Bible Commentaries
Luke 11

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Verses 1-99

11:1-13. § On Prayer. Lk. shows no knowledge of time or place, and it is possible that the paragraph ought to be placed earlier in the ministry. Mt. places the giving of the Lord’s Prayer much earlier, in the Sermon on the Mount (6:5-15). Both arrangements may be right. Christ may have delivered the Prayer once spontaneously to a large number of disciples, and again at the request of a disciple to a smaller group, who were not present on the first occasion. But if the Prayer was delivered only once, then it is Lk. rather than Mt. who gives the historic occasion (Neander, De Wette, Holtzmann, Weiss, Godet, etc. See Page, Expositor, 3rd series, vii. p. 433), Mt. might insert it to exemplify Christ’s teaching on prayer. Lk. would not invent this special incident.

The section has three divisions, of which the second and third belong to the same occasion: the Lord’s Prayer (1-4); the Friend at Midnight (5-8); Exhortation to Perseverance in Prayer (9-13).

1-4. The Lord’s Prayer. For abundant literature see Herzog, Pro_2 iv. p. 772; Keim, Jes. of Naz. iii. p. 337. For the liturgical use of the Prayer see D. Chr. Ant. 2 p. 1056; Kraus, Real-Enc. d. Chr. Alt. i. p. 562.

Note the mark of Luke’s style: ἐγέετο, ἐν τῷ εἶναι, εἶναι προσευχόμενον, εἶπεν πρός εἶπεν δέ, τὸ καθʼ ὴμέραν, αὐτοί, παντί. The last three, which are in the Prayer itself, point to the conclusion that at least some of the differences in wording between this form and that in Mt. are due to Lk., and that the form in Mt. better represents the original, which would be in Aramaic. The differences cannot be accounted for by independent translation The Greek of the two forms is too similar for that, especially in the use of the perplexing word ἐπιούσιος. Both Evangelists must have had the Prayer in Greek. F. H. Chase supposes that the disciples adapted the Prayer for use on special occasions, either by alterations or additions, and that both forms exhibit the Prayer as changed for liturgical purposes, ἐπιούσιος being one of these later features (Texts & Studies, vol. i. No. 3, Camb. 1891).

1. προσευχόμενον. See Introd. § 6 i. b. That this was at dawn, or at one of the usual hours of prayer, is conjecture. Nothing is known of a form of prayer taught by the Baptist; but Rabbis sometimes drew up such forms for their disciples.

2. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς. The disciple had said διδαξον ἡμᾶς, and Jesus includes all in His reply.

After προσεύχησθε D inserts much from Matthew 6:7, and in the Lat. has the form multiloquentia for multiloquium : putant enim quidam quia in multiloquentia sua exandientur.

Πάτερ. There is little doubt that the texts of Lk. which give the more full form of the Prayer have been assimilated to Mt. by inserting the three clauses which Lk. omits.1. The temptation to supply supposed deficiencies would be very strong; for the copyists would be familiar with the liturgical use of the longer form, and would regard the abbreviation of such a prayer as intolerable. The widespread omission is inexplicable, if the three clauses are genuine; the widespread insertion is quite intelligible, if they are not. The express testimony of Origen, that in the texts of Lk. known to him the clauses were wanting, would in itself be almost conclusive; and about the second and third omitted clauses we have the express testimony of Augustine also (Enchir. cxvi.: see Wordsworth’s Vulg. in loco). Syr-Sin. has “Father, hallowed be Thy name. And Thy Kingdom come. And give us the continual bread of every day. And forgive us our sins; and we also, we forgive everyone who is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation.” A few authorities, which omit the rest, add ἡμῶν to Πάτερ, and four have sancle for noster (a c ff2 1). D.C.G. artt. “Prayer” and “Lord’s Prayer.”

In O.T. God is seldom spoken of as a Father, and then in reference to the nation (Deuteronomy 32:6; Isaiah 63:16; Jeremiah 3:4, Jeremiah 3:19, 31:9; Malachi 1:6, Malachi 2:10), not to the individual. In this, as in many things, the Apocrypha links O.T. with N.T. Individuals begin to speak of God as their Father (Wisd. 2:16, 14:3; Ecclus. 23:1, 4, 51:10; Tobit 13:4; 3 Mac. 6:3), but without showing what right they have to consider themselves sons rather than servants. Christ gave His disciples ἐξουσίαν τέκνα Θεοῦ γενέσθαι (John 1:12; comp. 3:3; Romans 8:23; Galatians 4:5). But we must notice how entirely free from Jewish elements the Prayer is. It is not addressed to the “Lord God of Israel,” nor does it ask for blessings upon Israel. See Latham, Pastor Pastorum, p. 416.

ἁγιασθήτω. “Let it be acknowledged to be holy, treated as holy, venerated.” Comp. 1 Peter 3:15; Isaiah 29:23; Ezekiel 20:41, Ezekiel 20:38:23; Ecclus. 33. (36.) 4.

τὸ ὂνομά σου. A common expression in both O.T. and N.T. It is not a mere periphrasis for God. It suggests His revealed attributes and His relation to us. Comp. οἱ�Psalms 5:12); οἱ γιγνώσκοντες τὸ ὄνομά σου (Psalms 9:11); οὐ βεβηλώσεις τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ἅγιον (Leviticus 18:21). It is freq. in Ps. Sol. (5:1, 7:5, 8:31, 9:18, 15:4, etc.). Codex D adds to this petition the words ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς, super nos, which may be an independent addition, or a survival of the petition for the coming of the Spirit of which there are traces elsewhere.1

ἐλθάτω ἡ βασιλεία σου. It is asserted that in bibl. Grk. βασιλεία is the abstract noun, not of βασιλεύς but of κύριος and should therefore be rendered “dominion” rather than “kingdom.” Had “kingdom” been meant, βασίλειον would have been more distinct, a word current then, and still the only designation in modern Greek. The petition therefore means, “Thy sway be extended from heaven to this world (now ruled by the adversary), so as to extirpate wickedness.” See A. N. Jannaris in Contemp. Rev. Oct. 1894, p 585. For Rabbinical parallels to these first two petitions see Wetst. on Matthew 6:9, Matthew 6:10.

For such mixed forms as ἐλθάτω, which is specially common, see on 1:59.

3. From prayers for the glory of God and the highest good of all we pass on to personal needs.

τὸν ἐπιούσιον. We are still in ignorance as to the origin and exact meaning of this remarkable word. It appears here first in Greek literature, and is the only epithet in the whole Prayer. And it is possible that in the original Aramaic form there was nothing equivalent to it. The presence of the ι (ἐπιούσιος not ἐπούσιος makes the derivation from ἐπεῖναι, ἐπών, or ἐπί and οὐσία very doubtful. With Grotius, Scaliger, Wetstein, Fritzsche, Winer, Meyer, Bishop Lightfoot, and others, we may suppose that ἐπιούσιος comes from ἐπιών, perhaps with special reference to ἡ ἐπιοῦσα, “the coming day.” The testimony of the most ancient Versions is strongly in favour of do derivation from ἐπιέναι and of a meaning having reference to time, whether “of to-morrow,” or “that cometh,” or “for the coming day,” or “daily,” “continual,” or “for an day.”

Jerome found quotidianum as the translation both in Mt. and Lk. He substiuted supersubstantialem in Mt. and left quotidianum in Lk., thus producing a widespread impression that the Evangelists use different words. Cod. Gall. supersubstantialem in Lk. See Lft. On a Fresh Revision of the N.T. Rev_1. pp. 218-260, 3rd ed. For the other views see McClellan, The N.T. pp. 632-647. Chase confirms Lft, and contends that (1) This petition refers to bodily needs; (2) The epithet is temporal, not qualitative; (3) The epithet is not part of the original form of the petition, and is due to liturgical use; (4) All the phenomena may be reasonably explained if we assume that the clause originally was “Give us our (or the) bread of the day” (Texts & Studies, i. 3, pp. 42-53). See Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 214.

Jannaris contends that the word has nothing to do with time at all. He points to the use in LXX of περιούσιος in the sense of “constituting a property” Exodus 9:5; Deuteronomy 7:6, Deuteronomy 14:2, Deuteronomy 26:18), as obviously coined from περιουσία, “wealth, abundance,” for the translation of the Hebrew segulla. And he interprets, “Ask not for bread περιύσιον, to be treasured up as wealth (segulla, θησαυρός), but for bread ἐπιούσιον, mere bread.” Accordingly the term ἐπιούσιος is a new formation coined for the purpose, on the analogy of, and as a direct allusion and contrast to, περιούσιος that is, intended to imply the opposite meaning. He considers that the formation περιούσιος was apparently facilitated by the existence of such words as πλούσιος, ἐκούσιος ἐθελούσιος, and that it was the existence of περιούσιος which produced the form ἐπιούδιος instead of ἐπούσιος. So also in the main Tholuck.

δίδου ἡμῖν. “Continually give to us.” instead of δός in Mt. The change of tense brings with it a corresponding change of adverb: δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν for δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον: “Continually give day by day” for “Give once for all to-day.” In N.T. τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν is, peculiar to Lk. (19:47; Acts 17:11). This fact and the insertion of his favourite πάντί with ὀφείλοντι, and the substitation of his favourite καὶ αὐτοί for καὶ ἡμεῖς with�

D here has σήμερον, and most Latin texts have hodie. But Codd. Amiat. Gat. Turon. Germ. 2 support τὸ καθʼ ἠμέραν with cotidie or quatidie.

4. τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν. Mt. has τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, and there is reason for believing that Mt. is here closer to the Aramaic original. The ὀφειλοντι of Lk. points to this, and so does τὴν ὀφειλὴν ἡμῶν in the Didaché (8:2). Anyone accustomed to LXX would be likely to prefer the familiar ἄφες τὰς ἁμαρτίας (Ps. 24:18; comp. Numbers 14:19; Exo_32; Genesis 50:17), even if less literal. Moreover, ὀφειλήματα would be more likely to be misunderstood by Gentile readers.

καὶ γὰρ αὐτοὶ�

The form�Mark 1:34, Mark 1:11:16; Revelation 11:9. Comp. συνίω, Matthew 13:13; WH. ii. App. p. 167.

παντὶ ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν. Here the τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν Mt. looks more like the original form, as being simpler. The introduction of παντί in harmony with Lk.’s usage: see on 6:30, 7:35, 9:43.

εἰσενέγκῃς. “Bring into.” The verb occurs five times In Lk. (5:18, 19, 12:11; Acts 17:20) and thrice elsewhere (Matthew 6:13, 1 Timothy 6:7; Hebrews 13:11); and everywhere, except in the Lord’s Prayer, it is rendered in AV. by “bring,” not “lead.” In Lk. εἰσάγειν is also very common (2:27, 14:21, 22:54; Acts 7:45, Acts 9:8, etc.). The latter word implies guidance more strongly than εἰσφέρειν does. For examples of the petition comp. 22:40, 46, Mark 14:38; Matthew 26:41. The inconsistency between this petition and James 1:2 is only apparent, not real. This petition refers especially to the internal solicitations of the devil, as is shown by the second half of it, as given in Mt, “but deliver us from the evil one.”1 S. James refers chiefly to external trials, such as poverty of intellect (1:5), or of substance (1:9), or persecution (2:6, 7). Moreover, there is no inconsistency in rejoicing in temptations when God in His wisdom allows them to molest us, and yet praying to be preserved from such trials, because of our natural weakness. Aug. Ep. cxxi. 14, cxlv. 7, 8; Hooker, Eccles. pol. v. 48, 13.

There is a very early Latin gloss on ne nos induces which found its way rote the text of the Prayer itself. Quis non sinet deduci in temptationem ? asks Tertullian (Adv. Marcian. iv. 26). Ne patiaris nos induci, or ne passus fueris induci nos, is Cypriads form (De Dom. Orat. xxv.). Augustine says, Multi precando ita dicunt, Ne nos patiaris induci in temptationem (De Serm. Dom. ix. 30, Migne, xxxiv. 1282; De Dono Persev. Migne, xlv. 1000). And several MSS. of the Old Latin have these or similar readings (Old Latin Biblical Texts, No. ii. Oxford, 1886, p. 32). Dionysius of Alexandria explains the petition as meaning this: καὶ δὴ καὶ μὴ εἰσενγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, τοῦτʼ ἐστι μὴ ὲάσῃς ἡμᾶς ἐμπεσεῖν εἰς πειρασμός (Migne, x. 1601). Evidently the idea of God’s leading us into temptation was from early times felt to be a difficulty; and this gloss may have been used first in private prayer, then in the liturgies, and thence have found its way into Latin texts of the Gospels.

Jannaris contends that this is not a gloss, but a correct translation of the Greek. He holds that in the time of Grist the active of this verb was fast acquiring the force of the middle, and that εἰσενεγκεῖν = εἰσενέγκασθαι, “to have one brought into.” The petition then means, “Have us not brought into temptation.” And he suggests that the true reading may be the middle, εἰσενέγηκ, to which ς has been added by a mistake. The evidence, however is too uniform for that to be probable.

There is yet anosler gloss, which probably has the same origin, viz. the wish to avoid the difficulty of the thought that God leads us into temptation: ne induces nos in temptationem quarn ferre non possumus(Jerome in Ezech. xlviii. 16; comp. Hilary in Ps. cxviii.). Pseudo-Augustme combines the two: ne patiaris nos induci in temptationem guam ferre non possumus (Serm. lxxxiv.). “The fact that these glosses occur in writers who are separated from each other in time and circumstance, and that they are found in Liturgies belonging to different families, shows very clearly that they must be due to very early liturgical usage” (Chase, pp. 63-69). That Lk. omitted άλλὰ π̔ῦσαι ἡμᾶς�

5, 6. τίς ἐξ ὑμῶν. The sentence is irregularly constructed: (1) the interrogative is lost in the prolongation of the sentence., (2) the future (ἕξει, πορεύσεται) drifts into the deliberative subjunctive (εἴπῃ), which in some texts has been corrected to the future (ἐρεῖ). Excepting Matthew 6:27, τίς ἐξ ὑμῶν is peculiar to Lk. (7:25, 14:28, 15:4, 17:7). Win. xli. 4, b p. 357. Excepting Mark 13:35, μεσονύκτιον is peculiar to Lk. (Acts 16:25, Acts 20:7). In the East it is common to travel by night to avoid the heat.

φίλε, χρῆσόν μοι τρεῖς ἄρτους. As distinct from δονειζω (“I tend on interest” as a matter of business), κίχρημι, which occurs here only in N.T., is “I allow the use of” as a friendly act. There is no need to seek any meaning in the number three. For παρατίθημι of food comp. 9:16; Mark 6:41, Mark 6:6.

7. Μή μοι κόπους πάρεχε. It is the trouble that he minds, not the parting with the bread. When he has once got up �Matthew 26:10; Mark 14:6; Galatians 6:17; and for κόπος see Lft. Epp. p. 26.

μετʼ ἐμοῦ εἰς κοίτην εἰσίν. Prep. of motion after verb of rest; comp. Mk. [2:1], 10:10; Acts 8:40; and plur. verb after neut. plur., the persons being animate; comp. Matthew 10:21; Mark 3:11, Mark 5:13. Win. 50:4, b, pp. 516, 518, 58:3m β, p. 646.

8. εἰ καὶ. As distinct from καὶ εἰ εἰ καί implies that the supposition is a fact, “although”; 18:4; 2 Corinthians 12:11, 2 Corinthians 12:7:8; 1 Peter 3:14. For εἰ καὶ … γε comp. 18:4, 5; Win. 53:7, b, p. 554.

οὐ δώσει. “Will refuse to rise and give.” The negative is part of the verb and is not effected by the εἰ. Otherwise we should have had μή: 16:31, 18:4; Romans 8:9; Matthew 26:42; 1 Corinthians 7:9. The use is classical. Soph Aj. Simcox, Lang. of N.T. p. 184; Win. 55:2, C, p. 599.

διά γε. In N.T. ψε is rare, except as strengthening other particles: 18:5; 1 Corinthians 4:8: “At least because of.”

ἀναίδιαν. “Absence of αἰδώς shamelessness”; Ecclus. 25:22; here only in N.T.

9-13. Exhortation to Perseverance in Prayer, based on the preceding parable and confirmed (11-13) by personal experience. Mt. has the same almost verbatim as part of the Sermon on the Mount (7:7-11).

9. καʼγὼ ὑμῖν λέγω. “I also say to you”: the ἐγώ is emphatic by being expressed, the ὑμῖν by position; contrast ver. 8, and see on 16:9. The parable teaches them; Jesus also teaches them. The parable shows how the urgent supplicant fared; the disciples may know how they will fare. The three commands are obviously taken from the parable, and they form a climax of increasing earnestness. They are all impreat. “Continue asking, seeking, knocking.” Comp. John 16:24; Matthew 21:22; Mark 11:24.

10. λαμβάνει … εὑπίσκει. The parallel with ver. 9 would be more exact if these two verbs, as well as�Matthew 7:8,�

11. τὸν πατέρα. “As being his father.” Mt. has ἄνθρωπος, “as a human being,” or (more simply) “person.” The construction is broken, and can scarcely be rendered literally. “Of which of you as being his father will the son ask for a fish? Will he for a fish hand him a serpent?” The question ought to have continued, “and for a fish receive a serpent”; but the abrupt change to the father’s side of the transaction is very emphatic, For μή interrog. when a negative reply is expected comp. 5:34, 10:15, 17:9, 22:35. Syr-Sin. omits “father” and inserts “perhaps.”

μὴ ἐπιδώσει. “Will he give over, hand to him”: 24:30, 42; Acts 15:30.

The text is confused, and it is doubtful whether we ought to have two pairs as in Mt., or three. If two, they are not the same two as in Mt. There we have the loaf and the stone with the fish and the serpent. Here we have the fish and the serpent with the egg and the scorpion. But perhaps before these we ought to have the loaf and the stone, although B and some other authorities omit. The insertion from Mt., however, is more intelligible than the omission.

12. σκορπίον. 10:19; Revelation 9:3, Revelation 9:9, Revelation 9:10; Deuteronomy 8:15; Ezekiel 2:6. When its limbs are closed round it, it is egg-shaped. Bread, dried fish, and hardboiled eggs are ordinary food in the East. It is probable that some of these pairs, especially “a stone for a loaf,” were proverbial expressions. “A scorpion for a fish,”�

13. πονηροὶ ὑπάρχοντες. “Being evil from the first, evil already”: much stronger than ὄντες (Mt.). Illustre testimonium de peccato originali (Beng.). See on 8:41 and 23:50.

δόματα Matthew 7:11; Ephesians 4:8; Philippians 4:17. The word is very freq. in LXX, where it represents ten different Hebrew words.

ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ. Pregnant construction for ὁ ἐν οὐράνῳ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ δώσει: comp. 9:61; Colossians 4:16. Win. 66:6, P. 784. With the assurance here given comp. αἰτείτω παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος Θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος (James 1:5). The change from ἐπιδώσει to δώσει in both Lk. and Mt. is noteworthy: the idea of “handing over” would here be out of place.

πνεῦμα ἅγιον. See on 1:15. Mt has�

14-26. The Dumb Demoniac and the Blasphemy of the Pharisees. Matthew 12:22-30; Mark 3:19-27 may be parallels.

14. δαιμόνιον κωφόν. The demon is called dumb because it made the man dumb: Mt. has τυφλὸν καὶ κωφόν. When the demon is cast out, it is the man who speaks, ἐλαλησεν ὁ κωφός. For ἐγένετο see P. 45.

ἐθαύμασαν. stupebant (a2 i l), obstupebant (b), stupuerunt (ff2.). Mt. has ἐξίσταντο. The combination of dumbness and blindness with possession made them suppose that no exorcist could succeed in such it case. Probably the man was deaf also, so that there seemed to be no avenue through which the exorcist could communicate with a victim who could neither see him, nor hear him, nor reply to his manipulations.

15. τινὲς δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶπαν. This is very vague. Mt. says οἱ φαρισαῖοι, and Mk. still more definitely of οἱ γραμματεῖς�John 8:48, John 10:20).

Ἐν βεεζεβούλ. “In the power of B.” The orthography, etymology, and application of the name are uncertain. Here, vv. 18, 19; Matthew 10:25, Matthew 10:12:24, Matthew 10:27, A.aleph; B have Βεεζεβούλ, and B has this Mark 3:22. The word occurs nowhere else in N.T. and nowhere all in O.T. With the form Βεελζεβούλ Comp. βάαλ μυῖαν (2 Kings 1:2, 2 Kings 1:3, 2 Kings 1:6) and Μυῖαν (Jos Ant. ix. 2, 1) for Beelzebub= “Lord of flies.” But Βεελζεβούλ, is found in no Greek MS. of N.T., and the form Beelzebub owes its prevalence to the Vulgate; but even there some MSS. have beelzebul. With the termination βουβ the connexion with the Ekronite god of flies must be abandoned. Βεελζεβούλ may mean either, “Lord of the dwelling,” i.e. of the heavenly habitation, or, “Lord of idols,” i.e. of idolatrous abomination. “Lord of idols,” “Prince of false gods,” comes close to “Prince of the demons.” D. B.2 art. “Beelzebub.” It is uncertain whether the Jews identified Beelzebub with Satan, or believed him to be a subordinate evil power. Unless 13:32 refers to later instances, Lk. mentions no more instances of the casting out of demons after this charge of casting them out by diabolical assistance. See Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 331.

16. πειράζοντες. The demand for a mere wonder to compel conviction was a renewal of the third temptation (4:9-12). Comp. John 2:18, John 6:30. See Martensen, Chr. Dogm. §105.

17. τὰ διανοήματα. “Thoughts,” not “machinations,” a meaning which the word nowhere has. Here only in N.T., but freq in LXX and classical: Proverbs 14:14, Proverbs 14:15:24; Isaiah 55:9; Ezekiel 14:3, Ezekiel 14:4; Plat. Prot. 348 D; Sym. 210 D.

οἷκος ἐπὶ οἶκον. Matthew 12:25 and Mark 3:25 do not prove that διαμερισθείς is here to be understood. In that case we should expect ἑ αυτόν or καθʼ ἑαυτοῦ rather than ἐπὶ οἶκον. Comp. πίπτειν ἐπί τι, 8:6, 13:4, 20:18. 30. 23:30. It is better, with Vulg. (domus supra domum cadet) and Luth. (ein Haus fa¬llet u¬bet das andere), to keep closely to the Greek without reference to Matthew 12:25 or Mark 3:25. We must therefore regard the clause as an enlargement of ἐρημοῦται: “house falleth on house”; or possibly “house after house falleth.” Comp. ναῦς τε νηὶ προσέπιπτε (Thus. 2:84, 3). Wetst, quotes πύργοι δὲ πύργοις ἐνέπιπτον (Aristid. Rhodiac. p. 544). In this way Lk. gives one example, a divided kingdom; Mk. two, kingdom and house; Mt. three, kingdom, city, and house.

In class. Grk. ἐπί after verbs of falling, adding, and the like is commonly followed by the dat. In bibl. Greek the acc. is more common: λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην (Philippians 2:27); λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον (Matthew 24:2);�Psalms 68:28);�Ezekiel 7:26). In Isaiah 28:10 we have both acc. and dat., θλίψιν ἐπὶ θλίψιν, ἐλπίδα ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι.

18. εἰ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς. Satan also is under the dominion of the same law, that division leads to destruction. The fondness of Lk. for δὲ καί is again manifest: see on 3:9. Contrast εἰ καί in ver. 8. Here καί belongs to ὁ Σατ. and means “also.” Burton., § 282. Mt. and Mk. here have simply καὶ εἰ.

ὅτι λέγετε. Elliptical: “I use this language, because ye say,” etc. Comp. Mark 3:30, and see on 7:47.

19. An argumentum ad hominem.

οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν. First with emphasis. See Acts 19:13 and Jos Ant. viii. 2, 5 for instances of Jewish exorcisms; and comp. Ant. vi. 8, 2; B. J. vii. 6, 3; Tobit 8:1-3; Justin M. Try. 85.; Apol ii. 6; 1 Samuel 16:14, 1 Samuel 16:23.

20. εἰ δὲ ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ.1 As distinct from the charms and incantations used by Jewish exorcists, who did not rely simply upon the power of God. Mt. has ἐν πνεύματι Θεοῦ. Lk. seems to be fond of Hebraistic anthropomorphisms: 1:51, 66, 73. But it is not likely that “the finger of God” indicates the ease with which it is done. Comp. Exodus 8:19, Exodus 8:31:18; Deuteronomy 9:10; Psalms 8:4.See foot-note P. 473.

ἔφθασεν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς. In late Greek, φθάνω followed by a preposition commonly loses all notion of priority or surprise, and siniply means “arrive at, attain to”: Romans 9:31; Philippians 3:16; 2 Corinthians 10:14, 1 Thessalonians 2:16; Daniel 4:19. In 1 Thessalonians 4:15 it is not followed by a preposition, and that is perhaps the only passage in N.T. in which the notion of anticipating survives. Here Vulg. and many Lat. texts have prævenit, while a2, has anticipanit; but many others have pernenit, and d has adpropinquanit.

21. ὅταν ὁ ἰσχυρὸς καθωπλισμένος. Here Lk. is very different from Matthew 12:29 and Mark 3:27, while they resemble one another. “The strong one” is Satan, and the parable is very like Isaiah 49:24-26, which may be the source of it. Luther is certainly wrong in translating, Wenn ein starker Gewapneter: καθωπλισμένος is an epithet of ὁ ἰσχυρός. Coverdale is similar: “a stronge harnessed man.” RV. restores the much ignored article: “the strong man fully armed.”

τὴν ἑαυτοῦ αὐλήν. “His own homestead.” Mt. and Mk. have οἰκίαν. Comp. Matthew 26:3, Matthew 26:58; Mark 14:54, Mark 14:15:16; John 18:15. Meyer contends that in all these places αὐλή retains its meaning of “court; courtyard,” as in Matthew 26:69; Mark 14:66; Luke 22:55. But there is no hint here that “our Lord encountered Satan in the αὐλή of the High Priest.” For τὰ ὑπάρχοντα see on 8:3: substantia ejus (d), facultates ejus (a2 c), ea quæ possidet (Vulg.). Mt. and Mk. have τὰ σκεύη.

22. ἐπὰν δέ Note the change from ὅταν with pres. subj. to ἐπάν with aor. sub., and comp. χρὴ δὲ ὅταν μὲν τιθῆσθε τοὺς νόμους … σκόπειν, ἐπειδὰν δὲ θῆσθε, φυλάττειν, (Dem. p. 525, 11); “whenever you are enacting. … but after a stronger has come.” you have enacted” so here: “All the while that the strong man is on guard … but after a stronger has come.” In ver. 34 both ἐπάν and ἐπάν have pres. subj.; in Matthew 2:8 ἐπάν has aor. subj.; and ἐπάν occurs nowhere else in N.T.

ἰσχυρότερος αὐτοῦ ἐπελθών. This is Christ:�Colossians 2:15). For ἐπέρχομαι in a hostile sense comp. 1 Samuel 30:23; Hom. Il. xii. 136, xx. 91. See on 1:35. Here Mt. and Mk. have εἰσελθών.

τὴν πανοπλίαν αὐτοῦ αἴρει ἐφʼ ᾗ ἐπεποίθει. Because it had been so efficacious. Comp. Ephesians 6:11.

τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ. Bengel explains, quæ Satanas generi humane eripuerat, identifying τὰ σκῦλα αὐτοῦ. with τὰ ὑπάρχοντα (ver. 21 : comp. Esther 3:13). But τὰ σκῦλα may be identified with τὴν πανοπλίαν. In either case Christ makes the powers of hell work together for the good of the faithful. Some who identify τὰ σκῦλα with τὰ ὑπάρχοντα interpret both of the souls which Satan has taken captive, and especially of demonises. Comp. τῶν ἰσχυρῶν μεριεῖ σκῦλα (Isaiah 53:12).

23. ὁ μὴ ὤν μετʼ ἐμοῦ κατʼ ἐμοῦ ἐστίν. Verbatim as Matthew 12:30. The connexion with what precedes seems to be that the contest between Christ and Satan is such that no one can be neutral. But that the warning is specially addressed to those who accused Him of having Beelzebub as an ally (ver. 15), or who demanded a sign (ver. 16), is less evident. See on 9:50.

συνάγων. Comp. 3:17, 12:17, 18. But the metaphor is perhaps not from gathering seed and fruit, but from, collecting a flock of sheep, or a band of followers. Comp. συνάγει τοὺς ἐσκορπισμένους (Artem. Oneir. i. 56. 1). Hillel had said, “Whoso revileth the Name, his name perisheth; and whoso doth not increase it, diminisheth.”

σκορπίζει. Ionic and Hellenistic for the more classical σκεδάννυμι; comp. John 10:12, John 10:16:32; Joh_1 Mac. 6:54; 2 Samuel 22:15.

24-26. Almost verbatim as Matthew 12:43-45, where see Alford. It is not likely that there is any reference to the success of the Jewish exorcists, as being only temporary, and leading to an aggravation of the evil. The disastrous conclusion is the result, not of the imperfect methods of the exorcist, but of the misconduct of the exorcised. The case of a demoniac who is cured and then allows himself to become repossessed is made a parable to illustrate the case of a sinner who repents of his sins, but makes no effort to acquire holiness. Such an one proves the impossibility of being neutral. He flees from Satan without seeking Christ, and thus falls more hopelessly into the power of Satan again.

24. τοῦ�

διʼ�Leviticus 16:10; Isaiah 13:21; Revelation 18:2.Revelation 18:1 Martensen, Chr. Dogm. § 103.

ἀνάπαυσιν. “Cessation” from wandering (Genesis 8:9): the demon seeks a soul to rest in. In LXX�Exodus 16:23, Exodus 16:23:12; Leviticus 23:3, etc. The punctuation is here uncertain. We may put no comma after�Matthew 12:44 (om. A C D R, Vulg. Aeth. Arm.); and, if it be omitted, we must place a comma after�

μὴ εὑρίσκον [τότε] λέγει “Because he doth not find it (then) he saith.”

εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον. He still calls it “my house.” No one else has taken it, and he was not driven out of it; he “went out.” No mention is made of exorcism or expulsion.

25. [σχολάζοντα]. This also may be an insertion fr. Mt., but the evidence is stronger than for τότε (אc B L R Λ G Ξ, Aeth. f l r). Tisch. omits; W H. bracket the word. If it is genuine, it is placed first as the main evil. It is “standing idle,” not occupied by any new tenant. The Holy Spirit has not been made a guest in place of the evil spirit.

σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον. Ready to attract any passer-by, however undesirable. The three participles form a climax, and perhaps refer to the physical and mental improvement in the man. There is much for the demon to ruin once more, but there is no protection against his return. He brings companions to share the enjoyment of this new work of destruction, and to make it complete and final.

The verb σαρόω (σάρον = “a broom”) is a later form of σαίρω and occurs again 15:8. For κεκοσμημένον comp. Revelation 21:2.

26. παραλαμβάνει. Comp. 9:10, 28, 18:31; Acts 15:39. Here again we have a climax. He brings additional spirits, more evil than himself, seven in number. Comp. the seven that went out from Mary of Magdala (8:2). Here in the best texts ἐπτά comes last, in Mt. first. In either case the word is emphatic. See Paschasius Radbertus on Matthew 12:43, Migne, 120:478.

εἰσελθόντα κατοικεῖ. There is nothing to oppose them; “they enter in and settle there,” taking up a permanent abode: 13:4; Acts 1:19, Acts 1:20, Acts 1:2:9, Acts 1:14, Acts 1:4:16, etc. The verb is freq. in bibl. Grk., esp. in Acts and Apocalypse. In the Catholic and Pauline Epp. it is used of the Divine indwelling (James 4:5; 2 Peter 3:13; Ephesians 3:17 ; Colossians 1:19, Colossians 2:9). Contrast παροικεῖν of a temporary sojourn (24:18; Hebrews 11:9; Genesis 21:23). In Genesis 37:1 both verbs occur.

χείρονα τῶν πρώτων. The expression is proverbial; Matthew 27:64. Comp. 2 Peter 2:20; Hebrews 10:29; John 5:14. Lk. omits the words which show the primary application of the parable: Οὕτως ἔσται καὶ τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ πονηρᾷ. The worship of idols had been exorcized, but that demon had returned as the worship of the letter, and with it the demons of covetousness, hypocrisy, spiritual pride, uncharitableness, faithlessness, formalism, and fanaticism.

27, 28. These two verses are peculiar to Lk., and illustrate his Gospel in its special character as the Gospel of Women. Christ’s Mother is once more declared by a woman to be blessed (1:42), and Mary’s prophecy about herself begins to be fulfilled (1:48). The originality of Christ’s reply guarantees its historical character. Such a comment is beyond the reach of an inventor.

27. ταῦτα. Apparently this refers to the parable about the demons. Perhaps the woman, who doubtless was a mother, had had experience of a lapsed penitent in her own family. Bene sentit, sed muliebriter loquitur (Beng.). For a collection of similar sayings see Wetst.

ἐπάρασα φωνήν. The expression is classical (Dem. De Cor. § 369, p. 323: comp. vocem tollit, Hor. A.p. 93); in N.T., peculiar to Lk. (Acts 20:2:14, Acts 14:11, Acts 22:22). But it is not rare in LXX (Judges 2:4, Judges 2:9:7; Ruth 1:9, Ruth 1:14; 2 Samuel 13:36).

Μακαρία ἡ κοιλία. Matthew 12:46 tells us that it was at this moment that His Mother and His brethren were announced. The sight of them may have suggested this woman’s exclamation. Lk. records their arrival earlier (8:19-21), but he gives no connecting link. Edersheim, quotes a Rabbinical passage, in which Israel is represented as breaking forth into these words on beholding the Messiah: “Blessed the hour in which the Messiah was created; blessed the womb whence He issued; blessed the generation that sees Him; blessed the eye that is worthy to behold Him” (L. & T. 2. p. 201). For κοιλία= “womb” comp. 1:15, 41, 42, 44, 2:21, 23:29; Acts 3:2, Acts 14:8.

28. Μενοῦν. This compound particle same times confirms what is stated, “yea, verily”; sometimes adds to what is said, with or without confirming it, but virtually correcting it: “yea rather,” or “that may be true, but” Here Jesus does not deny the woman’s statement, but He points out how inadequate it is. She has missed the main point To be the Mother of Jesus implies no more than a share in His humanity. To hear and keep the word of God implies communion with what is Divine. The saying is similar to 8:21. The relationship with Christ which brings blessedness is the spiritual one. For τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ see on 8:11.

Here and Philippians 3:8 some authorities have μενοῦνγε (Romans 9:20, Romans 10:18); but in N.T. μὲν οὖν is more common (Acts 1:18, Acts 5:41, Acts 13:4, Acts 17:30, Acts 23:22, Acts 26:9). In class Grk. neither form ever comes first in a sentence. Of the Lat. text Wordsworth says, Codices hie tantum variant quantum vix alibi in evangeMs in una saltem vocabulo (Vulg. P. 388). Among the renderings are quippe enim, quippini, quinimmo, immo, manifestissime, etiam. Many omit the word. See Blass, Gr. p. 264.

καὶ φυλάσσοντες. Comp. James 1:22-25. S. James may have been present and heard this reply. He also says μακάριος is the man who hears and does τὸν λόγον.

29-36. The Rebuke to those who Demanded a Sign (ver. 16). A longer account of the first half of the rebuke is given Matthew 12:39-42.

29. τῶν δὲ ὄχλων ἐπαθροιζομένων. Lk. once more notes how the multitude was attracted by Christ’s words and works: comp. ver. 27, 4:42, 5:1, 6:17, 7:11, 8:4, 19, 40, 9:11, 37, 12:1, 54, 14:25, 15:1, 18:36, 19:37, 48. The verb is a rare compound; here only in bibl. Grk. For ἤρξατο λέγειν see on 4:21 and 3:8. Το πονηρά Mt. adds καὶ μοιχαλίς.

εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ. At first sight Lk. appears to make the parallel between Jonah and Christ to consist solely in their preaching repentance. He omits the explanation that Jonah was a type of the burial and resurrection of Christ. But δοθήσεται and ἔσται show that this explanation is implied. Christ had for long been preaching; yet He says, not that the sign has been given or is being given, but that it Shall be given. The infallible sign is still in the future, viz. His resurrection. Nevertheless, even that ought not to be necessary; for His teaching ought to have sufficed. Note the emphatic repetition of σημεῖον thrice in one verse.1

Some have interpreted σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται as meaning, either that Jesus wrought no miracles, or that He refused to use them as credentials of His Divine mission. It is sufficient to point to ver. 20, where Jesus appeals to His healing of a dumb and blind demoniac as proof that He is bringing the kingdom of God to them. The demand for a sign and the refusal to give it are no evidence as to Christ’s working miracles and employing them as credentials. What was demanded was something quite different from wonders such as Prophets and (as the Jews believed) magicians had wrought. These scribes and Pharisees wanted direct testimony from God Himself respecting Jesus and His mission, such as a voice from heaven or a pillar of fire. His miracles left them still able to doubt, and they ask to be miraculously convinced. This He refuses. See Neander, L. J. C. § 92, Eng. tr. p. 144.

31. βασίλισσα νότου. Lk. inserts this illustration between the two sayings about Jonah. Mt. keeps the two sayings about Jonah together. Lk. places the Ninevites after the Queen of Sheba either for chronology, or for effect, or both: their case was the stronger of the two. There is a threefold contrast in this illustration: (1) between a heathen queen and the Jews; (2) between the ends of the earth and here; (3) between Solomon and the Son of Man. There may possibly be a fourth contrast between that enterprising woman and the men of this generation implied in�

νότου … ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς. Sheba was in the southern part of Arabia, the modern Yemen, near the southern limits of the world as then known. Comp. Psalms 2:8.

πλεῖον Σολομῶνος. There is no need to understand σημεῖον: “a greater thing, something greater, than Solomon.”

32. ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται. No article: “Men of Nineveh.” RV. retains “The men of Nineveh.”

εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα. “In accordance with the preaching” they repented; i.e. they turned towards it and conformed to it; comp. ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα (2 Timothy 2:26); or else, “out of regard to it” they repented; comp. αἵτινες ἐλάβετε τὸν νόμοι εἰς δαιαταγὰς�Acts 7:53); ὁ δεχόμενος δίκαιον εἰς ὄνομα δικαίου (Matthew 10:41). See on 10:13; and for κήρυγμα, as meaning the subject rather than the manner of preaching, see Lft. Notes on Epp. p. 161.

33-36. The Light of the inner Eye. There is no break in the discourse, and this should hardly be printed as a separate section: the connexion with what goes before is close. Christ is still continuing His reply to those who had demanded a sign. Those whose spiritual sight has not been darkened by indifference and impenitence have no need of a sign from heaven. Their whole soul is full of the light which is all around them, ready to be recognized and absorbed. This saying appears to have been part of Christ’s habitual teaching. Lk. gives it in a rather different form after the parable of the Sower (8:16-18). Mt. has it as part of the Sermon on the Mount (5:15, 6:22, 23), but does not repeat it here. Mk. has a portion of it after the parable of the Sower (4:21). See S. Cox in the Expositor, 2nd series, 1. p. 252.

33. λύχνον ἄψας. See on 8:16.—εἰς κρύπτην. “Into a vault, crypt, cellar.” But no ancient Version seems to give this rendering, although Euthym. has τὴν�

ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον. “Under the bushel,” i.e. the one in the room, or in the house; as we say “the sofa, the shovel.” In capacity a modius is about a peck = 16 sextarii or 1/6 μέδιμνος (comp. Nep. Att. ii.): elsewhere only Matthew 5:15; Mark 4:21. Syr-Sin. omits.

34. ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματος. “The lamp of the body.” To translate λύχνος “candle” in ver. 33 and “light” in ver. 34 (Tyn. Cov. Cran. Gen. AV.) is disastrous. Vulg. has lucerna in both; Wic. has “lanterne” in both, and Rhem. “candel” in both; RV. still better, “lamp” in both.D. C. G. art. “Light.”

ὅταν … ἐπάν. See on ver. 22. Here both are follow by the subj., and there is no appreciable difference.

ἁλοῦς. “Free from distortion, normal, sound.”—πονηρός. “Diseased”: πονηρία ὀφθαλμῶν occurs Plat. Hip. min. 374 D. Comp. πονηρὰ ἕξις σώματος (Plat. Tim. 86 D) and the common phrase πονηρῶς ἔχει. Faith, when diseased, becomes the darkness of superstition; just as the eye, when diseased, distorts and obscures. Comp. Matthew 6:22, Matthew 6:23.

35. σκόπει οὖν. Here, and not in the middle of ver. 34, the meaning passes from the eye of the body to the eye of the soul.1

μὴ τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν. This happens when the eye of the soul is so diseased that it cannot receive any ray of Divine truth. The μή is interrogative, and the indicative after it suggets that the case contemplated is an actual fact: “look whether it be not darkness”; considera num, schaue ob wahl nicht. The vide ne of Vulg. is not exact. Comp. Galatians 4:11; Thuc. 3, 53:2. Win. lii. 2, a, p. 631; Simcox, Lang. of N.T. p. 109.

36. The tautology is only apparent In the protasis the emphasis is on ὅλον, which is further explained by μὴ ἔχον μέρος τι σκοτινόν: in the apodosis the emphasis is on φωτινόν, which is further explained by ὡς ὅταν ὁ λύχνος κ.τ.λ. “If thy whole body … it shall be wholly full of light.” Complete illumination is illumination indeed, and those who possess it have no need of a sign from heaven in order to recognize the truth. Syr-Sin. condenses.

37-54. § The Invitation from a Pharisee. Christ’s Denunciation of Pharisaic Formalism and Hypocrisy. A similar condemnation of the Pharisees is placed by Mt. somewhat later, and is given with great fulness (23.). If these sayings were uttered only once, we have not much material for determining which arrangement is more in accordance with fact. See on ver. 54.

37. Ἐν δὲ τωσͅ λαλησσαι. “Now after He had spoken” (aor.), rather than “As He spake” (AV. RV.). See on 3:21. There is nothing to show that the invitation was the result of what Christ had just been saying. Indeed, there may have been a considerable interval between vv. 36 and 37. Syr-Sin. omits.

ὅπως�John 21:12, John 21:15, the early meal of breakfast or lunch is meant rather than dinner or supper: comp. 14:12; Matthew 22:4. At this time the first meal of all was called�

38. ἐθαύμασεν. We are not told that he expressed his surprise. Jesus read his thoughts and answered them. Jesus had just come from contact with the multitude, and, moreover, He had been ting out a demon; and the Pharisee took for granted that He would purify Himself from any possible pollution before coming to table. This was not enjoined by the Law but by tradition, which the Pharisees tried to make binding upon all (Mark 7:3). This man’s wonder is evidence that his invitation was not a plot to obtain evidence against Jesus: he was not expecting any trangression.

ἐβαπτίσθη. This need not be taken literally of bathing. Probably no more than washing the hands is meant; and this often took place at table, the servants bringing water to each person. Edersh. L. & T. 2. pp. 204-207. We may understand Christ’s omission to wash before coming to table, or refusal of the water offered to Him at table, as a protest against the attempt to “bind burdens” upon men, and to substitute trivialities for the weightier matters of the Law. Comp. Derenbourg, Hist. de. la Pal. p. 134.

39. εἶπεν δὲ ὁ κύριος. The use of ὁ Κύριος here (see on 5:17 and 7:13) perhaps has special point. The Pharisee might rega Him as an ordinary guest; but He has a message to deliver to him.

Νυσν. The meaning is not certain; but it probably refers to time, and is not merely concessive. “It was not so formerly, but is is the fact now,” comp. 2 Corinthians 7:9 and Colossians 1:24, where see Lft. Or, “Here we have a case in point.” comp. 2 Kings 7:6. Or, “This is what you as a matter of fact do,” in contrast to what you ought to do—πλὴν τὰ ἐνόντα δότε. With the whole saying comp. Matthew 23:25. For πίνακος Mt. has παροψίδος: comp. Mark 6:25; Matthew 14:8.

τὸ δὲ ἔσωθεν ὑμωσν. Here the outside of the cup and platter is contrasted with the hearts of the Pharisees. In Mt the point is the outside of the vessels is kept clean, while the meat and drink in them are the proceeds of rapacity and the means of excess �Song of Solomon 4:3): amantes convivia devoratores gulæ (Assump. Mos vii. 4). Here some make τὸ ἔσωθεν mean the inside of the vessels, and take ὑμωσν with ἁρπαγησς κ. πονηρίας. But the position of ὑμωσν is conclusive against this. Others make τὸ ἔσωθεν ὑμωσν mean “your inward parts” in the literal sense. “You can keep the vessels from polluting the food; but that will not prevent the food, which is already polluted by the way in which it was obtained, from filling you with uncleanness.” But this is not probable. For Jewish trifling about clean and unclean vessels seeSchoettg. and Wetst. on Matthew 23:25, Matthew 23:26; and for the moral sterility of such teaching, Pressensé, Le Sièle Apstolique, p. 90.

40. ἄφρονες. A strong word: quite classical, but in the N. T. almost confined to Lk (12:20) and Paul (Romans 2:20; 1 Corinthians 15:36; 2 Corinthians 11:16, 2 Corinthians 11:19, 2 Corinthians 11:12:6, 2 Corinthians 11:11; Ephesians 5:17. See on 24:25).

οὐχ ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔξωθεν. This is almost certainly a question. “Not he who has done the outside has thereby done the inside,” makes sense, but it is harsh and hardly adequate. It is better with most Versions to make οὐκ = nonne. “Did not God, who made the material universe, make men’s souls also?”1 It is folly to be scrupulous about keeping material objects clean, while the soul is polluted with wickedness.2

41. πλὴν τὰ ἐνόντα δότε ἐλεημοσύνην. The πλήν is here expansive and progressive, “only.” See on 6:24. The meaning of τὰ ἐνόντα is much disputed, and the renderings vary greatly: quæ sunt (b d g); ex his quæ habetis (f); quod superest (Vulg.) ; ea quæ, panes Vos sunt (Beza); quantum potestis (Grot.); von dem, das da ist (Luth.). Quod superest is impossible; and the others are not very probable. Nor is it satisfactory to follow Erasmus, Schleiermacher, and others, and make the saying ironical: “Give something to the or out of your luxuries, and then (as you fancy) all your ἁρππαγή and πονηρία will be condoned.” According to this τὰ ἔνόντα means either what is in the cups and platters, or what is in your purses. And this is perhaps right, but without irony. “The contents of your cup and platter give ye in alms, and, lo, all things are clean to you,” i.e. benevolence is a better way of keeping meals free from defilement than scrupulous cleansing of vessels. We are told that this is “a peculiarly Ebionitic touch.” But it is very good Christianity. Others make τὰ ἐνόντα = τὸ ἔσωθεν: “As for that which is within you, as for the care of your souls, give alms.” See Expositor, 2nd series, v. P. 318. Or, “Give your souls as alms,” i.e. give not merely food or money, but your heart. Comp. δῷς πεινῶντι τὸν ἄρτον ἐκ ψυχῆς σου (Isaiah 58:10). In any case, πάντα refers specially to the vessels used at meals. They will not defile where benevolence prevails. With the passage as a whole com Mark 7:18, Mark 7:19 and the Baptist’s commands (Luke 3:11).


παρέρχεσθε. “Ye pass by, neglect”: comp. 15:29; Deuteronomy 17:2; Jeremiah 34:18; Judith 9:10; 1 Mac. 2:22. Elsewhere in N. T. it means “pass by” literally (18:37; Acts 16:8), or “pass away, perish” (16:17, 21:32, 33, etc.). Here Mt. has�

τὴν κρίσιν. “The distinction between right and wrong, rectitude, justice.” This use of κρίσις is Hebraistic; comp. Genesis 18:19, Genesis 18:25; Isaiah 5:7, 56:1, 59:8; Jeremiah 17:11; Jer_1 Mac. 7:18.


43.�John 12:43) the first seat” This was a semicircular bench round the ark, and facing the congregation, Edersh. L. & T. 1. p. 436. comp 20:46; Matthew 23:6; Mark 12:39.

Some Latin texts agree with C D in adding to this verse et Primos discubitos in conviviis (b l q r), or et primos adcubitos in cenis (d).

44. ἐστὲ ὡς τὰ μνημεῖα τὰ ἄδηλα. “Whosoever in the open field toucheth a grave shall be unclean seven days” (Numbers 19:16). Hence the Jews were accustomed to whitewash such graves to make them conspicuous. People mixed freely with Pharisees, believing them to be good men. and unconsciously became infect with their vices, just as they sometimes walked over a hidden grave and were polluted without knowing it. In Matthew 23:27 the Pharisees are compared to the whitewashed graves, which look clean and are inwardly foul.

45. τῶν νομικῶν. See on 7:30. Not all the Pharisees were professional students (νομικοί), or teachers of the Law (νομοδιδάσκαλοι).

καὶ ἡμᾶς ὑβρίζεις. “Thou insultest even us,” the better instructed among the Pharisees. The verb implies outrageous treatment (18:32; Acts 14:5; Matthew 22:6; 1 Thessalonians 2:2), and “reproachest” is hardly strong enough. Comp. ἐνυβρίζειν (Hebrews 10:29). In class. Gk. ὑβρίζειν is commonly followed by εἰς, esp. in prose. “Reproach” would be ὀνειδίζειν (Matthew 11:20).

46. There is a triplet of Woes against the lawyers (vv. 46, 47. 52), as against the Pharisees (42, 43, 44). With this first Woe comp. Matthew 23:4. In both passages φορτίον occurs; and, as distinct from βάρος and ὄγκος, it means that which a man is expected to bear (Matthew 11:30). But Lk. shows his fondness for cognate words by writing φορτίζετε φορτία, while Mt. has δεσμεύουσιν φορτία. See on 23:46, and comp. Galatians 6:2.

δυσβάστακτα. Proverbs 28:3. The word probably occurs here only in N.T., and has been inserted Matthew 23:4 from here. The reference is to the intolerably burdensome interpretations by which the scribes augmented the written Law. They made it far more severe than it was intended to be. explaining every doubtful point in favour of rigorous ritualism.

οὐ προσψαύετε. Touching with a view to removing seems to be meant ; but it may indicate that. while they were rigorous to others. they were evasive themselves. They were scrupulous about their own traditions, but they did not keep the Law. It is not admissible, however. to interpret τοῖς φορτίοις in a different way from φορτία δυσβάστακτα, making the latter refer to traditions. and τοῖς φορτίοις to the Law. Both mean the same, the force of the article being “the φορτία just mentioned.,” Seeing that νομικοί were not neglectful of traditions, τοῖς φορτιοις must mean the Law; and therefore φορτία δυσβάστακτα must have this meaning.

47. Comp. Matthew 23:30; Acts 7:52.

οἰκοδομεῖτε τὰ μνημεῖα τῶν προφητῶν οἱ δὲ πατέρες ὑμῶν. “Ye build the tombs of the prophets, while your fathers.” The “Tombs, of the Prophets,” near the top of the Mount of Olives, are still “an enigma to travellers and antiquarians.” All that can safely be asserted is that they are not the “tombs of the prophets” mentioned here. Robinson, Res. in Pal. iii. P. 254.

48. μάρτυρές ἐστε καὶ συνευδοκεῖτε. “Ye are witness and consent to” or, “Ye bear witness that ye approve.”1 Mt. has μαρτυρεῖτε only (23:31), which some texts introduce here (A C D). Comp. Saul, who was συνευδοκῶν to the murder of Stephen (Acts 8:1). The ἄρα as first word is not classical: comp. Acts 9:18.

τῶν πατέρων ὑμῶν. “Your fathers, morally as well as actually; for you carry on and complete their evil deeds.” Externally the Pharisees seemed to honour the Prophets. Really they were dis-honouring them as much as those did who slew them; for they neglected the duties which the Prophets enjoined, and ignored their testimony to Christ.

49. διὰ τοῦτο καί. “Because of your complicity with your fathers’ murderous deeds, there is this confirmation of the Woe just pronounced.” comp. Matthew 23:34.

ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν Ἀποστελῶ. The words are here ascribed to the “Wisdom of God” are in Matthew 23:34 Christ’s own words, spoken on a later occasion. It is improbable that Christ is here quoting what He said on some previous occasion. Nowhere does He style Himself “the Wisdom of God”; nor does any Evangelist give Him this title; nor does Θεοῦ σοφίαν or σοφρία�1 Corinthians 1:24, 1 Corinthians 1:30) warrant us in asserting that this was a common designation of Christ among the first Christians, so that tradition might have substituted this name for the ἐγώ used by Jesus. That He is quoting from a lost book called “The Wisdom of God” is still less probable.2 Written words would be introduced with λέγει rather than εἶπεν, and the context seems to imply some Divine utterance. In the O.T. no such words are found; for Proverbs 1:20-31; 2 Chronicles 24:20-22, 2 Chronicles 36:14-21 are quite inadequate. And we obtain nothing tangible when we make the passage “a general paraphrase of the tenor of several O.T. passages.” Rather it is of the Divine Providence (Proverbs 8:22-31), sending Prophets to the Jewish Church and Apostles to the Christian Church, that Jesus here speaks : “God in His wisdom said.” Comp. 7:35. Jesus here speaks with confident knowledge of the Divine counsels: comp. 10:22, 15:7, 10.

ἀποστόλους. Mt. has σοφοὺς καὶ γραμματεῖς, and mentions Crucifixion and scourging along with death and persecution. By coupling the persecuted Apostles with the persecuted Prophets, Jesus once more indicates the solidarity of the Pharisees with their wicked forefathers: comp. Matthew 5:12. For ἐξ αὐτῶν (τινας) comp. John 16:17 ; 2 John 1:4; Revelation 2:10. For διώξουσιν (א; B C L X) in the sense of “persecute” comp. 21:12; Acts 7:52, Acts 7:9:4, Acts 7:22:4, Acts 7:7, etc.

50. ἴνα ἐκζητηθῇ τὸ αἶμα. This is the Divinely ordered sequence. The verb is almost unknown in profane writings; and nowherse else in N.T. is it used of “demanding back, requiring as a debt.” Comp. 2 Samuel 4:11; Ezekiel 3:18, Ezekiel 3:20, Ezekiel 33:6, Ezekiel 3:8, Genesis 9:5, Genesis 42:22.

τὸ ἐκκεχυμένον�Matthew 25:34; Hebrews 4:3, Hebrews 4:9:26; Revelation 13:8, Revelation 17:8. The expression καταβολὴ κόσμου does not occur in LXX Comp.�Psalms 78:2).

ἐκκεχυμένον. This is the reading of B and a few cursives; but almost all other authorities have ἐκχυννόμενον, which may easily have come from Mt. The grammarians condemn ἐκχύνω, or ἐκχύννω (Aeolic) as a collateral form of ἐκχέω. It is used of bloodshed Acts 22:20, and the pres. part., if genuine here, is very expressive: “the blood which is perpetually being shed.”

ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης. To be taken after ἐκζητηθῇ. The reference is specially to the destruction of Jerusalem (21:32).

51. The murders of Abel and Zacharias are the first and last murders in the O.T., which in the Jewish Canon ends with Chronicles. In both cases the ἐκζήτησις is indicated: “The voice of the brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground” (Genesis 4:10); “The Lord look upon it, and require it” (2 Chronicles 24:22). Chronologically the murder of Uriah by Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 26:23) is later than that of Zachariah the son of Jehoiada. Zachariah the son of Barachiah was the Prophet, and there is no mention of his having been murdered: in Matthew 23:35 “the son of Barachiah” is probably a mechanical slip. For τοῦ οἴκου Mt. has τοῦ ναοῦ, and the ναός is evidently the οἶκος meant here.

ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν. comp. 7:26, 12:5. Not elsewhere in N.T.

52. τὴν κλεῖδα τῆς γνώσεως. “The key which opens the door to knowledge,” not “which is knowledge”: the gen. is not one of apposition. There is no reference to a supposed ceremony by which a “doctor of the law” was “symbolically admitted to his office by the delivery of a key.” No such ceremony appears to have existed. The knowledge is that of the way of salvation, which can be obtained from Scripture. But the scribes had cut off access to this knowledge, first, by their false interpretations; and, secondly, by their contempt for the people, whom they considered to be unworthy of instruction or incapable of enlightenment. Their false interpretations were fatal to themselves (αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσήλθατε) as well as to others. See Hort, Judaistic Christianity. p. 141 ; Recog. Clem. i. 54, 2:30, 46. Excepting in the Apocalypse (1:18, 3:7, 9:1, 20:1), κλείς occurs only Matthew 16:19. The reading ἐκρύψατε (D and some Versions) for ἤρατε is an interpretative gloss. Note that here Lk. has νομικοί where Mt. (23:14) has γραμματεισς, and comp. 12:44.

τοὺς εἰσερχομένους. “Those who were continually trying to enter” (imperf. part.). The aorists indicate what was done once for all and absolutely.

53. κἀκεισθεν ἐξελθόντος αὐτους. In their vehemence they followed Him out of the Pharisee’s house. But it by no means follows from what they did in their excitement that “the Pharisee’s feast had been a base plot to entrap Jesus.”

The text of this verse exhibits an extraordinary number of variations. The above is the reading of א; B C L 33, Boh. For it A D X, Latt. SyrCur. substitute Λέγοντος δὲ αὐτους ταυστα πρὸς αὐτούς or πρὸς τὸν λαόν: and to this D X Latt. Syr-Cur. add ἐνώπιον παντὸς τους λαους or τους ὀχλους. For of οἱ γραμματεισς κ. οἱ φαρ. D and various Lat. texts give of φαρ κ. οἱ νομικοί, legis periti (Vulg. cdef). For δεινωσς ἐνέχειν C has δεινωσς ἐπέχειν, H δ. συνέχειν, and D S with various Lat. texts δ. ἔχειν: male habere (b d q), male so habere (a), graviter habere (c e i), graviter ferre (1), and moleste ferre (1), representing δ. ἔχειν, while graviter insistere (Vulg.) is Jerome’s correction to represent δ. ἐνέχειν. Again, for�

ἐνέχειν. In Mark 6:19 and Genesis 49:23 (the only place in which the act. occurs in LXX) this verb is followed by a dat. It may be doubted whether χόλον, which is expressed Hdt. i. 118. 1, vi. 119. 2, viii. 27. 1, is here to be understood. If anything is to be understood, τὸν νουσν is more probable, as in the analogous cases of ἐπέχειν (which C here reads) and προσέχειν. The meaning appears to be that they “watched Him intensely, were actively on the alert against Him”; which suits Genesis 49:23 (ἐνεισχον αὐτωσͅ κύριοι τοξευμάτων) as well as the context here. But external pressure may be the meaning in both places, although in Mark 6:19 internal feeling suits the context better (“cherished a age against”). In the gloss of Hesychius, ἐνέχει· μνησικακεις, ἔγκειται (? ἐγκοτεις), it is possible that μνησικακεις refers to Mark 6:19 and ἔγκειται (or ἐγκοτεις) to Luke 11:53. See Field, Otium; Norvic. iii. pp. 22, 45, and the note in Wordsworth’s Vulgate.

ἀποστοματίζειν. Originally, “to dictate what is to be learned by heart and recited” (Plato, Euthyd. 276 C, 277 A); hence τὰ�

ἐνεδρεύοντες. Elsewhere in N.T. only Acts 23:21: comp. Deuteronomy 19:11; Proverbs 26:19; Wis. 2:12; Ecclus. 27:10, 28; Lamentations 4:19; Jos. Ant. v. 2. 12; in all which places it has, as here, the acc. instead of the usual dat.

θηρευσσαι1 Here only in N.T. Comp: Psalms 58:4. Both this ord and ἐνεδρεύοντες are very graphic. Godet remarks that we have here une scène de violence peut-être unique dens la vie de Jésus: and huic vehementiæ suberat fraudulentia (Beng.). We infer from 12:1 that now the disciples are present.

It is possible that in Mat_23. what took place on this occasion is combined with what was said in the temple just before the Passion. Lk, gives only a very brief notice of the later denunciation (20:45-47 ; comp: Matthew 23:1-7). But the fact that he gives two denunciations is against the theory that only one was uttered, which he assigns to one occasion and Mt. to another. It may, however, easily have happened that some of what was said an the first occasion has been transferred to the second, or vice versâ.

§ Found in Luke alone.

Herzog, Herzog’s Protestantische Real-Encyklopädie, 2nd edition.

D. Chr. Ant. Smith’s Dictionary of Christian Antiquities.

D D. Cod. Bezae, sæc. vi. Given by Beza to the University Library at Cambridge 1581. Greek and Latin. Contains the whole Gospel.

1 For the details of the evidence see Sanday, App. ad N.T. p. 119. In general it in א B L, Vulg. Arm, Orig. Tert., which omit the clauses in question; but אis on the other side with regard to γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, κ.τ.λ. Other authorities omit one or more of the clauses. Those which contain the clauses vary as to the wording of the first two. “Neither accident nor intention can adequately account for such clear evidence as there is in favour of so large an omission, if S. Luke’s Gospel had originally contained the clauses in question” (Hammond, Textual Criticism applied to N.T. p. 83, Oxford, 1890).

Vulg. Vulgate.

Syr Syriac.

Sin. Sinaitic.

1 There is evidence from Tertullian (Adv. Marc. iv. 26), from Gregory Nyssen (De Orat. Dom. ed. Krabinger, p. 60), and from an important cursive (Cod. Ev. 604 = 700 Gregory), elaborately edited by Hoskier (1890), that the lord’s Prayer in Lk. sometimes contained a petition for the gift of the Spirit, instead either of “Thy kingdom come” or of “Hallowed be Thy name.” In Gregory and Cod. Ev. 604 the petition runs thus: Ἐλθέτω τὸ πνεῦμά σου [τὸ ἄγιον] ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς καὶ καθαρισάτω ἡμᾶς; but in Gregory τὸ ἅγιον is doubtful. This addition may have been made when the Prayer was used at the laying on of hands, and thus have got into some texts of Lk. Chase in Texts & Studies, i. 3, p. 28. The ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς of D may have come from this addition. Comp. Zmuns komme dein Reich.

Wetst. Wetstein.

WH. Westcott and Hort.

AV. Authorized Version.

1 Gregory Nyssen goes so far as to make ὀ πειρασμός a name for the devil: ἄρα ὁ πειρασμός τε καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἕν τι καὶ κατὰ τὴν σημασίαν ἐστί (De Orat Dom. v., Migne, xliv. 1192). So also Nilus, the friend and pupil of Chrysos. tom: πειρασμὸς μὲν λέγεται καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ διάβολος (Ep. l., Migne, lxxix. 573).

Aug. Augustine.

Treg. Tregelles.

Win. Winer, Grammar of N.T. Greek (the page refers to Moulton’s edition).

Lft. J. B. Lightfoot,* Notes on Epistles of S. Paul.

B B. Cod. Vaticanus, sæc. 4. In the Vatican Library certainly since 15331 (Batiffol, La Vaticane de Paul 3, etc., p. 86).

Beng. Bengel.

Aeth. Ethiopic.

D. B. Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 2nd edition.

Luth. Luther.

Burton. Burton, N.T. Moods and Tenses.

1 The ἐγώ after εἰ δέ (D) or after Θεοῦ (B C L R) is of doubtful authority: in the one case it probably comes from ver. 19, in the other it may come from Matthew 12:28.

RV. Revised Version.

Tyn. Tyndale.

1 See Gregory Nazianzen’s interpretation of “waterless places” as the unbaptized “dry of the divine stream” (Oration on Holy Baptism, xxxv.; Post Nicene, Library, vii. p. 373). For the application of the parallel to the Jews, the Christian Church, and individuals, see Alford on Matthew 12:44.

L L. Cod. Regius Parisiensis, sæc. viii. National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

Ξ̠Ξ. Cod. Zacynthius Rescriptus, sæc. viii. In the Library of the Brit. and For. Bible Soc. in London. Contains 1:1-9, 19-23, 27, 28, 30-32, 36-66, 1:77-2:19, 21, 22, 33-39, 3:5-8, 11-20, 4:1, 2, 6-20, 32-43, 5:17-36, 6:21-7:6, 11-37, 39-47, 8:4-21, 25-35, 43-50, 9:1-28, 32, 33, 35, 9:41-10:18, 21-40, 11:1, 2, 3, 4, 24-30, 31, 32, 33.

A A. Cod. Alexandrinus, sæc. v. Once in the Patriarchal Library at Alexandria; sent by Cyril Lucar as a present to Charles 1. in 1628, and now in the British Museum. Complete.


C. Cod. Ephraemi Rescriptus, sæc. 5. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the following portions of the Gospel: 1:2-2:5, 2:42-3:21, 4:25-6:4, 6:37-7:16, or 17, 8:28-12:3, 19:42-20:27, 21:21-22:19, 23:25-24:7, 24:46-53.

These four MSS. are parts of what were once complete Bibles, and are designated by the same letter throughout the LXX and N.T.

R R. Cod. Nitriensis Rescriptus, sæc. 8. Brought from a convent in the Nitrian desert about 1847, and now in the British Museum. Contains 1:1-13, 1:69-2:4, 16-27, 4:38-5:5, 5:25-6:8, 18-36, 39, 6:49-7:22, 44, 46, 47, 8:5-15, 8:25-9:1, 12-43, 10:3-16, 11:5-27, 12:4-15, 40-52, 13:26-14:1, 14:12-15:1, 15:13-16:16, 17:21-18:10, 18:22-20:20, 20:33-47, 21:12-22:15, 42-56, 22:71-23:11, 38-51. By a second hand 15:19-21.

Arm. Armenian.

אԠאc attributed to the beginning of sæc. 7. Two hands of about this date are sometimes distinguished as אca and אcb

Tisch. Tischendorf.

L. & T. Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.

1 Sanday inclines to the view that Matthew 12:40 “is a gloss which formed no part of the original saying, but was introduced, very naturally though erroneously, the author of our present Gospel” (Bampton Lectures, 1893, p. 433). On the question whether Christ’s appeal to Jonah requires us to believe that the story of the whale is historical see Sanday’s Bampton Lectures, pp. 414-419; Gore’s Bampton Lectures, 1891, pp. 195-200; with the literature there quoted.

Euthym. Euthymius Zigabenus.

Jos. Josephus.

Cov. Coverdale.

Gen. Geneva.

Wic. Wiclif.

Rhem. Rheims (or Douay).

1 Comp. Seneca, Effugisse tenebras, bono lucis frui, non tenui visu clare prospicere, sed totum diem admittere.

1 We may get the same sense from the text of C D Γ and some cursives, which transpose ἔξωθεν and ἔσωθεν. So also from some Latin texts: nonne Qui fecit interiora et exteriora fecit (a), qui fecit quod intus est et quod foris est (c e)


Ergo miser trepidas, ne stercore fæda canino

Atria displiceant oculis venientis amici,

Ne perfusa lute sit porticus: et tamen une

Semodia scobis hæ emundat servulus unus.

Illud non agitas, ut sanctam filius omni

Adspiciat sine labe domum vitioque carentem (Juv. 14:64).

Grot. Grotius.

1 Vulg, has testificamini quod consentitis, and a few cursives read ὄτι συνευδοκεῖτε. Lat. texts vary greatly: quia consentitis (1), et consentitis (CT), consentitis (E), consentire (cil) consentientes (f), non consentientes (abq), non consentire (d) following μὴ συνευδοκεῖν (D).

2 See Ryle, Canon of O.T. p. 155; and for apparent quotations from Scripture which cannot be found in Scripture comp. John 7:38; 1 Corinthians 2:9; Ephesians 5:14.

אԠא Cod. Sinaiticus, sæc. iv. Brought by Tischendorf from the Convent of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai; now at St. Petersburg. Contains the whole Gospel complete.

X X. Cod. Monacensis, sæc. ix. In the University Library at Munich. Contains 1:1-37, 2:19-3:38, 4:21-10:37, 11:1-18:43, 20:46-24:53.

Boh. Bohairic.

Latt. Latin.

Cur. Curetonian.

אԠאa contemporary, or nearly so, and representing a second MS. of high value;

Lat. Vet. Vetus Latina.

G G. Cod. Harleianus, sæc. ix. In the British Museum. Contains considerable portions.

K K. Cod. Cyprius, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

M M. Cod. Campianus, sæc. ix. In the National Library at Paris. Contains the whole Gospel.

U U. Cod. Nanianus, sæc. x. In the Library of St. Mark’s, Venice. Contains the whole Gospel.

1 Comp. Εἰπέ μοι, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὺκ αἰσχύνει, τηλικουστος ὤν, ὀνόματα θηρεύων καὶ ἐάν τις ἁμάρτῃ, ἔρμαιον τουστο ποιούμενος; (Plat. Gorg. 489 B).

Bibliographical Information
Driver, S.A., Plummer, A.A., Briggs, C.A. "Commentary on Luke 11". International Critical Commentary NT. 1896-1924.