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Bible Commentaries
2 Chronicles 22

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Introduction

Second Chronicles Chapter 22

2 Chronicles 22:1 "And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned."

Since Ahaziah was the only son left of Jehoram, it would be understandable why the people would make him king. Now, we see that it was the Arabians, who had killed all of the other sons of Jehoram.

2 Chronicles 22:2 "Forty and two years old [was] Ahaziah when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name also [was] Athaliah the daughter of Omri."

He was as evil as his father was. Athaliah was the granddaughter of Omri. Omri was the father of Ahab, who was her father. The Scripture in 2 Kings 8:26 says, that he was twenty-two when he began to reign. It really does not matter how old he was. The important thing is that he reigned one year.

2 Chronicles 22:3 "He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab: for his mother was his counsellor to do wickedly."

Now, we see where the evil influence came from to Jehoram and Ahaziah. His mother was of Ahab and Jezebel. They were very evil people bringing all sorts of false worship into Israel. Now, their daughter had brought it into Judah. His mother was not only his counsellor, but acted as queen, as well.

2 Chronicles 22:4 "Wherefore he did evil in the sight of the LORD like the house of Ahab: for they were his counsellors after the death of his father to his destruction."

He had learned his evil ways from the house of Ahab. It appears that he was even more evil than his father. He took advice from Ahab and Jezebel, his grandparents.

2 Chronicles 22:5 "He walked also after their counsel, and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead: and the Syrians smote Joram."

He joined in with Israel in a battle against Hazael, king of Syria. It appears, the Syrians were victorious in this battle.

2 Chronicles 22:6 "And he returned to be healed in Jezreel because of the wounds which were given him at Ramah, when he fought with Hazael king of Syria. And Azariah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab at Jezreel, because he was sick."

The king of Israel had been wounded in the battle with Syria. Jezreel is the same as the valley of Megiddo, where many battles have been fought. The confusing thing about this verse is that the king of Judah, and the king of Israel, were called Jehoram. The Jehoram of Israel was the one who was hurt.

2 Chronicles 22:7 "And the destruction of Ahaziah was of God by coming to Joram: for when he was come, he went out with Jehoram against Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom the LORD had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab."

Ahaziah was the son of Joram of Judah. When he came to visit Joram of Israel, and came against Jehu, he was defeated. God had anointed Jehu to cut off the house of Ahab. Jehu killed all of the house of Ahab in Israel.

2 Chronicles 22:8 "And it came to pass, that, when Jehu was executing judgment upon the house of Ahab, and found the princes of Judah, and the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah, that ministered to Ahaziah, he slew them."

This is a case of being in the wrong place at the time of a killing. They were guilty, because they were with Joram of Israel. Jehu killed those of Judah, as well as those of Israel.

2 Chronicles 22:9 "And he sought Ahaziah: and they caught him, (for he was hid in Samaria,) and brought him to Jehu: and when they had slain him, they buried him: Because, said they, he [is] the son of Jehoshaphat, who sought the LORD with all his heart. So the house of Ahaziah had no power to keep still the kingdom."

It seems, that Ahaziah of Judah had gotten away, and the men of Jehu found him, and brought him back to Jehu. He was slain with the others. He had an honorable grave, because of the goodness of his grandfather, Jehoshaphat.

2 Chronicles 22:10 "But when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the house of Judah."

This very wicked queen mother, Athaliah, had all of her relatives, that she could find, killed so that she could be queen. A nurse hid one baby son by the name of Joash. In the eleventh chapter of second Kings, we read of how the brave nurse saved Joash. He was hidden in the temple, until he was crowned king.

2 Chronicles 22:11 "But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him from among the king’s sons that were slain, and put him and his nurse in a bedchamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest, (for she was the sister of Ahaziah,) hid him from Athaliah, so that she slew him not."

2 Chronicles 22:12 "And he was with them hid in the house of God six years: and Athaliah reigned over the land."

Athaliah reigned as queen during this time. She was the most wicked woman I have ever heard of. She killed her own grandchildren. Joash was the only one saved. He was crowned king 7 years later.

2 Chronicles 22 Questions

1. Who reigned in Jehoram’s stead?

2. Who had killed all of his brothers?

3. How old was Ahaziah, when he began to reign?

4. How long did he reign?

5. Athaliah was the ____________ of Omri.

6. Who was her father?

7. Whose ways did he walk in?

8. Who was his counsellor?

9. Who were his grandparents, who gave him terrible advice?

10. Who did he go to war with against Hazael, king of Syria?

11. Who returned to Jezreel to be healed?

12. What is another name for Jezreel?

13. What is so confusing about the leaders of Israel and Judah?

14. Who was Ahaziah?

15. Who had God anointed to cut off the family of Ahab?

16. Who did Jehu slay with the house of Ahab?

17. Where was Ahaziah hiding?

18. When they found him, what did they do to him?

19. Why was he buried honorably?

20. Who reigned in Judah now?

21. What evil thing did she do to remain queen?

22. Who was the only one saved alive?

23. Where was he kept in safety, until he was anointed king?

24. Who does the author believe is the most wicked woman in the Bible?

25. How many years, after he was hidden in the temple, was it before Joash became king?

Verses 1-3

2Ch 22:1-3

2 Chronicles 22:1-3

THE BRIEF EVIL REIGN OF AHAZIAH

AHAZIAH (842 B.C.)

AHAZIAH MADE KING OF JUDAH

"And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead; for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign; and he reigned one year in Jerusalem: and his mother’s name was Athaliah the daughter of Omri. He also walked in the ways of the house of Ahab; for his mother was his counselor to do wickedly."

"Ahaziah his youngest son" (2 Chronicles 22:1). The youngest son of Jehoram is called Jehoahaz in the previous chapter (2 Chronicles 21:17); "But Jehoahaz and Azariah are equivalent names." There was nothing unusual about variations in Hebrew names. "Bathsheba was also known as Bathshua; and her father was called Amiel or Eliam. Either spelling of such duplicate names gave the same meanings in Hebrew."

"Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign" (2 Chronicles 22:2). Ahaziah’s father was only forty-two years old when he died (2 Chronicles 21:5), so we should follow later renditions which read, "Twenty and two years" instead of "Forty and two."

"Athaliah the daughter of Omri" (2 Chronicles 22:2). She was actually the daughter of Ahab and a granddaughter of Omri; but such a loose usage of the terms son or daughter is quite common in the O.T.

E.M. Zerr:

2 Chronicles 22:1. The dividing of the Bible into chapters sometimes interrupts a thought. This verse is a continuation of the close of the preceding chapter. His youngest son, then, means the youngest of Jehoram. The explanation is given, also, of why the youngest son was made king; it was because the others had been slain. It should be further observed that had the oldest son been living to occupy the throne, the words made king would not have been used. The simple statement would have been given that he reigned, without the explanation preceding it as to why it was so.

2 Chronicles 22:2. The account here gives 42 years as the age of Ahaziah when he began to reign, whereas it is 22 according to 2 Kings 8:26. The scribes were not inspired men, and their work was to copy the manuscript of the inspired original. A worn or faded copy could easily be misread, especially in the matter of numbers which was expressed by letters. This does not affect the authenticity of their work, for Jesus never called them in question on that point, even while making other serious charges. Had they been inaccurate in the important features of their work as transcribers, we are sure that the Lord would have mentioned it, for that would have been more serious than any of the other evils of which he accused them. Athaliah is called the daughter of Omri; that is from a word with a wide extent of meaning. Strictly speaking, she was the granddaughter of Omri, in the same sense in which Belshazzar is called the son of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:22), when he was his grandson. Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab who was the son of Omri. The wickedness of Ahab was commonly known, and by jumping back a generation to the grandmother, who also was a wicked person, the character of Ahaziah’s mother can be understood.

2 Chronicles 22:3. This verifies the remarks on the preceding verse. Since Ahaziah’s mother was the daughter of Ahab, her counsel for the son was tinctured with the evil principles of that man, who also was influenced by his wicked wife Jezebel.

Verses 4-6

2Ch 22:4-6

2 Chronicles 22:4-6

CIRCUMSTANCES LEADING TO THE DEATH OF AHAZIAH

"And he did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah, as did the house of Ahab, for they were his counselors after the death of his father, to his destruction. He walked also after their counsel, and went with Jehoram the king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead: and the Syrians wounded Joram. And he returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which they had given him at Ramoth, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. And Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick."

"Joram king of Israel ... Jehoram king of Israel" (2 Chronicles 22:5-6). This is another example of alternate names for the same person.

This paragraph reveals that the king of Judah was at that time totally dominated by his mother’s family, namely, the house of Ahab; and by Ahaziah’s leaving his capital city to visit his sick relative in Jezreel, it gave Jehu the opportunity to exterminate both royal houses, both that of Jehoram king of Israel and that of Ahaziah king of Judah.

The first nine verses here are parallel with 2 Kings 8:24 b-29, and 9:21,27-28). See our comments under those verses.

E.M. Zerr:

2 Chronicles 22:4. House of Ahab is the antecedent of they, and sets forth the source of Ahaziah’s training. This bad influence resulted in his destruction.

2 Chronicles 22:5. There were two men named Jehoram, one a king of Israel and the other a king of Judah. And each of these names also was sometimes spelled "Joram." Another fact that might cause some confusion was their living and reigning at the same time in a part of their reigns. These thoughts should be kept in mind while reading the names; switching back and forth between Judah and Israel. The influence of evil counsel was shown in that Ahaziah formed an alliance with the king of Israel in warfare.

2 Chronicles 22:6. In the battle with the Syrians, Joram, king of Israel (the 10 tribes) was wounded and went to Jezreel for treatment. Ahaziah (here called Azariah) further showed his interest in him by visiting him in that city. The outcome will give an instance of the evil consequences of association with unworthy characters.

Verses 7-9

2Ch 22:7-9

2 Chronicles 22:7-9

AHAB’S HOUSE DESTROYED; THE DEATH OF AHAZIAH

"Now the destruction of Ahaziah was of God, in that he went unto Joram: for when he was come, he went out with Jehoran against Jehu the son of Nimshi, whom Jehovah had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab. And it came to pass when Jehu was executing judgment upon the house of Ahab, that he found the princes of Judah, and the sons of the brethren of Ahaziah, ministering to Ahaziah, and slew them. And he sought Ahaziah, and they caught him (now he was hiding in Samaria), and they brought him to Jehu, and slew him; and they buried him, for they said, He is the son of Jehoshaphat, who sought Jehovah with all his heart. And the house of Ahaziah had no power to hold the kingdom."

"The destruction of Ahaziah was of God" (2 Chronicles 22:7). This means that it was due to God’s providential arrangements that Ahaziah was found in close companionship with Ahab at the very moment when God’s appointed exterminator of the house of Ahab appeared and included Ahaziah in the slaughter, quite properly enough; because by Jehoshaphat’s foolish marriage of Ahaziah to Athaliah, Ahab’s daughter, he had made his son Ahaziah definitely a part of `the house of Ahab.’

"The house of Ahaziah had no power to hold the kingdom" (2 Chronicles 22:9). This was the power vacuum that enabled the evil Athaliah to seize the throne and to proceed with her intention of destroying the last vestiges of the house of David, a purpose which, in the providence of God, was thwarted.

E.M. Zerr:

2 Chronicles 22:7. The destruction of Ahaziah had been determined by the Lord, and the occasion for bringing it about was this very circumstance of his coming to Jezreel to see Joram. While calling on him, the word came that Jehu was approaching. Now this man had been chosen by the Lord to overthrow the house of Ahab, of which Joram (or Jehoram) was a wicked member. To oppose Jehu, therefore, would be the same as opposing the plans of God, and that was what Ahaziah did when he joined in with the wounded man, and went out against Jehu.

2 Chronicles 22:8. Jehu was really engaged in executing the judgment of God on the house of Ahab, when he came across some chief men of Judah who had been serving Ahaziah. Upon meeting these men Jehu slew them, which was the beginning of Ahaziah’s downfall.

2 Chronicles 22:9. When Ahaziah saw that defeat was about to come he tried to escape and had succeeded in reaching some hiding place in Samaria, capital of the 10 tribes. He was found and brought before Jehu where he was slain. He was given a respectful burial because he was the son (grandson) of Jehoshaphat, who was a very righteous man.

Verses 10-12

2Ch 22:10-12

2 Chronicles 22:10-12

GOD SAVED JOASH ALIVE FROM THE WRATH OF ATHALIAH

"Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal of the house of Judah. But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king’s sons that were slain, and put him and his nurse in the bed-chamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest (for she was the sister of Ahaziah), hid him from Athaliah, so that she slew him not. And he was with them in the house of God six years: and Athaliah reigned in the land."

Our comments on the narration in these three verses are found in the parallel account in 2 Kings 11:1-3.

E.M. Zerr:

2 Chronicles 22:10-12. Athaliah was a wicked woman with wicked ambitions. The seed royal means the near relatives of the royal line, one of whom would ascend the throne in the absence of a direct heir. In order to acquire the throne for herself, she formed the awful plot of murdering all of these relatives. One was enabled to escape by the watchfulness of his aunt, who hid him in a private room for six years, during which time Athaliah reigned by usurpation.

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on 2 Chronicles 22". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/2-chronicles-22.html.
 
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