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Bible Commentaries

Peake's Commentary on the Bible

Titus 1

Verses 1-4

Titus 1:1-4 . Salutation.— Paul sends to Titus, his true son in their common faith, his customary Christian greeting. Writing in his official capacity ( 1 Timothy 1:1 f.*), he appropriately emphasizes the design of his office— a design based on the hope of life eternal. This is to foster in those who have responded to God’ s call faith and knowledge of the truth that is directed to godly living. Eternal life was promised by God before eternai ages, but the actual manifestation of His Word in its seasonable time was granted in the message with which he, Paul, was entrusted according to God’ s own command.

Titus 1:1 . a servant (lit. “ slave” ) of God: a unique phrase in Paul, but cf. James 1:1 *

Titus 1:3 . God our Saviour: 1 Timothy 1:1 *.

Verses 5-9

Titus 1:5-9 . The Appointment of Elders.— Paul renews in writing instructions delivered orally to Titus during his recent visit to Crete. As in Asia ( 1 Timothy 3:1 ff.), the safeguard against error is a wisely constituted ministry, faithful in conserving the true doctrine. For the elders’ qualifications cf. 1 Timothy 3:1-7 *. The lists are essentially identical, the chief difference being the addition here of “ just, holy,” etc., and the omission of “ not a novice.”

6 . blameless: 1 Timothy 3:10 *.— husband, etc.: 1 Timothy 3:2 *.— children, etc.: the reason is given in 1 Timothy 3:4 f.

Titus 1:7 . bishop: 1 Timothy 3:1 *. Moffatt regards Titus 1:7-9 as a gloss, breaking the connexion between Titus 1:6 and Titus 1:10. The sequence of Titus 1:9 and Titus 1:10, however is excellent. Equally needless is Clemen’ s and Hesse’ s view that Titus 1:7-11 are interpolated.

Titus 1:9 . the teaching: i.e. apostolic doctrines.— sound doctrine: 1 Timothy 1:10 *.— gainsayers: i.e. the false teachers.

Verses 10-16

Titus 1:10-16 . Titus’ Attitude to False Teachers.— Loyalty to sound doctrine is needful for silencing many deceitful teachers— not outside the Church (Hort), but self-constituted instructors within its borders, who reject its discipline (“ unruly” = insubordinate). These men, exemplifying Epimenides’ judgment ( 600 B.C.) of the Cretan character, teach error for monetary profit ( cf. 1 Timothy 6:5). Chiefly, and therefore not wholly, of Jewish origin ( Titus 1:10), they base their empty talking on Jewish legends ( 1 Timothy 1:3-11 *) and mere human traditions which foster asceticism. Their asceticism is manifestly false, since pure men can make a pure use of everything ( 1 Timothy 4:1-5 *), while those who are impure and unbelieving can use nothing purely, their whole mind being contaminated and their conduct denying their profession ( Titus 1:14-16). All such errorists Titus must summarily refute.

Titus 1:11 . lucre: Cretans were notorious lovers of money.

Titus 1:12. With this quotation cf. those from Aratus ( Acts 17:28) and Menander ( 1 Corinthians 15:33). The view that Paul enjoyed a liberal education is probably true, but cannot be inferred solely from these citations.— liars: “ to speak like a Cretan” was synonymous with “ lying.” For the allusion and its significance see Rendel Harris in Exp., Oct. 1906 , April 1907 , Oct. 1912 , Jan. 1915 .

Titus 1:15 . Rather “ for the pure” ( cƒ . Romans 14:20).

Titus 1:16 . profess: better, “ confess.” Far too mild a term for the second-century Gnostic!

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Bibliographical Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Titus 1". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". 1919.