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Bible Commentaries
Song of Solomon 3

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-5

Son 3:1-5

Song of Solomon 3:1-5


Song of Solomon 3:1-5

"By night on my bed

I sought him whom my soul loveth

I sought him, but I found him not.

I said, I will arise now and go about the city;

In the streets and in the broad ways,

I will seek him whom my soul loveth:

I sought him, but I found him not.

The watchmen that go about the city found me:

To whom I said, Saw ye him whom my soul loveth?

It was but a little that I passed from them,

When I found him whom my soul loveth:

I held him, and would not let him go,

Until I had brought him into my mother’s house,

And into the chamber of her that conceived me.

I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,

By the roes, or by the hinds of the field,

That ye stir not up, nor awaken my love,

Until he please."

The question regarding this paragraph is whether or not it relates an actual event, or the Shulamite’s dream of searching for her lover. "This passage and Song of Solomon 5:2-7 are usually interpreted as dream sequences.” "The maiden relates a bad dream she had experienced.” "She is probably relating a dream.”

Nevertheless, this dream substantiates the statement that prevails in the whole book that the love-struck maiden’s lover is a shepherd, not king Solomon. By no stretch of imagination could it be supposed that the maiden would have taken the king of Israel into her mother’s bedroom, not even in a dream. Another function of this dream is that it stresses the physical absence of the Shepherd lover, Christ’s absence from his Church until the Resurrection.

Song of Solomon 3:5 is the quadruple refrain that appears in the Song. (See a comment on this above, under Song of Solomon 2:7. The next paragraph represents the glittering blandishments of Solomon as a type of worldly temptations to the Church. The wealth, extravagance, ostentation and pride in this was an eloquent type of such allurements.

Exegesis Song of Solomon 3:1-5

The women of Solomon’s harem are here told of a reoccurring dream. Perhaps it is occasioned by what is not shared with them—that her lover failed to return as promised (Song of Solomon 2:17). It is of some passing interest to observe that the term “bed” or “couch” of Song of Solomon 1:16 is a “day couch.” Repetition in dreams is a common occurrence—In a time of anxiety frustration in dreams would reflect such a state of mind.

We are not told the name of the city but it would be natural to assume it was Shunem—it could have been Jerusalem. She is to make a thorough, if not frantic search. Up and down the streets and into the larger areas of the intersections and city gates she searches hither and thither. Anywhere where persons congregate she will go looking between and among all she meets. She will look at each one for the familiar dear form of her beloved. The night watchmen appear—surely they will know—they can help me—I will ask them—She describes her beloved to them (or perhaps they know him by name if it is in the town of Shunem) “Have you seen him?” We are not told of their response—we would assume they did not know from what follows. She had no sooner left them than she suddenly sees him and in an instant she is in his arms. She clings to him with the tenacity and joy of “the lost is found”!

Why did she bring him to her mother’s house? Perhaps this represented the place of security—safety and permanence. The mention of her mother’s house would seem to confirm the thought that her mother was a widow.

This might also support the thought of the concern of her brothers for her safety. Some commentators suggest that this is a description of the consummation of the marriage. We see no need for such a conclusion.

We ask the reader to please refer to our comments on Song of Solomon 2:7 for the meaning of Song of Solomon 3:5. This verse is again repeated in Song of Solomon 8:4. In our day of the billion dollar sale of pornography we need to read and understand this verse more than thrice.

Marriage Song of Solomon 3:1-5

Does my wife dream of me? If she does what is the nature of such dreams? If her dreams are filled with anxiety it could be because we do not dream more often of her. We want our comments to be as practical as at all possible. We have found the following expression so very much to the point.

“Bill Lawrence is 38 years old. He has a pretty wife, two beautiful children, and is considered one of the outstanding preachers in his city. Bill and June were married while Bill was still in seminary. Their first child was born during his senior year. June never completed her college education but took a job to help Bill through seminary. Bill is an effective preacher and is greatly respected by both his assistant and the congregation. He works hard on his sermons. His church is growing.

Bill’s wife will leave him next week.

Bob Ramsom is the executive director of Christian Commitment Abroad which he founded 22 years ago. He has travelled all over the world and is a much sought-after speaker. After a shaky start, CCA began to grow rapidly about ten years ago. Much of its growth is due to Bob’s high level of commitment and his willingness to give himself unstintingly to the work of Christ.

Bob doesn’t know it, but he left his wife eight years ago. WHERE ARE YOU?

Where are you as a Christian leader? Where does your commitment lie? Could it be that you, too, are one of those, perhaps without even knowing it, who has left his wife?

How do you sort it all out? Where do your Christian priorities lie? How does one find a balance between commitment to the task and commitment to one’s family? THREE PRIORITIES

In one of our earliest Christian Leadership Letters, (March 1973), we laid out what we consider to be three levels of Christian commitments, three levels of priority. Simply stated they are:

First: Commitment to God and Christ

Second: Commitment to the Body of Christ

Third: Commitment to the work of Christ

We picture these as foundation stones, one built upon another. We begin with the initial commitment to God through His Son. But the visible evidence of this vertical relationship with God is found in this second priority of horizontal relationships with the sons and daughters of God. The Bible calls us away from a Western individualism back to a biblical corporate unity. It is on this foundation and within the framework of this body-like relationship that the work of Christ is to be carried out. “It was he who ‘gave gifts to mankind’ . . . He did this to prepare all God’s people for the work of Christian service, in order to build up the body of Christ” (Ephesians 4:11-12, TEV).

These priorities cannot be exclusive of one another. All three are needed. One of the conditions for effectively carrying out the work of Christ is the relationship that exists within the body. “If you have love for one another, then everyone will know that you are My disciples” (John 13:35, TEV). WHERE IS YOUR WIFE?

We are addressing ourselves here as Christian leaders, and especially as married men. Where does your wife fit in these priorities? Certainly of all the relationships described in the Bible the highest and most mystical is the relationship found in marriage. Paul could only compare it to the relationship of Christ and His Church (Ephesians 5:21-33). The disruption of this relationship can have tremendous spiritual consequences. Peter tells us that interruption of the relationship can even interfere with our prayers (1 Peter 3:7).

Is your ministry as a Christian Leader built upon a foundation of a strong marriage relationship, or does it move forward in spite of that relationship.” (Christian Leadership Letter, March 1977).

Before our wife wakes up and finds her nightmare is true, let’s change the cause.

Communion Song of Solomon 3:1-5

Communing with God on our bed is no new unusual thought. Daniel was given a vision upon his bed. Cf. Daniel 2:28-29; Daniel 4:5; Daniel 4:10; Daniel 7:1. The Psalmist says, “Let the saints exult in glory: Let them sing for joy upon their beds.” Psalms 149:5. As we close our eyes for rest it should be a time when we take His yoke upon us that we might find rest for our souls as well as our bodies. A total yielding to the presence and interest of our wonderful Lord should precede our slumber. There are times of concern when sleep flees from us. It is at such times we need Him most of all. We are glad to affirm that He has not left us. Any feeling of desertion or separateness is not because He has left. There is no need to seek Him in the streets—nor to make inquiry of others as to His whereabouts. He is right where we left Him. Return to your place of disobedience and confess your sin and be cleansed. He will be found again just on the other side of genuine repentance.

Verses 6-11

Son 3:6-11

Song of Solomon 3:6-11

"Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness

Like pillars of smoke,

Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense,

With all powders of the merchant?

Behold, it is the litter of Solomon;

Threescore mighty men are about it,

Of the mighty men of Israel.

They all handle the sword and are expert in war:

Every man hath his sword upon his thigh,

Because of fear in the night.

King Solomon made himself a palanquin

Of the wood of Lebanon.

He made the pillars thereof of silver,

The bottom thereof of gold,

the seat of it of purple,

the midst thereof being paved with love,

From the daughters of Jerusalem.

Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, and behold king Solomon,

With the crown wherewith his mother hath crowned him

In the day of his espousals,

And in the day of the gladness of his heart."

We have encountered all kinds of explanations that scholars have applied to these verses.

(1) "The maiden’s meeting with Solomon and her subsequent removal to the harem are related here." Question: How can this be reconciled with the clear statements in Song of Solomon 1 that the maiden is already in the harem?

(2) "It is not clear whether this journey of Solomon depicted here is ’to Jerusalem,’ or "to the residence of the Shulamite in northern Israel.’ If it is Jerusalem, the girl is being taken to Solomon’s residence; if it is northern Israel, it means that Solomon with great and pompous splendor is on the way to impress the maiden with his wealth and magnificence in an effort to overawe her and win her love.” This is a great contrast to the simplicity of the shepherd whom the maiden really loves.

Question: If Jerusalem is the destination of this extravagant display of Solomon’s glory. How could he be bringing the maiden to Jerusalem, when she is already in his harem? Furthermore, if the maiden is in the midst of this ostentatious display of Solomon’s glory, "Where is she"? There’s no mention of any woman in this parade.

(3) "The palanquin here is probably the royal litter upon whom the bride is borne.” What bride? How does one get a `bride’ into this paragraph?

(4) Who is the speaker here? Redford suggested that it might very well be, "The whole population going out to see the splendid sight"? This certainly fits northern Israel better than Jerusalem, because the citizens of Jerusalem had probably witnessed such Solomonic parades so often that they would hardly have turned a head in order to see it again. On the other hand, in some out of the way place such as that where the shepherd had taken the maiden, the people would have turned out for miles in all directions. Also, the total absence of any mention of `a bride,’ or `the maiden,’ or any other damsel in this procession is a strong indication that Solomon was in pursuit of such a woman, not that he already had her in his possession. This also would fit perfectly into the fact of the Shulamite’s having already been rescued by her shepherd lover and carried to their northern residence.

In the light of all these considerations, we must confess that the evidence, as far as we are able to read it, strongly favors the understanding that there are two lovers in the Song of Solomon, the king himself and the shepherd sweetheart of the Shulamite.

Therefore, we read these verses (Song of Solomon 3:6-11) as Solomon’s grand parade to the northern residence of the Shulamite with the purpose of bringing her back to Jerusalem.

We must also confess that there are some things in this whole Biblical book that appear to be totally out of harmony with what is generally understood regarding ancient kings and their wives and concubines. The account which we reviewed in the Book of Esther, indicated that the young women taken into the harem were, in fact, conscripted. Their consent was never considered necessary; and they were not courted or solicited by the king; they were merely commanded. What appears here does not fit that pattern. We have found no explanation of this, nor for that matter, not even any mention of it.

(5) "These verses are generally taken to describe the king with his attendants coming to the wedding.” What wedding? Has any such thing as a wedding been mentioned? How do the commentators make the Shulamite "a wife" rather than a concubine?


(1) "Solomon’s coming up out of the wilderness represents Jesus Christ coming from the wilderness filled with the Holy Ghost; and the bride being borne along represents the Church on her way to glory with Christ.” (2) "It is typical of the children of Israel coming up out of the wilderness of wanderings into the land of Canaan.” (3) "Solomon’s palanquin, the litter prepared for himself and his bride, represents the Covenant of Grace between Christ and his Church.” (4) "Solomon’s bed represents the Temple of God in Jerusalem, and the sixty armed guards stand for the sixty letters in the Aaronic blessing (Numbers 6:24-26).”

This writer is unwilling to accept any explanation that considers Solomon a type either of God or of Christ. If he had been any such type, some New Testament writer would surely have mentioned it; and furthermore, Christ would never have contrasted himself with Solomon, which he most certainly did in the words, "Behold a greater than Solomon is here."

"It is repugnant to apply the name of Solomon to Yahweh, or to make his name a Messianic title.” Yes indeed it is true that marriage and conjugal love have often been represented in the Old Testament as a figure of God’s marriage to Israel; and the apostle also wrote, "Husbands love your wives as Christ also loved the Church"; but the sensual delight of sex has no part whatever in that metaphor. Paul was commanding husbands to die for their wives, even as Christ also died for the Church. See Ephesians 5:25 f.

This writer finds the bed of lust and sensuality which Solomon built for himself and his thousand women to be utterly unsuitable as a symbol of any thing whatever, either holy, sacred or desirable. Yes, we are familiar with the plea on Solomon’s behalf that his marriages were customary, accepted by the people of that day, political in nature, aids in establishing the security of his kingdom, etc., etc., - although we do not accept that as a sufficient justification of his seven hundred wives, we shall waive that view for a moment; but what about those three hundred concubines? We have never heard, nor can we even imagine, any explanation of these on any other valid basis than that of Solomon’s excessive licentiousness.

Solomon in all his pompous glory appears in these verses as an effective type of the devil himself and the temptations by which the evil one seeks to destroy souls.

Exegesis Song of Solomon 3:6-11

We have before us an entirely new scene. We are back in northern Canaan amid the wilderness of this north country. We are witness to a royal procession of Solomon. Perhaps this is the description of what the Shulammite saw when she was taken captive by Solomon and was brought back to his royal palace (either at Jerusalem or some other nearer city). Compare Song of Solomon 6:11-12 for a brief description of the possible circumstances of her capture.

Let’s not forget that Solomon is the writer of this book. Perhaps this paragraph is here because he wants all to know of his magnificence.

Walter F. Adeney in An Exposition of the Bible gives a vivid description of this section:

“It is by one of the gates of Jerusalem, where the country maiden has been brought in order that she may be impressed by the gorgeous spectacle of Solomon returning from a royal progress. The king comes up from the wilderness in clouds of perfume, guarded by sixty men-at-arms, and borne in a magnificent palanquin of cedar-wood, with silver posts, a floor of gold, and purple cushions, wearing on his head the crown with which his mother had crowned him. Is the mention of the mother of Solomon intended to be specially significant? Remember—she was Bathsheba! The allusion to such a woman would not be likely to conciliate the pure young girl, who was not in the least degree moved by this attempt to charm her with a scene of exceptional magnificence.”

If the above description is accurate then the Shulammite is the first bystander and the words of verses seven and eight are addressed to her.

Perhaps the dialogue in verses nine and ten as well as eleven are spoken by a third and fourth bystander. The “palanquin” of verse nine deserves comment. We quote from Arthur G. Clarke: “This Hebrew word is found only here in Scripture and is not the same as that translated litter in verse seven, which was simply a couch for reclining. This word indicates a state conveyance of elaborate construction, a kind of portable house. The speaker may have been comparing unfavorably the litter the King was then using with the gorgeous palanquin used on state occasions. Here is another hint that the cortege was not a marriage procession. made himself—(i.e., by his direction and perhaps according to his own design; wood of Lebanon—(i.e., the famous timber of that region such as cedar or cypress, fir or pine); wood—(lit., woods). Probably more than one kind of timber had been used.

Song of Solomon 3:10 :pillars—(i.e., light columns to support the canopy or roof); bottom—the Hebrew is used here only in the Old Testament and with a meaning not clear. It probably refers to the back rest against which the occupant leaned. Seat(i.e., riding seat), the same Hebrew word is translated “saddle” (Leviticus 15:9). “Purple”—this and crimson were royal colors. The last two lines present difficulties and are variously interpreted. The Hebrew for “paved” is found only here in the Old Testament. The lines are best understood as meaning that the vehicle was lined or upholstered as a love-gift from the ladies of the royal entourage, possibly their own handiwork (Cf. Dr. Robert Young’s literal translation) (ibid, p. 59).

Marriage Song of Solomon 3:6-11

Solomon hoped that the maiden would remember this procession as part of her marriage to Him. Some commentators see this as the wedding procession of the marriage of Solomon with an Egyptian princess. The eleventh verse does mention Solomon wearing the crown his mother gave him when he was married. Since no time element is mentioned it could easily be a reference to the past when he did wear such a crown or “nuptial chaplet.” Solomon is looking forward to such an occasion again. These words were probably sung or spoken to every one of the prospective brides of Solomon. At least the King was acquainted with what made the wedding meaningful to women. Ceremony and attendants along with the clothes are what is remembered by the bride. The finest of clothes, the best of food and a beautiful place is associated in memory with the wedding. Love and marriage should produce the finest qualities in both the bride and the groom regardless of the physical circumstances or the economic limitations at the time of marriage. Love and marriage does indeed at times transform a careless young man into a responsible adult. But at other times the very opposite seems to happen. Why? Marriage always completely alters the life-style of the young women—some for better and some for worse—why? The commitment of our total selves to another is the answer. The example of the Shulammite should be a real help to us. If riches or convenience or escape is at the foundation of our decision for marriage we can expect nothing but unhappiness. When we are truly given to each other, the ceremony will be remembered with joy.

Communion Song of Solomon 3:6-11

Do these verses in any way describe our marriage to our Lord? It comes as a shock to some that the scriptures teach that we are “joined to the Lord.” Please read 1 Corinthians 6:17. We wish to quote from Boyce Mouton, Minister at Carthage, Missouri—He says: The miracle of conversion is like a marriage. When God and man are committed to one another in this type of covenant, our thoughts and intents are so intertwined it is difficult to determine who does what.

Take for example, the flight of Paul from Jerusalem in Acts 9:28-30. This passage indicates that the brethren heard of a plot against Paul’s life and took it upon themselves to send him away to safety. In Acts 22:17-18 Paul ascribes this same event to a revelation which he received directly from God while in a trance in the temple. Instead of a contradiction it is a confirmation. Instead of arousing our suspicions it enhances our wonder. The church is a body directed by Jesus in mysterious ways. The rapport between Deity and man is sometimes so subtle that we respond to the impulse of His Spirit without even being aware of it.

Or consider the selection of Timothy as Paul’s traveling companion. Acts 16:3 ascribes the choice to Paul; 1 Timothy 1:18 indicates that Timothy was pointed out to Paul by prophetic utterance. Acts 15:2 seems to indicate that the journey of Paul to the Jerusalem Council came as a result of a decision made by the brethren at Antioch; Galatians 2:2 relates that Paul went up by revelation from God. Philippians 2:12 commands us to “work out your own salvation . . .”and the very next verse reminds us, “For it is God that worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure.” To “will” and to “do” seems to teach that both the desire and the ability to live the Christian life are somehow associated with God. How beautiful!

When we are crucified with Christ, our egotistical personality is replaced by a new creation. Old things are passed away and all things become new. When our spirit becomes one with Deity, nothing is viewed from a human point of view and the life we live is a direct result of the Spirit of God married to our human spirit by the process of conversion.

Our text in 1 Corinthians 6 is strategically placed between a section dealing with human behavior and a section dealing with the subject of marriage. Paul’s censure of their conduct in Christ is tempered by a reminder that they were “washed . . . sanctified . . . and justified in the name of the Lord Jesus.” An animal may be controlled by his physical appetites, but the Christian is motivated by desires in harmony with the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Our bodies are members of Christ. God forbid that we abandon our marriage vows and grieve His blessed Spirit by conduct out of character with our Christian commitment. “The body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body.” Fleshly appetites will pass away, but the hunger of the Spirit is of eternal significance. It is in this context that the Corinthians are reminded: “He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit.”

The age in which we live knows nothing of holy places or holy things, only holy people. Our bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit which we have of God, and we are not our own. We have been bought with a price and are thus to glorify God in our body and also in our spirit which are the Lord’s.

The marriage of our spirits has obliterated our identity so that it is no longer we that live but Christ who lives in us. He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit. The old man of sin was put to death, and the new man was raised up from the grave of baptism through faith in the operation of God. But we were raised up “with Him.” Our plans are “in Him.” Our hopes are “in Him.” Whatever we do in word or deed we do “in Him” so that nothing is secular to the person who has become a temple of the Holy Spirit. It is Christ in you, the hope of glory! His power in us can accomplish exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think. We are laborers together with God. Our spirit is yoked together with His Spirit so that we function as one. We are in Christ, Christ is in us.

“He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit.”

We can easily see a number of analogous comparisons in these verses. As example: (1) We, too, have “come up out of the wilderness.” The bride of our Lord has indeed been called forth out of the wilderness of this world. We are so glad to remember the day when we heard His words of love. (2) We have been perfumed by the fragrant presence of the blessed Holy Spirit—His presence is made known to others by the virtues of the Spirit. (3) We are on our way to the marriage supper of the Lamb. (4) This is a spectacle of great interest to angels—it should be of beauty to observers.

Memories of Courtship - Song of Solomon 2:8 to Song of Solomon 3:5

Open It

1. What is the strangest dream you have ever had?

2. What were (or are, as the case may be) the essential elements of courtship when you were dating?

3. What is the funniest thing that ever happened to you on a date?

Explore It

4. What sort of relationship did the Lover and the Beloved have? (Song of Solomon 2:8 to Song of Solomon 3:5)

5. How did the Beloved describe her Lover? (Song of Solomon 2:8-9)

6. What did the Lover say to his Beloved? (Song of Solomon 2:10-13)

7. What time of year was it? (Song of Solomon 2:11-13)

8. How did the Lover describe his Beloved’s voice and face? (Song of Solomon 2:14)

9. What did the Lover ask his Beloved to catch? Why? (Song of Solomon 2:15)

10. How did the Beloved describe her relationship with her Lover? (Song of Solomon 2:16)

11. When did the Beloved say she looked for but could not find her Lover? (Song of Solomon 3:1)

12. What did the Beloved dream? (Song of Solomon 3:1-4)

13. Where did the Beloved say she would go to look for her Lover? (Song of Solomon 3:2)

14. What did the Beloved ask the watchmen? (Song of Solomon 3:3)

15, What did the Beloved do when she found her Lover? (Song of Solomon 3:4)

16. What charge did the Beloved give to the Daughters of Jerusalem? (Song of Solomon 3:5)

Get It

17. How would you describe the Lover and the Beloved’s relationship?

18. Why do you think the Beloved described her Lover as a gazelle?

19. What might the coming of spring symbolize?

20. What do you think the little foxes represented in the Beloved and the Lover’s relationship?

21. What kind of problems crop up in a relationship sooner or later?

22. When does romantic love tend to fade from a relationship? Why?

23. Why do you think the Beloved took her Lover to her mother’s house?

24. Why do you think the Beloved told the Daughters of Jerusalem not to arouse love "until it so desires"?

25. In what way do people arouse love before it desires?

Apply It

26. With what relationship will you ask God to help you be patient this week?

27. What can you do this week to resolve a conflict in your relationship with your spouse or a friend?

Memories of Engagement - Song of Solomon 3:6 to Song of Solomon 5:1

Open It

1. What do you consider to be the essential elements of a wedding ceremony?

2. In what situations would you normally expect someone to feel jealous?

3. Who was your first crush, and what did you think of him or her?

Explore It

4. What events take place in these verses? (Song of Solomon 3:6 to Song of Solomon 5:1)

5. What question did the Beloved ask? (Song of Solomon 3:6)

6. Who came up from the desert with Solomon? (Song of Solomon 3:7-8)

7. How did the Beloved describe Solomon’s carriage? (Song of Solomon 3:9-10)

8. What did the Beloved tell the Daughters of Zion to do? (Song of Solomon 3:11)

9. When did Solomon’s mother crown him? (Song of Solomon 3:11)

10. How did Solomon describe his Beloved? (Song of Solomon 4:1-7)

11. How did Solomon and his bride treat each other? (Song of Solomon 4:1 to Song of Solomon 5:1)

12. Where did Solomon ask his bride to go? (Song of Solomon 4:8)

13. What did Solomon say his bride had stolen? (Song of Solomon 4:9)

14. How did Solomon describe his bride’s love and lips? (Song of Solomon 4:10-11)

15. To what did Solomon compare his bride? (Song of Solomon 4:12-15)

16. What did the Beloved invite her Lover to do? (Song of Solomon 4:16)

17. What did the Lover say he had done? (Song of Solomon 5:1)

Get It

18. How does this ancient near eastern wedding compare to weddings that you have attended?

19. What type of terms did Solomon use to tell his bride that she was beautiful?

20. If Solomon had been describing his bride today, what metaphors do you think he would have chosen?

21. What is significant about the bridegroom’s focus on his bride’s beauty?

22. How can a person build up his or her spouse’s self-esteem?

23. What does it mean to have one’s heart stolen by another person?

24. For what is Solomon praising his bride in Song of Solomon 4:12-15, and why is this important?

25. What is the significance of the bride’s invitation to Solomon to come into his garden?

26. Why should sex be enjoyed only in the context of marriage?

27. What do these verses suggest about the need for premarital sexual purity?

28. What do these verses suggest about the purpose and place of sexual love?

Apply It

29. What is one thing you can do to honor God’s design for sexual union in marriage?

30. What can you do to build up your spouse’s self-esteem this week?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Song of Solomon 3". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/song-of-solomon-3.html.
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