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CHAPTERS 10-13. HIS DEFENCE AGAINST HIS OPPONENTS and HIS HEARTFELT PLEA TO HIS ‘CHILDREN’ NOT TO BE LED ASTRAY.
Paul Now Lays Down The Gauntlet Against Some Of His Opponents Who Have Seemingly Arrived In Corinth (2 Corinthians 10:1 to 2 Corinthians 12:13)
Up to this point Paul’s letter has been written on a fairly amicable basis. He has made clear certain real problems still existing in the Corinthian church, but on the whole has not felt it necessary to defend himself too strongly. There have been inferences and hints that all was still not fully well, but nothing that was too powerful. His thoughts about them had become more settled and he had felt that the bad times were probably mainly over. Now, however all changes, and Paul goes into a powerful defence against some ‘pseudo-apostles’ who are seeking to undermine his ministry, and his fear as to what their effect on the Corinthians will be (2 Corinthians 12:20-21).
The very abruptness of the change of tone requires an explanation. The probable explanation may possibly be the simplest one. That even as he was coming to an end of writing his letter news reached him of certain preachers from Jerusalem who had arrived at Corinth who were antagonistic towards him, were personally attacking him and seeking to reveal him as a fraud, were proclaiming a diminished Christ, and were winning a hearing and dividing the church, thus seeming to upset all that he had achieved. It would seem that those who brought the news informed him of what these men were saying against him, as they sought to destroy his position completely, and woo the Corinthians over to themselves.
So, fearful lest he might lose what Titus’ visit and his severe letter had gained, he launches into this powerful defence in which he pulls no punches. This would fit in with the fact that this time he is not speaking of only one opponent but of a number of such.
In these days of instant telecommunication it is difficult for us to fully understand what it must have been like to be dependent on news arriving slowly, without any possibility of quickly discovering what the true situation was, especially when dealing with a church as volatile as that at Corinth. On the arrival of such news there would arise a deep fear in the mind and heart of Paul of the collapse of all that he had worked for, and all that he had thought was put right. All he could then do was write strongly, and as quickly as possible, in the hope of stopping it before it got worse.
So Paul opens this section by identifying himself by name. This is something that he does comparatively rarely in the body of a letter (although see Galatians 5:2; Ephesian 2 Corinthians 3:1; Colossians 1:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; Philemon 1:9). Here it is as a contrast to his opponents and to stress his personal status. They have previously declared their loyalty to him, let them remember that he is the one appointed as an Apostle of Christ by the will of God. It may also be an indication that he takes the pen from his emanuensis and begins to write in his own hand.
‘I, Paul, . . . beg you that when I come I may not have to be as bold as I expect to be’ (2 Corinthians 10:1-2). This appears so startling after his previously revealed attitude that many today find it hard to accept that 2 Corinthians 1:1 to 2 Corinthians 9:15 and 2 Corinthians 10:1 to 2 Corinthians 13:13 originally coexisted in the same letter. They point out that there are also other aspects of chapters 10--13 that seem to be at odds with the rest of the letter.
For example, Paul's remarks about his critics become much more pointed and strident. The "some" who peddle the word of God for profit (2 Corinthians 2:17) and carry letters of recommendation (2 Corinthians 3:1-3) are now called "false apostles," "deceitful workmen" and are depicted as coming as "angels of light" like Satan does (2 Corinthians 11:13-15), although he does have such people in mind in 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 4:2. Compare also 2 Corinthians 5:12. They are depicted as out to enslave and exploit the Corinthians (2 Corinthians 11:20). His defence also becomes much more impassioned: "What anyone else dares to boast about -- I also dare to boast about" (2 Corinthians 11:21). Although we must not overlook that he has ‘gloried’ in certain things all the way through (e.g. 2Co 1:5-9 ; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2Co 2:14 ; 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 3:1-2 etc).
And he boasts as ‘one out of his mind’ (2 Corinthians 11:23). But again we should note 2 Corinthians 5:13 where he also speaks of being ‘beside himself’. So while not totally different the atmosphere seems to have become more charged.
Furthermore his tone is now marked by biting sarcasm and scathing irony. For example in 2 Corinthians 11:19 he says, "You gladly put up with fools since you are so wise!". And finally, Paul's attitude toward the Corinthians becomes patently more threatening. "On my return," he warns, "I will not spare those who sinned earlier" (2 Corinthians 13:2), which sits ill with 2 Corinthians 2:4, and adds , "Examine yourselves, to see whether you are in the faith" (2 Corinthians 13:5) (although this latter does tie in with 2 Corinthians 6:1).
There can be no real doubt about the change of tone and attitude, although possibly not to the extent often mooted, heightened to a new intensity rather than actually new.
A number of proposals have been put forward to account for this state of affairs. Some think that the explanation lay in Paul's frame of mind, that he penned chapters 10-13 after a night's sleep from which he awoke with a sense of foreboding.
Others that a lengthy dictation pause intervened, a period in which he was too busy to continue with the letter, and that during it he received fresh news of an alarming nature, prompting him to abruptly alter his approach as he hurriedly finalised his letter.
Others consider that perhaps chapters 1-9 are addressed to the general Corinthian congregation, while chapters 10--13 are directed at certain false apostles and their adherents who formed a minority. The bearer could make this abundantly clear as he read out the letter. (It was personally delivered not posted, thus enabling its intentions to be made clear). Or perhaps that chapters 1-9 are intended for the majority who supported Paul (2 Corinthians 2:6), while chapters 10-13 are aimed at the minority who were still against him. Or that he has begun to write it himself rather than through an emanuensis and thus expresses himself more strongly.
The difficulty with any of these is that there are not the usual contextual clues to alert the reader to the receipt of disturbing news ("I hear that --"), a change of audience ("Now, to the rest of you --") or a change of writers ("I write this in my own hand"). This has led some to suggest that Paul intentionally reserved his criticism until he had regained the Corinthians' trust or that he first consolidated his apostolic authority and then exercised it against those who were still opposed to him, again with the bearer making the situation clear.
But the real problem that requires explanation is not so much the general content but the sudden change of approach and stridency of tone at 2 Corinthians 10:1, and the difference in emphasis. How probable from a pastoral standpoint would it be, it is asked, for Paul to begin the letter with praise ("Praise be to the God and Father . . ." 2 Corinthians 1:3) and conclude with a sharp warning ("Examine yourselves," 2 Corinthians 13:5)? There is no real parallel to this in his other letters. However in the light of 1 Corinthians 9:25 that is not really a problem, for there Paul could praise God and still say about himself that he was, at least theoretically, in danger of being rejected after testing. How much more so then the Corinthians.
Many have therefore suggested that chapters 10-13 are to be identified with Paul's "severe letter," sent prior to chapters 1--9 to rebuke the church for its lack of support and to call for the punishment of the individual who had challenged and humiliated Paul on his last visit, and late added to another letter. But this falls down both on content, there is for example no mention of his chief opponent (2 Corinthians 2:6), and on lack of explanation as to where the remainder of the letter disappeared to. It has, for example, no opening greeting. Another alternative offered is that 2 Corinthians 10-13 was written after chapters 1-9 in response to reports of new developments at Corinth. But this fails because we have to explain why it was not conjoined simply as it was, including its opening salutation and the closing salutation of the previous letter. It is also very little different from seeing the section as arising just as chapters 1-9 have been written, on receipt of disturbing news, but with more difficulties.
For one vital fact to take into account is that there is a total lack of any manuscript or patristic evidence to suggest that chapters 10-13 ever circulated independently of chapters 1-9. This is a major drawback of both of these last alternatives. This is especially so as abrupt changes of tone do occur elsewhere in Paul's letters (for example in Philippians 3:2). It is not something unique in his letters.
"I am glad I can have complete confidence in you" (2 Corinthians 7:16) may fit ill with "examine yourselves to see whether you are in the faith" (2 Corinthians 13:5), but it does also sit ill with ‘we entreat you that you receive not the grace of God in vain’ (2 Corinthians 7:1). The fact is that all the way through the letter Paul is trying to convey a positive message while at the same time expressing his fears. One may be seen as an encouragement and the others as a warning to the same people.
It would appear to us that the best explanation of all these various problems is that which sees the change resulting as a result of the arrival of bad news while he was in course of writing the letter. The bad news that his rivals, with whom he has had to struggle elsewhere, have arrived at Corinth and are maligning him and his ministry, not so much this time on the basis of what saves (for Paul mentions no such doctrinal disagreement) but on the basis of the essence of Christ Himself, and on the basis of their priorities and jealousies, and of seeing Paul as an upstart. In view of the previous upset which he had thought was settled this would very much affect him. Indeed it would shake him to the core. We have already had indications that he is still not absolutely sure of them. The bad news thus reconfirms his fears and arouses deep alarm within him. The result being that he then takes up the pen himself, in great concern, so as to write these last strongly apologetic chapters in order, he hopes, to stymie further disagreements within the church before it is too late. (The volatility of the church in Corinth will later be confirmed in the letter to the Corinthians written by Clement of Rome at the end of the century).
Furthermore the fact that Paul has failed to notify them clearly in 1-9 of his future plans with regard to visiting them (it is only indirectly referred to in 2 Corinthians 9:4), which must seem surprising in the circumstances in view of the fact that it had after all been such a big thing with them (2 Corinthians 1:17), would strongly support the idea that 10-13, which does contain such information, must be a part of the same letter, which is the view we take.
Paul Begins His Defence. When He Comes Among Them He Will Prove His Strength And Indeed They Already Have Evidence Of It In Their Own Conversion (2 Corinthians 10:1-18 ).
‘Now I Paul myself entreat you by the meekness and gentleness of Christ, I who in your presence am lowly among you, but being absent am of good courage toward you, yes, I beseech you, that I may not when present show courage with the confidence with which I count to be bold against some, who count of us as if we walked according to the flesh.’
‘Now I Paul myself entreat you.’ The reference to himself by name suggests that he is appealing to his known Apostleship. He wants them to think carefully about who is speaking to them. It may also indicate that he writes what follows in his own handwriting for emphasis. ‘Entreat you.’ He could command but he will not do so. He does not want to be harsh with them.
‘By the meekness and gentleness of Christ.’ Have his opponents been saying that he is too meek and gentle, or too gentle and gracious, too considerate? That he is not bold enough. Then let him remind them that Christ also was meek and gentle and gracious (Matthew 11:29). In that then he is like Christ. Let that be a witness to him. ‘Of Christ.’ It is as the Christ that his opponents think of Jesus. Let them then consider that He was gentle and gracious too, just like Paul is. He follows his Master.
It is always the private opinion of the self-opinionated, whatever they say in public, that being considerate and gentle is a form of weakness. They believe rather in expressing themselves and letting people know who is in charge. They were thus unable to appreciate Paul’s gentleness and tenderness. They considered that it lacked authority. In their view he ought to have shown who was boss.
‘I who in your presence am lowly among you, but being absent am of good courage toward you.’ This is referring to the impression given concerning him by his opponents. That Paul does not really think this comes out later when he says he will be as bold in their presence as he is in his letters (2 Corinthians 10:11). Thus it can only be that he is here quoting his opponents’ words, who were pointing to his loving gentleness among the Corinthians as though it was weakness, as though it was obsequiousness, partly because he failed to use recognised methods of oratory in his preaching, and partly because he did not try to be forceful and flowery in getting over his point (because he preferred the Spirit to do His own work - 1 Corinthians 3:2-5).
But, they pointed out, once he was absent from them he ceased to be like that. He sent his strong letters, lording it over them and bold to admonish them. The ‘cringer’ when present became the tyrant when at a distance. They no doubt stressed that he had ‘run away’ when he had visited them the second time. They would not have done that. They would have stayed and fought (vindicating themselves and destroying the church by dividing and demoralising it). And where was Paul now. Had he come again to see them? No, he just wrote from a distance. (They were able to be present because not having been successful like Paul they had few responsibilities and could stay as long as they liked).
Well, says Paul. They are right in this, that like Christ I seek to be meek and lowly (Matthew 11:29) in my presentation of my message, but I will also be as firm and strong as He proved Himself to be when necessary, when I come to you, as come I will.
‘Yes, I beseech you, that I may not when present show courage with the confidence with which I count (intend) to be bold against some, who count of us as if we walked according to the flesh.’ When he does come he intends to be so bold and confident (compare 2 Corinthians 1:23) with his attackers, that he has to hope that it will not spread outwards and engulf others. He hopes that he will not need to be as bold before them all as he intends to be to some. Let them appreciate that his courage and boldness is not lacking. Indeed he begs that they may consider this for their own sakes. His concern is to prevent them all being swamped by the consequences of his courage. He would prefer rather that those consequences will be reserved for those who count him and his fellow-workers as walking in the flesh.
It would appear from this that his opponents were claiming that the Spirit was not truly at work through Paul and his associates, but that what they did was really in the flesh, and not a work of God at all (unlike his opponents of course). Their view was that the way in which Paul worked, and the attributes that he revealed, demonstrated that he was not a man of the Spirit.
‘For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh, for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but mighty before God to the casting down of strongholds, casting down imaginations, and every high thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God, and bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ.’
This is Paul’s reply. It is a play on what his opponents are saying. Yes, he says, we do walk in human bodies, but it is not with those, or with fleshly aims and methods, that we fight the spiritual warfare. ‘We do not war according to the flesh.’ We do not fight as men do, or use fleshly weapons, or with fleshly purposes in mind. Our aims and our weapons are spiritual. Thus weapons like intimidation, manipulation, half truths, trickery, being double-tongued, and using hypocritical behaviour, all things of which Paul had been accused, are ineffective in spiritual warfare
For, he says, the weapons of their warfare are not of the flesh, ‘but are mighty through God to the destroying of strongholds.’ Compare Proverbs 21:22 LXX, ‘A wise man assaults strong cities, and demolishes the fortress in which the ungodly trusted.’ God has through His Spirit given them mighty power against all strongholds, both of men and of Satan (compare Zechariah 4:6-7). The stronghold was the strongpoint within a city that could continue to hold out even when the city had fallen. It was the last to fall and its fall indicated total victory. And there are many strongholds that have to be brought crashing down. The strongholds of men’s imaginations and (false) reasonings. The strongholds of men’s exalted opinions of themselves, and of their exaltation of themselves. The strongholds of high thoughts which are not really high thoughts at all, which claim superior knowledge of Christ but are not really in obedience to Christ, which claim special illumination by the Spirit, but are not of the Spirit at all. These he will bring down.
‘Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God, and bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ.’ Indeed the Spirit working through them breaks down men’s imaginations and arguments, He breaks down men’s pride and arrogance, He breaks down men’s refusal to face the truth of the knowledge of God, and breaks down the blinding force of Satan that blinds their minds to it (2 Corinthians 4:4), He brings men’s minds captive in obedience to Christ (John 16:8-11). Thus Paul’s weapons are the weapons of the power of God which apply the truth of the cross and of the crucified One to men and women (1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 2:4-5). And these are the weapons available to all who are truly His.
‘And being in readiness to avenge all disobedience, when your obedience shall be made full.’
The weapons of he and his fellow-workers being so effective Paul is sure of victory. These weapons will bring the Corinthians in obedience to him and to God. And they can be sure that once they have guaranteed their full obedience to him as God’s chosen Apostle, he will avenge the disobedience of his opponents on all who have opposed him. They will be dealt with as crushed rebels.
As the obedience is to be to him as an Apostle, we must see the disobedience as also reflecting disobedience to the Apostles, possibly as not following though the decisions of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:0). Or he may be signifying that they are refusing to genuinely acknowledge Apostolic authority overall, rather falsely claiming such for themselves (2 Corinthians 11:13).
So once the battle is won those who have rebelled will be called to account, although he does not tell us in what way. The thought may be of exclusion from acknowledgement by the recognised worldwide church, their ‘delivering to Satan’ (1 Corinthians 5:5).
‘You look at (or ‘Look at’) the things that are before your face. If any man trusts in himself that he is Christ's, let him consider this again with himself, that, even as he is Christ's, so also are we.’
It was ‘before their face’ (in their presence) that Paul was seen as lowly (2 Corinthians 10:1), so let them now consider what is ‘before their face’, what is staring them in the face, that as his opponents trust that they are ‘Christ’s’ so do Paul and his associates. His opponents’ claim to be ‘Christ’s’ might mean that they were signifying that they were totally Christ’s because of their wonderful experiences of the Spirit, or that they had been earthly followers of Christ, in contrast with Paul. Or that they are claiming that they are subject to true Apostolic authority, the authority of those appointed by Christ. Whichever way, says Paul, I too am ‘Christ’s’, because I am totally His and subject to Him through the Spirit, and because He personally called me by name (Acts 9:4; Acts 9:6), and because I have been appointed an Apostle by the Apostles themselves and their representatives (Acts 13:2; Acts 15:22-26; Galatians 2:7-9). Let them consider this.
‘For though I should glory somewhat abundantly concerning our authority (which the Lord gave for building you up, and not for casting you down), I shall not be put to shame, that I may not seem (or ‘lest I should seem’) as if I would terrify you by my letters.’
In this sentence fitting in the last clause is the difficulty. One way of seeing this is that he is saying that he could, if he wished, glory somewhat abundantly in the authority given to him by God and the Apostles (Acts 9:15-16; Acts 13:2; Galatians 2:7-9) and use it to terrify them by written Apostolic edicts and threats. But that as that authority and power was given to him for building them up, not for ‘casting them down’, for positive reasons not for negative, he will not do it. He will not so bring shame on himself. Indeed it his opponents who are the ones who seek to cast them down, not him.
For he does not want to have to use his weapons, as described in 2 Corinthians 10:4, against them as such, only against his opponents. So he will not exert his full authority against them. He seeks only to build them up. Besides their downfall would only result in the discrediting of himself (because he will be seen to have failed)
A second way is to see it as meaning that he is declaring, ‘even though I glory, and even more (somewhat abundantly), about our authority, which the Lord gave for your upbuilding not your downfall, I will not be put to shame’ (because I will be successful in that upbuilding because of that authority). The consequence will be that he will not need to be seen as terrifying them with letters, in the way that his opponents accuse him of (2 Corinthians 10:10).
Either way he has no intention of acting in such a way that he will be ‘put to shame’ (discredited) by the consequences of his actions, or of doing anything of which he will later be ashamed.
‘For his letters, they say, are weighty and strong, but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech of no account.’
Using letters to exert his authority would indeed only serve to justify the words of his opponents who accuse him of being able to issue powerful written edicts, but when present among them, of being weak and a deliverer of ‘no account’ words, the raging lion turning out to be a mouse. So he will certainly not do that.
The Corinthians had undoubtedly shown Paul’s severe letter to the newcomers. And this had been their contemptuous reply as they supported each other’s authority, ‘Weighty and strong when absent. Weak and unimpressive when present.’ They were well aware of Paul’s physical weaknesses and sought to use them as an instrument with which to degrade him. This is a question that Paul will deal with later (2 Corinthians 12:7-10).
‘Let such a one reckon this, that, what we are in word by letters when we are absent, such are we also in deed when we are present.’
But let those who see him thus be aware that when he comes he will come with all the weight and strength revealed in his letters, for that is how he will act among them. His Apostolic authority, given to him by the will of God (2 Corinthians 1:1), is under challenge. He will use every acceptable means in his power to vindicate it. No longer will they see the meek and lowly Apostle. They will see the victor in battle of 2 Corinthians 10:3-5, the one who is mighty through God. God will vindicate him.
‘For we are not bold to number or compare ourselves with certain of them that commend themselves: but they themselves, measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves with themselves, are without understanding.’
For he uses different measurements from them. He has no intention of boldly comparing himself with these men whose only recommendation was that they commended themselves by the simple expedient of commending each other, with the other then returning the compliment. Nor of numbering himself with them. He will not degrade himself by implying that they are of equal status with himself. They are not. They are such that they must be discredited. They look at each other, and exalt each other, thereby also, by reciprocation, exalting themselves, for they measure themselves against each other, and pat each other on the back. In so behaving they reveal their lack of understanding. They are saying in effect, ‘we all say that we are wonderful and so it must be true’. They fail to recognise that they are propping each other up nonsensically, and that the measure that they use is unreliable. That they are behaving foolishly. He might well have pointed out that ‘self-commendation is no recommendation’.
‘But we will not glory beyond our measure, but according to the measure of the province (boundary, area within boundaries) which God apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even to you.’
Paul on the other hand will not glory beyond measure. He does not need to do so to prop up a failing image. He will not use a measurement suggested by men at all. He will certainly not measure himself against others, hoping that they will return the compliment. He will use God’s measurement, a measurement revealed by His mighty work in Corinth through Paul. That had demonstrated that in God’s eyes this was Paul’s province, the place where had the right to take charge. That is the measure that God has apportioned to him, the province God gave him in which to demonstrate his genuine calling, and in which he succeeded. And that will be his boast. What can they show compared with this?
We can compare here 1Co 4:15 ; 1 Corinthians 4:19. It was he who by God’s power established the church in Corinth. That was the final proof of his authority and power. What had these men done to compare with that? They may have fine words, but where is their power? How many new churches have they founded on virgin territory?
Paul is here claiming that God had a set purpose for him, that He had as it were, allocated certain areas which he was to evangelise. It had, as it were, been measured out to him with a measuring rod, and the Corinthians were within his boundaries, as is demonstrated by his success.
‘For we stretch not ourselves overmuch, as though we reached not to you, for we came even as far as to you in the gospel of Christ, not glorying beyond our measure, that is, in other men's labours, but having hope that, as your faith grows, we shall be magnified in you according to our province to further abundance, so as to preach the gospel even to the parts beyond you, not to glory in another’s province in regard of things ready to our hand.’
We are not over-exaggerating what we are and what we have done, says Paul. We are not over-stretching ourselves in order to reach you, making claims that we have not achieved. For when none other had we did actually stretch out and we did reach you with the Gospel of Christ. We are not, like them, glorying beyond measure, that is, glorying in other men’s labours, in what other men have achieved, what other men have reached, rather than in the measure of our own achievements. Rather our hope is that as your faith grows so it will reflect to our credit because it was we who led you to Christ. We will be vindicated by it. And we will thus be enabled to successfully and fruitfully advance further into the area that has been allocated to us by God, achieving even more successes , preaching the Gospel in places yet unreached, which are even further off from Jerusalem than you are (‘beyond you’ - see Acts 1:8).
The idea may include that Paul having established the Gospel in the main city, his converts become established and take that Gospel outward to the surrounding areas.
His point is clear. These who boast in themselves are parasites. Not for them expansion into the unknown. They prefer to follow up others, poaching on what they have achieved. For they have no power in themselves to establish new churches. They can only pick other men’s fruit, the fruit from other men’s labours. They are not true Apostles. They are scrumping.
‘Not to glory in another’s province in regard of things ready to our hand.’ That is, not making our boast in what someone else has done and achieved, (like they do), not taking advantage of things ready to hand, plucking things with our hands that are easily available, and then claiming that we have somehow improved them. His words are derisory of those who make great claims for themselves and yet prove their inadequacy by not being able to achieve anything for themselves. In their self-conceit they can only act as spoilers.
‘But he who glories, let him glory in the Lord.’
In context this is not just a general statement, true and right though such a general statement might be. It is applicable to what he has been saying. In his case his glorying is not in himself but in the Lord. All that he has achieved has been through Him. He is glorying in what the Lord has achieved. So let all behave in the same way. Let all who would glory have something to glory in that the Lord has done through them. Woe to those who merely glory in what they themselves have done.
The same quotation, probably based on Jeremiah 9:24, appears in 1 Corinthians 1:31. The idea there is that our glory should be only in Jesus Christ in Whom is total salvation, which is why God has chosen the weak and foolish things of the world to put to shame the mighty. There the thought is that all credit should go to the Lord and not man. Salvation is His work and not dependent on man’s ability. In contrast here he thought is that those who are Christ’s should only glory in what He achieves through them.
‘For it is not he who commends himself who is approved, but whom the Lord commends.’
Because the value of a commendation lies in who makes it. Those who are, or should be, approved are those whom the Lord commends by His effective working through them. Those who commend themselves deserve no approval. Let the Corinthians consider therefore which is true of whom. Who successfully wooed Corinth for Christ? Who successfully established their growing church? Who has done the same elsewhere? Is it not clear that he is the one whom the Lord has commended, not those who creep in afterwards and cause trouble in the flock. Whose weapons of warfare (2 Corinthians 10:4) then have proved effective? Let them consider for themselves and give their approval to the right person.
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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on 2 Corinthians 10". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25