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And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.
In the seventh month - of the ecclesiastical year, but the first month of the civil year, corresponding to our September. It was at a subsequent period, but before the Christian era, the New Years Day, which had been celebrated among the Hebrew and other contemporary nations With great festivity and joy, and ushered in by a flourish of trumpets. This ordinance was designed to give a religious character to the occasion, by associating it with some solemn observances (cf. Exodus 12:2; Leviticus 23:24).
It is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you, [ yowm (H3117) tªruw`aah (H8643)] - the day of trumpet-sound. It was announced by the sound of trumpets. This made it a solemn preparation for the sacred feasts, a greater number of which were held during this month than at any other season of the year. Although the institution of this feast was described before, there is more particularity here as to what the burnt offering should consist of, and in addition to it a sin offering is prescribed The special offerings, appointed for certain days, were not to interfere with the offerings usually requisite on these days; because in Numbers 29:6 it is said that the daily offerings, as well as those for the first day of the month, were to take place in their ordinary course.
And ye shall offer a burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD; one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year without blemish:
No JFB commentary on these verses.
And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein:
Ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month - this was the great day of atonement. Its institution, together with the observance to which that day was devoted, was described, Leviticus 16:29-30. But additional offerings seem to be noticed-namely, the large animal sacrifice for a general expiation, which was a sweet savour unto the Lord, and the sin offering to atone for the sins that mingled with that day's services. The prescriptions in this passage appear supplementary to the former statement in Leviticus.
And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days:
On the fifteenth day - was to be held the feast of booths or tabernacles (see the notes at Leviticus 23:34-35). The feast was to last seven days, the first and last of which were to be kept as Sabbaths, and a particular offering was prescribed for each day, the details of which are given with a minuteness suited to the infant state of the congregation. Two things are deserving of notice: First, that this feast was distinguished by a greater amount and variety of sacrfices than any other, partly because, occurring at the end of the year, it might be intended to supply any past deficiencies; partly because, being immediately after the in-gathering of the fruits, it ought to be a liberal acknowledgment; and partly, perhaps, because God consulted the weakness of mankind, who naturally grow weary both of the charge and labour of such services when they are long continued, and made them every day less toilsome and expensive (Patrick). Secondly, it will be remarked that the sacrifices varied in a progressive ratio of decrease every day.
Verse 18. After the manner - according to the ritual order appointed by divine authority; that for meat offerings (Numbers 29:3-10) and drink offerings (see the notes at Numbers 28:7; Numbers 28:14).
On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no servile work therein:
On the eighth day. The feast of tabernacles was brought to a close on the eighth day, which was the great day (John 7:37). [ `Atseret (H6116), a congregation of the people at sacred festivals; Septuagint, exodion, a going out.] Besides the common routine sacrifices, there were offerings appointed for that day, though these were fewer than on any of the preceding days; and there were also, as was natural on that occasion, when vast multitudes were convened for solemn religious purpose, many spontaneous gifts and services, so that there was full scope for the exercise of a devout spirit in the people, both by their obedience to the statutory offerings and by the presentation of those which were made by free-will or in consequence of vows.
But ye shall offer a burnt offering, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven lambs of the first year without blemish:
No JFB commentary on these verses.
These things ye shall do unto the LORD in your set feasts, beside your vows, and your freewill offerings, for your burnt offerings, and for your meat offerings, and for your drink offerings, and for your peace offerings.
These things ye shall do unto the Lord in your set feasts. From the statements made in this and the preceding chapter-which, it should be borne in mind, relate to the period immediately previous to the entrance into Canaan, though for a period of nearly 20 years after there is a blank in the religious history of Israel-it appears that the yearly offerings made to the altar at the public expense, without taking into account a vast number of voluntary vows and trespass offerings, were calculated at the following amount: Goats, 15; kids, 21; rams, 72; bullocks, 132; lambs, 1,101; sum total of animals sacrificed at public cost, 1,241. This, of course, is exclusive of the prodigious addition of lambs slain at the Passover, which in later times, according to Josephus, amounted in a single year to the immense number of 255,600.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Numbers 29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 12 / Ordinary 17