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1 And it came to pass, that, as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.
Ver. 1. When he ceased ] Or, rested, ως επαυσατο ; for he had been tugging hard with God in prayer, and labouring even to lassitude (waeriness).
2 And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.
Ver. 2. See Matthew 6:9-13 .
3 Give us day by day our daily bread.
Ver. 3. Our daily bread ] Our super-substantial bread, τον επιουσιον : so Erasmus rendereth it, and interpreteth it of Christ; for he thought that in so heavenly a prayer there should have been no mention of earthly things; wherein he was greatly deceived. For temporals also must be prayed for.
Day by day ] That we may from day to day depend upon thy providence for provisions, and, as a grave man of God once said, whereas many others have and eat their bread stale, let us receive it and eat it daily new from thine hand.
4 And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.
Ver. 4. For we also forgive ] So that our forgiving of others seemeth, for God’s promise’ sake, to be as it were the intervenient cause, or the sine qua non, of God’s forgiving us, saith learned Beza.
And lead us not, &c. ] One argument that we shall persevere, is, the prayers of the whole church, offering up this daily sacrifice, lead us not, &c.
5 And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, and say unto him, Friend, lend me three loaves;
Ver. 5. Three loaves ] He asketh no more, but receiveth as many as he needeth. So do all God’s suitors. His ears are not only open to their prayers; but his eyes also are upon their necessities, to give them more than they ask or think.
6 For a friend of mine in his journey is come to me, and I have nothing to set before him?
Ver. 6. For a friend ] See Proverbs 17:17 . See Trapp on " Pro 17:17 "
7 And he from within shall answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee.
Ver. 7. Trouble me not ] The carnally secure, cast into Jezebel’s bed, unworthily answer Christ on this sort, when he stands at the door and knocks by the hammer of his word and the motions of his Spirit, which they slight and withstand.
8 I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth.
Ver. 8. Because of his importunity ] Gr. His impudency, αναιδειαν ; a metaphor from beggars, that will not be said nay, but are impudently importunate.
9 And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.
Ver. 9. Ask and it shall be given ] Ask, seek, knock. It is not a simple repetition of the same thing, but an emphatic gradation, and shows instantissimam necessitatem, saith Augustine. Nec dicitur quid dabitur, saith he, to show that the gift is a thing supra omne nomen, above all name.
10 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.
Ver. 10. See Matthew 7:7 .
11 If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?
Ver. 11. For every one, &c. ] Sozomen saith of Apollonius, that he never asked anything of God that he obtained not. Hic homo potuit apud Deum quod voluit, said one concerning Luther; he could have what he would of God.
12 Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?
Ver. 12. See Matthew 7:9-11 .
13 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?
Ver. 13. See Matthew 7:9-11 .
14 And he was casting out a devil, and it was dumb. And it came to pass, when the devil was gone out, the dumb spake; and the people wondered.
Ver. 14. And it was dumb ] So it was a double miracle. God’s favours seldom come single; there is a series, a concatenation of them, and every former draws on a future.
15 But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub the chief of the devils.
Ver. 15. See Matthew 9:34 ; Matthew 12:24 .
16 And others, tempting him , sought of him a sign from heaven.
Ver. 16. See Matthew 12:38 ; Matthew 16:1 ; Mark 3:24 .
17 But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and a house divided against a house falleth.
Ver. 17. See Matthew 12:38 ; Matthew 16:1 ; Mark 3:24 .
18 If Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out devils through Beelzebub.
Ver. 18. See Matthew 12:38 ; Matthew 16:1 ; Mark 3:24 .
19 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges.
Ver. 19. See Matthew 12:38 ; Matthew 16:1 ; Mark 3:24 .
20 But if I with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you.
21 When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace:
Ver. 21. When a strong man armed ] Qui se dedebant, arma tradebant. (Caesar de Bell. Gall. lib. 3.) They that yielded threw down their arms.
22 But when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils.
23 He that is not with me is against me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.
24 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out.
Ver. 24. Seeking rest ] His only rest is to molest and mischief men.
25 And when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished.
Ver. 25. Swept and garnished ] By a little formal repentance, and a few faint resolutions of reformation.
26 Then goeth he, and taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first.
Ver. 26. Seven other spirits ] As the jailor lays a load of iron on him that had escaped. None are worse than those that have been good, and are naught; and might be good, but will be naught.
27 And it came to pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked.
Ver. 27. Blessed is the womb that bare thee ] So the heathen poet,
-" qui te genuere beati,
Et mater faelix, et quae dedit ubera nutrix. "
(Ovid, Metam. lib. 4.)
28 But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.
Ver. 28. Yea, rather, blessed ] His disciples were more blessed in hearing Christ than his mother in bearing him.
29 And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.
Ver. 29. Were gathered thick together ] All on a heap, επαθροιζομενων , either to see a sign, or to hear what he would say to the motion.
30 For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation.
Ver. 30. So also shall the Son of man be ] sc. A sign, not of confirmation, but of condemnation.
31 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
Ver. 31. See Matthew 12:41-42 .
32 The men of Nineve shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.
Ver. 32. See Matthew 12:41-42 .
33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.
Ver. 33. No man, when he hath lighted, &c. ] Our Saviour here warneth those that had given some good hope of their repentance, that they cherish their light, and walk by it.
34 The light of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of darkness.
Ver. 34. When thine eye is single ] A single eye is that which looks on God singly, abstracted from all other things.
35 Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness.
Ver. 35-36. SeeMatthew 6:22-23; Matthew 6:22-23
36 If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.
Ver. 36. Having no part dark ] The regenerate man is totus diaphanus, like a crystal glass, with a lamp in the midst.
37 And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat.
Ver. 37. Sat down to meat ] And yet, at their own tables, he sets the Pharisees forth in their colours, and entertaineth them with as many menaces as they do him with messes of meat.
38 And when the Pharisee saw it , he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner.
Ver. 38. That he had not washed ] This the Pharisees deemed as great a sin as to commit fornication. (Godw. Antiq. Heb 49)
39 And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.
Ver. 39. See Matthew 23:25 .
40 Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without make that which is within also?
Ver. 40. Did not he that made, &c. ] Ought he not, therefore, to be served with both? It is the hidden man of the heart that he most regardeth; the law of the mind that he would have chiefly observed.
41 But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you.
Ver. 41. But rather give alms ] So Daniel counsels Nebuchadnezzar,Daniel 4:27; Daniel 4:27 . Ralph, Bishop of Chichester, A. D. 1070, drawing towards his end, delivered unto the poor with his own hands whatsoever he had in the world (I inquire not with what intention), leaving himself scarcely clothes to cover him. Alexander V, Bishop of Rome, was liberal to the poor (saith the historian), that he left nothing for himself, so that he would merrily say that he was a rich bishop, a poor cardinal, and a beggarly pope.
Of such things as ye have ] Gr. As are within, τα ενοντα , either within the platter (send morsels to the hungry) or within your hearts; for riches get within their owners many times, and do more possess them than are possessed by them;
" difficile est opibus non tradere mentem. "
42 But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
Ver. 42. But woe unto you ] Notwithstanding your tithing of potted herbs, wherein you think you take course that all things may be clean to you, Luke 11:41 . Or woe unto you, for that through covetousness you exact the utmost of your tithes, &c. So some sense this text.
43 Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye love the uppermost seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets.
Ver. 43. See Matthew 23:6 .
44 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them .
Ver. 44. For ye are as graves ] As the deep grave keeps the stinking carcase from offending any one’s smell, so doth the dissembling hypocrite so cleanly carry the matter that hardly the sharpest nose, &c.
45 Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying thou reproachest us also.
Ver. 45. Thou reproachest us also ] Who meddled with them, but that their own consciences accused them? It is a rule of Jerome, Ubi generalis de vitiis disputatio est, ibi nullius personae est iniuria; neque carbone notatur quisquam, quasi malus sit, sed omnes admonentur ne sint mali. Where the discourse is of all, there is no personal intimation of any.
46 And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.
Ver. 46. See Matthew 23:4 .
47 Woe unto you! for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, and your fathers killed them.
Ver. 47. See Matthew 23:29 .
48 Truly ye bear witness that ye allow the deeds of your fathers: for they indeed killed them, and ye build their sepulchres.
Ver. 48. And ye build their sepulchres ] And so ye set up the trophies of your fathers’ cruelty.
49 Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:
Ver. 49. Therefore also said the wisdom of God ] That is, Christ himself, the essential wisdom of his Father, Matthew 23:34 .
50 That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation;
Ver. 50. See Matthew 23:35 .
51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.
Ver. 51. See Matthew 23:35 .
52 Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered.
Ver. 52. Woe unto you, lawyers ] I see well, said father Latimer, that whosoever will be busy with Vae vobis, woe to you, he shall shortly after come coram nobis, face to face to us, as Christ did. (Acts and Mon.)
For ye have taken away the key of knowledge ] By taking away the Scriptures, and all good means of knowledge; as do also the Jesuits to this day. At Dole, a university in Burgundy, they have not only debarred the people of the Protestant books, but especially also forbid them to talk of God, either in good sort or bad. In Italy they not only prohibit the books of the reformed writers, but also hide their own treatises, in which the tenet of the Protestants is recited, only to be confuted; so that you shall seldom there meet with Bellarmine’s works, or any of the like nature, to be sold.
53 And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things:
Ver. 53. To urge him vehemently ] ενεχειν . Out of deep displeasure to bear an aching tooth towards him (as Herodias did toward the Baptist, Mar 6:19 ), waiting him a shrewd turn.
And to provoke him to speak ] αποστοματιζειν . Not to stop his mouth about many things, as the Rhemists falsely render it. They asked him captious questions to make him an offender for a word, Isaiah 29:21 .
54 Laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him.
Ver. 54. Seeking to catch something ] But there was no guile or gall found in his mouth, saith St Peter, intimating that they sought it.
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24