such a manner as implied that the Jews were in danger of being cast off; but no sooner did he mention this, than the multitude, especially such of them as had come from Asia, became instantly perfectly enraged, and cried out with vehemence, Away with such a fellow from the earth Such an impudent blasphemer; for it is not fit that he should live Any longer upon it, since he shows himself to be such a traitor to God, and an enemy to his chosen people, in pretending to have a commission to go and preach to the ignorant and reprobated Gentiles. Thus the men that have been the greatest blessings of their age, have often been represented, not only as the burdens of the earth, but as the pests of their generation. He who was worthy of the greatest honours in life is condemned as not worthy of life itself!

Verses 23-24

Acts 22:23-24. And as they cried out In this furious manner; and cast Or tore; off their clothes In token of indignation and horror at this pretended blasphemy: or, as Dr. Whitby thinks, as in the case of Stephen, that they might be ready to stone him; and threw dust into the air Through vehemence of rage, which they knew not how to give vent to; the chief captain Not knowing the particulars of what had passed, but perceiving, by the effect, that Paul had rather exasperated than appeased them by the apology which he had been permitted to make, commanded that he should be brought into the castle, and As no witnesses were produced in a regular way to give information against him, he bade that he should be examined by scourging In order that he might get to know by his own confession, since he could not learn it any other way; wherefore they cried so against him That the Romans used this method of scourging to compel real or supposed criminals to make confession, is proved by Dr. Lardner, and several other learned writers.

Verses 25-29

Acts 22:25-29. And as they The soldiers ordered by the tribune; were binding him with thongs In order to their scourging him; Paul said unto the centurion that stood by To see the tribune’s orders executed; Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned? A freeman of Rome might be bound with a chain, and beaten with a staff; but he might not be bound with thongs, neither scourged nor beaten with rods. The centurion told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest Greek, Ορα τι μελλεις ποιειν , consider what thou art about to do; for this man is a Roman Yea, and there was a stronger reason to stop proceedings, and to consider, for this man was a servant of God. Paul said, I was free born Not, as some have supposed, because he was born at Tarsus; for, as Dr. Lardner has unanswerably proved, that was not a Roman colony, or what the Romans called municipium, a free town, or a place where all the natives were free of Rome by birth. But, it is probable, either his father, or some of his ancestors, had been made free of Rome for some military service. We learn hence, that we are under no obligations, as Christians, to give up our civil privileges (which we ought to receive and prize as the gifts of God) to every insolent invader. In a thousand circumstances, gratitude to God and duty to men will oblige us to insist upon them, and engage us to strive to transmit them improved to posterity. Then straightway they Who had bound him, and were about to examine him by scourging; departed from him Not daring to proceed; and the chief captain Whom we may justly suppose to have had considerable influence at Rome; also was afraid, because Though he had not scourged him, yet he had bound him In order to his being scourged; which was a breach of privilege, for which he might have been accused by Paul to his superiors.

Verse 30

Acts 22:30. On the morrow The chief captain, having become more anxious to know certainly what Paul’s crime was, since he understood that he was a Roman citizen; loosed him from his bands In which he had laid him a close prisoner; and commanded the chief priests, and all their council All the members of the sanhedrim; to appear Or to come together and hold a court; and brought Paul down From the castle; and set him before them That he might be examined and tried according to the laws and usages of his own country; in order that the most seditious of the Jews might have no reason to complain of the manner in which they were treated.

Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Acts 22". Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/rbc/acts-22.html. 1857.
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