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The laws, concerning the three solemnities of the seventh month, to be held on the first, tenth, and fourteenth days of the month.
Before Christ 1452.
Numbers 29:1. In the seventh month, &c.— Before their departure from Egypt, this was the first day of the first month of the ecclesiastical year; but now the first day of the seventh month of that year: but it was the first month of the civil year, and answered to our September. See Vignoles Chronol. lib. 3: cap. 1: sect. 3.Exodus 12:2; Exodus 12:2. Dr. Beaumont observes, respecting the blowing of the trumpets, that hereby was figured the preaching of repentance and belief in Christ, Isaiah 58:1.Mark 1:4; Mark 1:4.
Numbers 29:6. According unto their manner— That is, according to the order which God appointed: which was this; first, the morning daily sacrifice was offered; then the sacrifices for the first day of every month; and, lastly, the additional sacrifices appointed for this first day of the seventh month.
REFLECTIONS.—The seventh month was distinguished by more solemnities than any other. The first day was ushered in with the feast of trumpets, preparatory to the day of atonement. We need continual and loud calls to repentance. The sacrifices to be offered, were a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with their several oblations; besides those which must be offered at a new moon, and the daily burnt sacrifice. We must not suppose that extraordinary duties excuse us from daily stated services. When we have waited upon God in the great congregation, or secretly among the faithful, we must not neglect our family devotions, nor slight the work of secret prayer.
Numbers 29:13-4.29.38. Thirteen young bullocks, two rams, &c.— On other festivals two bullocks sufficed; but here are no less than thirteen, and so they continued to be offered seven days successively, with a decrease only of one bullock every day, till, on the seventh day, only seven bullocks were offered, which, in all, made seventy bullocks. The rams also were in a double proportion to what was usual. This was a vast charge; but more easy at this time of the year than any other; for this was a time of leisure and plenty; their barns were full, their presses burst forth with new wine; and their hearts were enlarged with joy and thankfulness to God for the blessings of the harvest. Yet this troublesome and expensive service made their religion a very grievous yoke, under which the best men among them groaned, longing for the coming of the Messiah. Though the last day of the feast was the most solemn, (see Leviticus 23:36.) yet fewer victims are prescribed to be offered upon this day, than upon any of the foregoing; which served both to render the public worship less toilsome and expensive, and to put them in mind, that it was not the multitude of sacrifices which procured their acceptance with God, but the sacrifice of the heart; and that the day would come, when the most precious and costly sacrifices would be abolished, and give place to something far better. It is remarkable, that the offering for sin (Numbers 29:38.) is never omitted upon any festival, to remind them that they were all guilty before God, and that their best services stood in need of forgiveness. The Jews, unable at present to offer these additional sacrifices, in order to supply the deficiency, add to their ordinary prayers, at this season, extraordinary ones, morning, noon, and evening, which they call musaphim.
Numbers 29:39. These things ye shall do unto the Lord, &c.— These are the particulars of the national and stated sacrifices which were to be provided at the public charge; besides which, there were several other kinds of offerings from persons by way of vow, free will, or on other special emergencies; and it appears by this account, that there were every year sacrificed, at the tabernacle and temple, at the stated national charge, eleven hundred and one lambs, one hundred and thirty-two bullocks, seventy-two rams, twenty-one kids, and fifteen goats, adding to the thirteen which are specified in this chapter the two on the day of expiation; besides which, there was a vast number of voluntary vow and trespass offerings, which cannot be computed.
REFLECTIONS.—The feast of tabernacles, on the 17th day of the month, was kept with every demonstration of joy, and well it becometh those to rejoice, whose sin is forgiven, and whose iniquity is pardoned. The feast lasted seven days, during which there were many and expensive sacrifices; and with every day's service, a continual sacrifice of atonement was offered, besides the daily burnt-offerings. Our most expensive services have no acceptableness before God, farther than the blood of atonement accompanies them.
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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Numbers 29". Coke's Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent