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Bible Commentaries
Nehemiah 8

Trapp's Complete CommentaryTrapp's Commentary

Verse 1

And all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the street that [was] before the water gate; and they spake unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.

As one man — See Ezra 3:1 , and remember that Omne simile non est idem; this is a distinct history from that.

Into the street — Or, open place, the meeting place of the water gate. See Nehemiah 3:26 . Right over against this gate was the court of the people, saith Lyra. See Ezra 10:9 .

And they spake unto Ezra the scribe — The people may, if need be, say to Archippus, Look to thy ministry, …, Colossians 4:17 . Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, all is theirs (the gifts and abilities of all good ministers), and they may call for them, 1 Corinthians 3:22 .

To bring the book of the law of Moses — Wherein he was no less able than apt to impart, 1 Timothy 3:2 , διδακτικος . He knew that the best had need hear the law, he spiritum sessorem excutiant, that they might be kept within the bounds of obedience. Not the unruly colt only, but the horse that is broken, hath a bit and bridle also.

Verse 2

And Ezra the priest brought the law before the congregation both of men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month.

And Ezra the priest brought the law — The commandment (he knew well) was a lamp, and the law a light; and reproofs of instruction the way of life, Proverbs 6:23 . The Greeks call the law νομον , quasi θεου νοον μενοντα , the standing mind of God (Plato in Cratylo). And if Demosthenes could say of men’s laws, that they were the invention of God; if Xenophon could say of the Persian laws, that they kept the people even from coveting any wickedness; if Cicero durst say of the Roman laws, that they far excelled and exceeded all the learned libraries of the philosophers, both in weight and worth; how much more may all this and more be said of this perfect law of God, the book whereof was here brought forth by Ezra, and read and expounded in the ears of all the people! μη τοιουτους εσεσθαι τους πολιτας, ωστε πονηρου τινος εργου εφιεσθαι ..

Before the congregation both of men and women — Heb. From man to woman; for souls have no sexes; and in Christ there is no difference, Galatians 4:28 . The Jews at this day little regard their women; not suffering them to come within their synagogue. And the Turkish women never go to their mosques; neither is there any heed taken or reckoning made of their religion at all. The Papists say that a distaff is fitter for a woman than a Bible.

And all that can hear with understandingi.e. Children also, that were of any growth. Little pitchers have ears, and little children will understand much, if well principled.

Upon the first day of the seventh month — A month of more solemnities than any other. This first day was a double holy day, Leviticus 23:24 . See Deuteronomy 31:11 .

Verse 3

And he read therein before the street that [was] before the water gate from the morning until midday, before the men and the women, and those that could understand; and the ears of all the people [were attentive] unto the book of the law.

And he read therein — As a scribe, he wrote the law; and as a priest, he read and expounded it. This was Christ’s own custom, Luke 4:16 , and the Jews’, Acts 13:15 ; Acts 13:27 ; Acts 15:21 , and is still to this day; one lesson is ever read out of the law in their public meetings; and another out of the prophets correspondent to the former in argument. The Holy Scripture is called Mikre, the reading of Nehemiah 8:9 , because it ought to be read to all; and the word, as if all the use of our ears were to hear this word.

From the morning until midday — This was a great while; five or six hours together they spent in holy duties, whereas the most amongst us think long of an hour; they sit as it were in the stocks whiles they are hearing the word read or preached, and come out of the church when the tedious sermon runneth somewhat beyond the glass, like prisoners out of a jail.

And the ears of the people were attentive to the book — Heb. Were to the book of the law; which phrase importeth both their attention and affection to what they heard delivered. They drew up the ears of their souls to the ears of their bodies; and so one sound pierced both. See the like Luke 19:48 , they hung upon Christ’s holy lips, as loth to lose any part of that precious language. The Jews at this day, though they give very great outward respect to their Torah, or book of the law (carrying it about their synagogue at the end of service in procession, and the like), yet for any show of attention or elevation of spirit I could never discern (saith one that had been much amongst them), but they are as reverend in their synagogues as grammar boys are at school when their master is absent.

Verse 4

And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Urijah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchiah, and Hashum, and Hashbadana, Zechariah, [and] Meshullam.

And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood — Heb. A tower of wood, because high and round, as ours are. The Capuchins and other Popish preachers are said to have long pulpits, wherein they may walk and act, as upon a stage, in Lent especially; at which time it is the custom of Italy for the same man to preach six days in the week upon the gospel of the days, and on the Saturday in honour and praise of the Virgin Mary.

And beside him stood Mattithiah, … — For greater authority’ sake, as concurring with Ezra, and ready in their turn to perform the work. Praedicationis officium suscipit quisquis ad sacerdotium accedit, said Gregory long since, No preacher is no minister.

Verse 5

And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people; (for he was above all the people;) and when he opened it, all the people stood up:

And Ezra opened the book — God’s Book; not Aristotle’s Ethics, as Melancthon saith he heard some Popish priests preaching upon texts thence taken. And Carolostadius was eight years a doctor before he first opened the Bible; and yet at the taking of his degree he had been pronounced Sufficientissimus Most adequate.

For he was above all the people — Both in place and office; as representing the person of God, and bearing his name unto his people.

All the people stood up — For reverence’ sake. So did Eglon, that fat king of Moab, when he heard of a message from God, Judges 3:20 . Balaam, being to utter his parable, bids Balak arise up and hear him. Our Saviour stood up to read his text, Luke 4:16 . Constantine the Great and our King Edward VI would not hear a sermon but standing. The modern Jews show their reverence to their law by a like gesture; and their adoration is by bowing forward with their bodies; for kneeling they use none, neither stir they their bonnets in their synagogues, but remain still covered.

Verse 6

And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered, Amen, Amen, with lifting up their hands: and they bowed their heads, and worshipped the LORD with [their] faces to the ground.

And Ezra blessed the Lordi.e. He called upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised, Psalms 18:3 . He prayed before he read and preached. So ought we to do by his example, as Lyra well noteth; and as is commonly done by all our ministers. Luther’s usual prayer before sermon was this, Confirm, O God, in us what thou hast wrought; and perfect the work that thou hast begun to thy glory. Lord, open our eyes, that we may see the wonders of thy law, … Zuinglius began his public lectures thus, O Almighty, everlasting, and merciful God, whose Word is a light to our feet, and a lantern to our paths, open and enlighten our minds, that we may piously and holily understand thine oracles, and be so transformed thereinto, that we may not in anything displease thy majesty, through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen. The Platonists could say, that the light of our minds whereby we learn all things is no other but God himself, the same that made all things. This made Ezra here bless the Lord, that is, say, with David, Psalms 119:12 , Blessed be thou, O Lord: teach us thy statutes.

The great God — The true Trismegist, the Fortissimus Maximus, Opt. Max. All whose attributes are in the highest degree, yea, in a degree beyond any superlative.

And all the people answered, Amen, Amen — This word is Hebrew; but used in all languages, in the close of prayers. The doubling of it here importeth their assent, and their assurance. It is the voice of one that believeth and expecteth that he shall have his prayers granted. The Septuagint render it, so be it; or, so it is. The apostle reckoneth it for a great loss when people either say not Amen to public prayers, or not heartily and affectionately, as here, 1 Corinthians 14:16 , "Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say, Amen?" The Turks also, when their priest hath said his litany, such as it is, make answer in manner of a shout, Homin, that is, Amen.

With lifting up their hands — And with their hearts, unto God in the heavens, Lamentations 3:41 . This Nazianzen judgeth to be optimum opus manuum, the best work of the hands, sc. in caelos eas extendere, ad precesque expandere, to stretch them towards heaven, and to hold them out in prayer. This way David ennobled his tongue (therefore called his glory), and so men may their hands.

And they bowed their heads — In token of the lowliness of their hearts. These outward gestures, as they issue from the fervency of a good heart, so they reflect upon the affections, and do further inflame them. Only note, that these bodily exercises are not always or absolutely necessary in Divine worship. God looks chiefly at the heart, and hateth all outside service and heartless devotion, Isaiah 1:11-23 ; Isaiah 66:3 , and such as is that of the Jews at this day. Their holiness, saith one, is the outward work itself, being a brainless head and soulless body. And the like may be said of the Papist, and of the common Protestant, whoso body is prostrate, but his soul bolt upright within him.

Verse 7

Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodijah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, and the Levites, caused the people to understand the law: and the people [stood] in their place.

Also Jeshua, and Bani, …, caused the people to understand the law — As the audience was great, so, great was the company of preachers, Psalms 68:11 . The people were too many to be taught by one; therefore they made sundry companies and congregations, and had several teachers; as had likewise those primitive Christians, Acts 6:1 , when once they grew numerous.

And the people stood in their places — Heb. And the people upon their stand; they kept their stations according to their divisions; not shuffling or shifting from preacher to preacher, but abiding and attending with utmost intention and retention.

Verse 8

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused [them] to understand the reading.

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctlyExposite, clare, vel cum expositione (Explanate, Junius). They read aloud, and so treatably and plainly, that all might know what they read. Some stumble over the chapter so fast that few are little the better.

And gave the sense — viz. By comparing place with place, and interpreting one Scripture by another. See the like done by St Paul at Damascus, Acts 9:22 ; he laid one text to another ( ουμβιβαζων ), as artificers do the several pieces of their work, that they may perfectly agree the one with the other.

Causing the people to understand the readingDabant intelligentiam per scripturam ipsam, They gave the meaning though the scriptures themselves. so Tremellias rendereth it. Of the law it may be said, Et latet, et lucet. Both obscure and clear. The prophets are as so many expositors and explainers thereof; they do excellently unfold and draw out that arras A rich tapestry fabric, in which figures and scenes are woven in colours which was folded together before; they give us Moses unveiled. Search the Scriptures, therefore, and compare them. Parallel texts, like glasses, set one against another, do cast a mutual light; like the sun, the Scriptures show other things, and themselves too.

Verse 9

And Nehemiah, which [is] the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people, This day [is] holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep. For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the law.

And Nehemiah, which is the Tirshatha — Or governor. See Ezra 2:63 . He had Jovianus, the emperor’s, wished happiness, which was, that he might govern wise men, and that wise men might govern him.

And Ezra the priest and scribe — See Nehemiah 8:3 .

And the Levites that taught the people — That numerus nominum, id est, hominum, of names that is of men, mentioned Nehemiah 8:7 , men most happy in such melting hearers. We in this day do prevail as little as Bede did when he preached to a heap of stones.

This day is holy unto the Lord your God — Your mourning, therefore, now is as much out of season as Samson’s wife’s weeping was at her wedding. All God’s worships were to be celebrated with joy, Deuteronomy 12:7 , and sacrifices offered in mourning were abomination, Hosea 9:4 . See Malachi 2:13 . See Trapp on " Malachi 2:13 "

Mourn not, nor weepsc. Under sense of sin, and fear of wrath. This they were called to at another time, Isaiah 22:12 James 4:9-10 ; but everything is beautiful in its season, Ecclesiastes 3:11 .

For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the law — For like cause as Josiah did, 2 Kings 22:11 ; 2 Kings 22:19 . His tender heart was troubled and terrified by the menaces of God’s mouth uttered against his and the people’s sins. Hence some infer that it was the decalogue, together with the malediction, that was now read and applied; and that made them weep so fast. Get thee God’s law, saith holy Bradford, as a glass to look in, so shall you see your face foul arrayed, and so shameful, mangy, pockey, and scabbed, that you cannot but be sorry at the contemplation thereof, especially if you look to the tag tied to God’s law; which is such as cannot but make us cast our currish tails between our legs if we believe it. But O faithless hard hearts! O Jezebel’s guests, rocked and laid asleep in her bed! … (Serm. of Rep.).

Verse 10

Then he said unto them, Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared: for [this] day [is] holy unto our Lord: neither be ye sorry; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.

Then he said unto them, Go your way — A friendly dismission. We must so reprove or admonish others, as that we ever preserve in them an opinion of our good will unto them; for this is that sugar that sweeteneth all such tartar pills.

Go your way, eat, … — One being asked whether a good man might not feed upon sweet and delicate meat; eat the fat, and drink the sweet, even the choicest wines and chiefest viands? answered, Yes; except God made bees only for fools. God freely permitteth to his best children the use of his best creatures, even to an honest affluence (on thanksgiving days), especially provided that they feed with fear, and keep within the bounds of sobriety.

And send portions to them for whom nothing is prepared — That is, to the poor, the fatherless, and the widows, Deuteronomy 16:14 , who have not their set meals, nor certain dishes; but as hard fare for their holy day cheer, as Christ’s disciples had once for their Sabbath day’s dinner, Matthew 12:1 .

For this day is holy unto the Lord — A holy convocation, Leviticus 23:24 , a day of blowing trumpets, a feast day: see Zechariah 8:19 . See Trapp on " Zechariah 8:19 " A more liberal use of the creature dilateth and exhilarateth the heart, and so disposeth it to thankfulness, James 5:13 Psalms 92:2-3 . Eat, that thy soul may bless me, Genesis 27:19 . The idolatrous Israelites sat down to eat and drink, and then rose up to play. God’s people should much more rejoice in the Lord, when refreshed by the creatures, speaking good of his name, and serving him with cheerfulness in the abundance of all things, Deuteronomy 28:47 .

Neither be ye sorry — No, not for your sins now, lest it prove a sinful sorrow, see Nehemiah 8:9 .

For the joy of the Lord is your strength — Or, your fortification and place of defence against sin, and all the ill fruits of it. Laeti igitur sitis, sed non securi: gaudeatis in Domino, sed caveatis a recidivo Let us be joyful, but not untroubled, let us rejoice in God, but let us beware of backsliding. (Bernard). "A merry heart," grounded upon a good conscience, "doeth good like a medicine," Proverbs 17:22 . It is as marrow to the bones; as oil to the wheels; as a bait by the way to a generous horse; as a back of steel to a bended bow, … Surely, as true gold strengtheneth the heart (that alchemy-gold doth not), so doth spiritual joy much more; making a man insuperable under sufferings, and unsatisfiable in performance of duties. It is such a precious commodity, as that no good can match it, no evil too powerful for it. It beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things, as St Paul saith of charity, 1 Corinthians 13:7 . And as a man that hath plenty of good blood and fresh spirits in his body, being well-lined within, as we say, can better endure heat and cold, …, than another that hath not so; in like sort, he that hath his heart full of heaven, his conscience full of comfort, is in case to do and suffer much for and from God and men. The peace of his conscience will appear in his countenance, as Stephen’s did; and as the martyrs in Severus the emperor’s days, who, being released for a time, seemed to come, e myrotheca, non ergastulo, out of a perfumed palace, and not out of a stinking prison, looking more like angels of heaven than men on earth, as Eusebius relateth, Divinum nescio quid in vultibus ipsis praeferentes I do not know the god who wants to hide himself. (Euseb. lib. 5, cap. 12). The cross to such is anointed, as Bernard hath it; and by the joy of the Lord, that oil of gladness, it is made not only light, but sweet; not only tolerable, but desirable, and delectable.

Verse 11

So the Levites stilled all the people, saying, Hold your peace, for the day [is] holy; neither be ye grieved.

So the Levites stilled all the people — Made them hold their tongues, and forbear their groans and moans, the expressions of their great grief conceived for their sins, making a wailing like the dragons, mourning as the owls, and saying, "Look away from me; I will weep bitterly, labour not to comfort me," …, Micah 1:8 Isaiah 22:4 . But these holy Levites did comfort them, and quiet them.

Saying, Hold your peace — Or, Sit; peace, and be still.

For the day is holy — And God loves not the bread of mourners for a sacrifice, is like as none might come into the court of Persia in mourning weeds, Esther 4:4 . See Nehemiah 8:9 .

Neither be ye grieved — It seems their hearts were even leavened and soured with sorrow, as David’s was, Psalms 73:21 .

Verse 12

And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them.

And all the people went their way to eat — To do all that they were directed to do. They had been in the furnace of mortification; and now they were willing to be cast into the mould of God’s word, and to be whatsoever the Lord would have them to be. They were only his clay and wax, a willing people, waiting for his law.

And to make great mirthi.e. All kind of honest jollity; for the better exciting their hearts to true thankthlness.

Because they had understood the words — Not the threatenings only to the refractory, but the promises also to the penitent and obedient. The Levites had taught them, doubtless, as the truth is in Jesus, that God therefore threateneth that he may not punish, and desireth to be disarmed, Amos 4:12 ; that he giveth to do what he commandeth to be done; that his mercy is from everlasting to everlasting to them that fear him, to them that keep his covenant, and that think upon his commandments to do them, qui faciunt praecepta, etsi non perfieiant, that are doing at it, though they are far from perfection, Psalms 103:18 . This was very comfortable; this put into them that joy of the Lord which was their strength; this more cheered them than all their good cheer of their peace offerings.

Verse 13

And on the second day were gathered together the chief of the fathers of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to understand the words of the law.

And on the second day — The next day after they had heard the law expounded, but were not so well satisfied in some points or cases: they "follow on to know the Lord," Hosea 6:3 . Divine knowledge is as a great lady, that will not easily be acquainted with us but upon further suit, Proverbs 2:3-4 .

Were gathered together the chief of the fathers, … — Aeneas Sylvius was wont to say of knowledge, Popular men should esteem it as silver, noblemen as gold, princes prize it as pearls.

The priests, and Levites — These teachers of others took no scorn to learn from Ezra, that perfect scribe. The wisest here know but in part; because we prophesy but in part, 1 Corinthians 13:9 ; that is, we are taught but imperfectly, and those that should show us the way are themselves to seek; to teach us to run to Ithiel, the arch-prophet, as that great wise man did, Proverbs 30:1 . The greatest part of those things which we know is the least part of the things which we know not, as that father saith.

Unto Ezra the scribe — Who was well instructed to the kingdom of God; and no less ready to throw out of his treasury, …, Matthew 13:52 . It is said of Tacitus, that he knew all that he should know of the affairs of the world; and that he was primus in Historia; first in history, and that ex eius ore nil temere excidit he cut up nothing rashly from his mouth. (Scalig.). Think the same of Ezra, and much more; he was an able teacher of the ablest teachers, a sacred oracle, a living library, the argutest and accuratest of men after the prophets; as Austin is said to have been after the apostles, in contemplation and disputation.

Even to understand the words of the law — Which he had the day before expounded; and in some passages whereof they had a desire to be better resolved and satisfied. No man can possibly speak all at once, or deliver the mind of God so clearly and fully, but that there may be place left for cases and queries.

Verse 14

And they found written in the law which the LORD had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month:

And they found written in the law — And therefore in nowise to be neglected, since there God had written for them great things, Hosea 8:12 ; excellent things, Proverbs 22:20 ; marvellous things, Psalms 119:18 . There is a mountain of sense hanging upon every apex or tittle of it, say the Rabbis; who do, therefore, prescribe to their disciples not to write any letter of it but by a copy; not to read it but in a clean place; not to touch it but with the right hand; not to carry it about him but next his heart, … (Schickard).

That the children of Israel should dwell in booths — See Ezra 3:4 , See Trapp on " Ezra 3:4 " For this the law was dear, Leviticus 23:34 Deuteronomy 16:13 . But this they had not so fully observed, sc. by dwelling in booths, till now that they were returned from Babylon, where they had been lately, and for a long time, strangers. This to profess and set forth was the intent of that least, and of this rite of it, of dwelling in booths or bowers. This is intimated in Nehemiah 8:1 .

Verse 15

And that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine branches, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as [it is] written.

And that they should publish and proclaim — Heb. Make a voice to pass, viz. for better preparation and greater solemnity. God will not take up with a careless and slubbered service; he is a great King, and stands greatly upon his seniority, Malachi 1:14 .

Go forth unto the mount — Which is covered with all sorts of trees; and nothing like the country Axylus, which is so called, because no trees grow in it, no, not so much as thorns, or any kind of fuel. Through this country marched Manlius, the Roman general, when he went against the Gallograeci (Liv. lib. 38).

And fetch olive branches, and pine branches, … — Fit for shelter and shadow against the weather. That is very strange that yet is reported by authors of good note, concerning certain trees in Brazil of that size that whole families live in an arm of one of them, every tree being as populous as many of our villages.

And branches of thick trees — Tied together with willows of the brook, Leviticus 23:40 .

Verse 16

So the people went forth, and brought [them], and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the street of the water gate, and in the street of the gate of Ephraim.

So thepeople went forth, and brought them — They had kept the feast of trumpets on the first day of this month. And although no mention be here made of the feast of expiation, a day of humiliation to be kept for ever upon the tenth day, yet it is to be presumed that they kept it, having so good a guide as Ezra. Now also, as not weary of well-doing, they do most solemnly celebrate the feast of tabernacles, making themselves booths of boughs in every street throughout the whole city.

Verse 17

And all the congregation of them that were come again out of the captivity made booths, and sat under the booths: for since the days of Jeshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness.

Made booths, and sat under the booths — See Nehemiah 8:14-16 . They that turn this history into mystery make an allusion of it, 1. To Christ, as dwelling in our flesh. 2. To Christians, as travelling toward heaven, and having here no settled habitation, Hebrews 11:13 .

For since the days of Jeshua — Moses is not mentioned; because during his days, till Jeshua brought them into the promised land, they kept not this feast, likely.

Had not the children of Israel done so — Kept this feast they had, but not so kept it; viz, with that devotion, solemnity, and great gladness, being in so poor a case, and yet so unanimous in the work, as one man. But one would wonder that all along during the reign of David and Solomon (who gave the pattern of, and built the temple), and all those succeeding reformers, there should something be omitted about the feast of tabernacles (kept, as it is thought, by Solomon, 2 Chronicles 7:8 ) till their return from Babylon; yet so it was.

Verse 18

Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the law of God. And they kept the feast seven days; and on the eighth day [was] a solemn assembly, according unto the manner.

Also day by day — Not only on the first and last day ("that great day of the feast," John 7:37 ), but every day, this good man was at it, being insatiabilis Dei cultor (as Chrysostom saith of St Paul), an insatiable worshipper of God; and accounting quod nimis augusta pietas est, ad legem bonum esse, to do nothing for God more than needs must was too little.

And they kept the feast seven days — The people were as willing to hear (and do other holy duties) as Ezra was to preach. So were Chrysostom’s hearers, who were wont to say that they could better be without the sunlight than Chrysostom’s daily sermons. So likewise were Calvin’s hearers at Geneva, where he preached every day in the week for the most part, and had a constant audience that even too admired (some of them at least) his most excellent pains and parts; as Zanchy shows and complains in the Epistle Dedicatory set before his Miscellanies; taxing them of ανθρωπολατρεια , man worship.

And on the eighth day was a solemn assembly — Heb. A restraint, viz. from servile works; or a retention, viz. a holding of the congregation together for holy uses. Tremellius rendereth it diem interdicti forbidden day, the Vulgate Latin of Lyra thus, They made a gathering, sc. for necessaries about the Temple. This eighth day thus kept might prefigure the Christian sabbath, that first day of the week.

Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Nehemiah 8". Trapp's Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jtc/nehemiah-8.html. 1865-1868.
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