Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, July 18th, 2024
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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Bible Commentaries
Psalms 103

Preacher's Complete Homiletical CommentaryPreacher's Homiletical

Verses 1-22


This, as appears from the superscription, is one of David’s Psalms. It is a Psalm of great beauty and preciousness, and has been a great favourite of devout souls in all ages. The fulness of the mercy of God in the forgiveness of sins and the enrichment of the soul, and His tender, fatherly pity for His frail and dying children, are here gracefully and gratefully celebrated. It must have been composed at a time when the Poet’s soul was filled with precious and grateful recollections of Divine benefits, and with strong and tender confidence in God.


(Psalms 103:1-5)

I. God blessing man. Psalms 103:3-5. The Psalmist mentions a number of blessings which he has received from God.

1. Forgiveness. “Who forgiveth all thine iniquities.” “Thine iniquities,” says John Pulsford, “are in-equities. There is nothing just or right in thee. Thy very nature is an in-equity, bringing forth nothing but in-equities. In-equities towards thy God, in-equities towards thy neighbour, and in-equities towards thyself, make up the whole of thy life. Thou art a bad tree, and a bad tree cannot bring forth good fruit.” Notice the completeness of His forgiveness. Our iniquities are more than can be remembered, and are very heinous, but He forgiveth them all. The continuousness of His forgiveness. “He forgiveth.” Within us are tendencies to sin and around us are temptations. Our life is sadly marred by transgressions and shortcomings, we need repeated forgivenesses, multiplied pardons; and God bestows them. He continues to forgive.

2. Healing. “Who healeth all thy diseases.” The primary reference is to bodily sicknesses. (Comp. Exodus 15:26; Deuteronomy 29:22). But we cannot regard that as the exclusive reference. “Corruption and disease have a spiritual origin. All material corruption was preceded by spiritual corruption. All diseases were, and are, spiritual to begin with. Disease is a state of in-equity in the body, but it is only the in-equity that pre-existed in spirit, fulfilling itself in matter. The Divine art of healing therefore lies in the forgiveness of the soul’s iniquities. Remove the iniquities of the soul, and universal healing comes in. Christ healeth all thy diseases, by forgiving all thy iniquities.”—Pulsford. Bodily diseases are analogues of spiritual disorders and infirmities. He heals all these.

3. Redemption. “Who redeemeth thy life from destruction.” Hengstenberg: “From the grave.” Perowne: “ ‘From the pit,’ including death, the grave, Hades.” David had many marvellous deliverances from danger and death which were worthy of celebration. The Lord redeems the soul from sin, and from the penalty of sin, spiritual and eternal death. He will ransom His people from the power of the grave, and endow them with endless and blessed life.

4. Coronation. “Who crowneth thee with loving-kindness and tender mercies.” “The love of God not only delivers from sin, disease, and death: He makes His children kings, and weaves their crown out of His own glorious attributes of loving-kindness and tender mercies.”—Perowne. “He heaps upon redeemed sinners untold riches from His full heart; and shows to them the softest ways of His love. Mercies are the softnesses of eternal love, but tender mercies are unutterable endearments from the heart of hearts.”—Pulsford.

5. Satisfaction. “Who satisfieth thy mouth with good things.” There is diversity of opinion as to how עְדִי—which is rendered “mouth” in the A. V. and in the P. B. V.—should be rendered. See Perowne’s critical note, and Barnes in loco. But there is no dispute as to the meaning of the clause. God satisfieth the souls of His servants. He, and He alone, can satisfy the deep needs, and respond to the boundless desires of the soul. Out of God the wants of man’s great and awful soul can never be satisfied. By His presence and grace He fills it with delightful satisfaction. “He satisfieth the longing soul, and filleth the hungry soul with goodness.” (Comp. Psalms 63:5; Isaiah 55:1-2; Isaiah 58:11.)

6. Invigoration. “So that thy youth is renewed like the eagle’s.” There is no reference here to the fable of the eagle renewing its youth in old age. There is perhaps an allusion to the moulting of its plumage periodically, whereby its strength and activity are increased. As the Christian derives his life from Christ, that life can never become feeble or old. Living in Christ, he will flourish in immortal youth. His eternal life will be an eternal progression towards the perfection of youthful vigour and beauty.

Such are the great and inestimable blessings which the Lord confers upon His servants. It is important that we should notice that these blessings—

1. Are adapted to man’s deepest needs. Forgiveness, satisfaction, redemption.

2. Tend to promote his perfection and blessedness, which can be found only in connection with the loving-kindness and tender mercy of the Lord.

II. Man blessing God. (Psalms 103:1-2.) God blesses man with gifts; man blesses God with praise. The Psalmist blesses the Lord—

1. With hit soul. “Bless the Lord, O my soul.” Not merely with the tongue or pen, but with the heart and soul.

2. With his entire spiritual being. “And all that is within me, bless His holy name.” David “would enlist every thought, faculty, power, the heart with all its affections, the will, the conscience, the reason, in a word, the whole spiritual being, all in man that is best and highest, in the same heavenly service.”—Perowne.

3. With recollection of His benefits. “Forget not all His benefits.” The Psalmist thoughtfully recalls the blessings he has received from God, and is thereby the more urgently incited to praise Him. We are sadly prone to cherish the memory of injuries, and to neglect the memory of benefits. Let us, like the Psalmist, strive to recollect the blessings we have received of the Lord, that thereby our praise might be more grateful and hearty.

4. With reverent admiration of His character. “Bless His holy name.” God’s holiness consists of all the perfections of His character in harmonious and beautiful union. David praised the Lord not merely because of the benefits he had received from Him, but because of His own glorious perfections. He praised His beneficence, and adored His holiness.

CONCLUSION.—Let us learn from this subject—.

1. The motives of Divine praise. Why should I bless the Lord?

(1) Because of what He does for me—“benefits.”
(2) Because of what He is—“holy.”
2. The model of Divine praise. How shall I bless the Lord?

(1) Heartily.
(2) With all my powers and affections.
3. The means of Divine praise. By what means can I thus bless the Lord? Recall His benefits, and the heart will grow warm with gratitude, &c.

4. The blessedness of Divine praise. It brings holy cheer to the troubled spirit. It is a foretaste of heaven. To the man whose soul is filled with praise this world is a “scene of Divine manifestation, a temple filled with heavenly voices and traces of the feet of God.”


(Psalms 103:2. “Forget not all His benefits.”)


I. The benefits of God. Who can enumerate them? He gives us physical benefits; e.g., food, raiment, health, &c. Social benefits, e.g., friends, &c. Intellectual benefits, e.g., His own revelation in nature, history, and the Bible, books, &c. Spiritual benefits, e.g., pardon, help, &c. His gifts are innumerable. They are also very rich. He gives not only kindness and mercy, but “loving-kindness and tender mercies.” “The difference between mere kindness and ‘loving-kindness,’ between mere mercy and ‘tender mercy,’ is the difference between a flower without fragrance and a flower that is fragrant.”—Parker.

Rightly viewed the benefits of God must call forth our wonder, admiration, gratitude.

II. The benefits of God may be forgotten. In what sense? Not absolutely. Memory treasures all things, loses nothing. Like the records made with invisible ink, not seen under ordinary circumstances, invisible perhaps for years, yet when brought under the influence of heat appearing distinctly; so with memory, &c. But we treasure that in our memory in which we are most interested. The miser remembers anything that will assist him in accumulating money. The grateful heart remembers benefits. But in depraved human nature there is a sad tendency to forget benefits. Too frequently injuries are treasured, benefits are forgotten. A thankless heart receives benefits, and does not recognise them as such, acknowledges no obligation, &c. All are prone to fail somewhat in treasuring and keeping in view the Divine benefits.

III. The benefits of God should not be forgotten.

1. Because of the gratitude we owe to God for them. Hengstenberg: “He who has been blessed and refuses to bless has sunk from the state of a man to that of a beast.” Has he not sunk lower than some beasts? Every blessing involves the obligation to gratitude and praise.

2. Because of the confidence they are calculated to inspire. Every benefit we receive increases our obligation and encouragement to trust in the Lord. Parker: “The atheism of anticipation should be corrected by the gratitude of retrospection. He who reviews the past thankfully may advance to the future hopefully.”


(Psalms 103:3)

I. Why sin is called a disease.

1. As it destroys the moral beauty of the creature. (Genesis 1:31; Genesis 6:5, compared; Job 42:1-6; Psalms 38:3-8.)

2. As it excites pain. (Psalms 51:8; Acts 2:37; 1 Corinthians 15:56.)

3. As it disables from duty. (Isaiah 1:5; Romans 7:19.) To God. To man.

4. As it deprives men of good sound reason. (Isaiah 5:20.) It stupifies the faculties.

5. As it is infectious.

6. As it leads to death. (Romans 5:12; Romans 5:21; Romans 6:16; Romans 6:23.)

II. The variety of sinful diseases to which we are subject. “All thine iniquities, all thy diseases.” (Mark 7:21-23; Romans 1:29-31; Galatians 5:19-21.)

Almost as many as the bodily diseases mentioned in the bills of mortality.

III. The remedy by which God heals these diseases.

1. His pardoning mercy through the redemption of Christ. (See text. Isaiah 53:5; Romans 3:23-26.)

2. The sanctifying influences of grace. (Ezekiel 36:25-27; Hebrews 10:16.)

3. The means of grace. (Ephesians 4:11-13.)

4. The resurrection of the body. (1 Thessalonians 4:16-17; Philippians 3:10-11.)

5. The case of an ignorant, insensible sinner is very deplorable.

6. The case of a real Christian is very hopeful. His sinful disease is radically healed. The completion of his cure is certain.

7. The glory of Christ, as the physician of souls, is great indeed. (Revelation 1:5-6).—F.… R, in “Skeletons of Sermons.”


(Psalms 103:6-14)

The Poet having celebrated the mercy of God to himself, proceeds in these verses to celebrate His mercy to Israel. Consider—

I. The Infinity of the Divine mercy. “As the heaven is high above the earth, so great is His mercy toward them that fear Him.” The Psalmist uses a figure of the greatest extent which the world affords in order to set forth the immensity of the mercy of God. It is, like Himself, infinite. As we imagine nothing higher or vaster than the heavens, so the favour of God exceeds our highest thoughts, and surpasses our most extensive and expressive figures. All the measures of the universe are inadequate to set forth the infinite love of God. (Compare Psalms 36:5; Psalms 57:10). He is “plenteous in mercy.” “Above the mountains of our sins the floods of His mercy rise. All the world tastes of His sparing mercy, those who hear the Gospel partake of His inviting mercy, the saints live by His saving mercy, are preserved by His upholding mercy, are cheered by His consoling mercy, and will enter heaven through His infinite and everlasting mercy.”—Spurgeon.

II. The expressions of the Divine mercy. It is manifest—

1. In His vindication of the oppressed. “The Lord executeth righteousness and judgment for all that are oppressed.” We have here

(1) The sufferings of the Church. The people of God have often been grievously oppressed and persecuted.

(2) The champion of the Church. The Lord defends the cause of His people, interposes for their deliverance. He humbles the pride of the oppressor, and exalts the oppressed into safety and honour.

2. In His general dealings with His people. “He hath not dealt with us after our sins; nor rewarded us according to our iniquities.”—See Homiletic sketch on this verse.

3. In the long delay of His anger. “Slow to anger.” The Lord has long patience even with the most provoking sinners. He restrains His wrath that the wicked may have longer time and more frequent opportunities for repentance. Though His anger ever burns against sin, yet in mercy to the sinner He bears much, and bears long with him, that he might yet be saved.

4. In the transient duration of His anger. “He will not always chide, neither will He keep His anger for ever.” “I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth,” &c. (Isaiah 57:16). “The second clause,” says Hengstenberg, “depends upon Leviticus 19:18, ‘Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people.’ Nahum 1:2 again depends upon the passage before us: ‘The Lord will take vengeance on His adversaries, and He keepeth wrath’ (not assuredly for His people, of whom the declaration of the Psalmist holds true, but still) ‘for His enemies.’ ” God will manifest His displeasure towards His people if they sin against Him, and will punish them for their sins; but when chastisement has accomplished its mission, He will again manifest His loving-kindness. His “anger is so slow to rise, so ready to abate.”

5. In the forgiveness of sins. “As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us.” The great point here is the completeness of the forgiveness of sin by God. On this point see remarks o Psalms 85:2. “When sin is pardoned,” says Char-nock, “it is never charged again; the guilt of it can no more return than east can become west, or west become east.”

6. In His fatherly compassion. “Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear Him.” Matthew Henry well says: “The father pities his children that are weak in knowledge and instructs them, pities them when they are froward and bears with them, pities them when they are sick and comforts them (Isaiah 66:13), pities them when they have fallen and helps them up again, pities them when they have offended, and, upon their submission, forgives them, pities them when they are wronged and gives them redress; thus ‘the Lord pities them that fear Him.’ ” Nay, much more than “thus;” “for He is the ‘Father of all mercies,’ and the Father of all the fatherhoods in heaven and earth.”

7. In His fatherly consideration. “He knoweth our frame, He remembereth that we are dust.” He is acquainted with “our fashioning;” the manner in which we are formed, and the materials of which we are made; He knows how weak we are, and exercises a kindly consideration towards us. He is not exacting in His demands upon us, but is pitiful to our weakness.

8. In the revelation which He made to His people. “He made known His ways unto Moses, His acts unto the children of Israel.” This verse refers to Exodus 33:13, where Moses says to the Lord, “I pray Thee, if I have found grace in Thy sight, show me now Thy way, that I may know Thee, that I may find grace in Thy sight; and consider that this nation is Thy people. And He said, My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.” God made Himself known in the guidance and protection of His people, and in the many mighty acts which He wrought on their behalf. The children of Israel saw His acts, His marvellous doings for them. But Moses saw the principles underlying those acts, and the methods of the Divine administration. This revelation the Psalmist rightly regards as an expression of God’s mercy. Varied and countless are the manifestations of His mercy to us.

III. The objects of the Divine mercy. To all men upon earth the mercy of God extends. Holy angels need not the Divine mercy, apostate angels need it, but receive it not. Man both needs and receives it. Of all men upon earth we may say,—“The Lord is slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy. He hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us according to our iniquities.” But in this Psalm the people of God are specially mentioned as the objects of His mercy. Thrice His mercy is said to be upon “them that fear Him.” And the Psalmist in the eighteenth verse gives a further description of them: “To such as keep His covenant, and to those that remember His commandments to do them.” Holy fear is expressed in obedience. Excellently says Perowne on Psalms 103:17 : “For the third time God’s mercy and loving-kindness is said to be upon ‘them that fear Him,’ as if to remind us that there is a love within a love, a love which they only know who have tasted that the Lord is gracious, who fear Him and walk in His ways, as well as a love which ‘maketh the sun to shine, and sendeth rain upon the just and the unjust.’ In the next verse there is the same limitation, ‘To such as keep His covenant,’ and to those who not only know but ‘do’ His will. The blessings of the covenant are no inalienable right; mancipio nulli datur; children’s children can only inherit its blessings by cleaving to it.”

CONCLUSION.—Are we of those who are thus designated? Do we reverently “fear Him”? Let those who do rejoice in the manifold expressions of His mercy toward them. Let those who do not, accept the offer of pardoning mercy, trust His grace, &c.


(Psalms 103:10)


I. The views which this declaration presents to us of the Divine covenant.

1. He has not dealt with us as our sins deserve. Do they not deserve banishment from God, the forfeiture of His parental relation to us, the execution of His righteous sentence upon us? When is it that afflictions appear heavy? When sin is felt lightly. When is it that afflictions appear light? When sin is felt to be heavy.… We know the light we have resisted, the convictions we have disregarded, the mercies we have received and forgotten, and the impressions against which we have rebelled.… And then in proportion to our actual knowledge of God, our experience of the Divine mercy, our acquaintance with the Divine goodness, is the aggravation of our guiltiness.

2. He has not dealt with us as He has dealt with others. Look at the conduct of a righteous and holy God towards fallen angels; … the antediluvian world; … the cities of the plain; … the ancient Israelites for their backslidings. Look at others for the purpose of deepening your gratitude and raising your admiration of the Divine mercy towards you.

3. His dealings towards us have always been mingled with mercy even in the severest dispensations. Had He “rewarded us according to our iniquities,” there would have been no mercy and no hope—no termination, no diminution, no alleviation of suffering. When we think of the mercy, mingled with all His judgments and chastenings, have we not reason to adopt the language of the Psalmist in the text?

4. There is mercy in the support we have under affliction. He does not allow us to suffer alone.… What consolation is mingled in the cup of suffering placed in our hands! what promises! what supports! what precious, everlasting consolation and good hope through grace!

5. There is mercy in the removal of affliction. How often do we find the God of grace and of providence wondrously interposing to remove affliction by unexpected means, by unthought-of alleviations, by circumstances of which we had not the least conception, &c.

6. The mercy which is displayed in the results of His dispensations. He intends, by blighting the gourd, to bring us to the shadow of the tree of life—by cutting off the stream, to bring us nearer to the fountain of living waters—by putting the taint of bitterness in our earthly comforts, to bring us to taste that He is gracious. It is the end of His dispensations to make us more humble, more watchful, more spiritual, more holy, more alive to God and eternity. In the school of trial God prepares His children for their inheritance.

II. The practical uses we should make of this declaration.

1. It should lead us faithfully to inquire what has been the effect of chastening and trial on us? When the rod is upon you, what is the course you pursue? Where do you get rid of your troubles? Are you brought to God’s throne? Are you brought to humility, to self-abasement, to penitential sorrow? Are you brought to feel there is no mystery in the rod, that all the mystery is in the mercy towards you?

2. It should excite adoring gratitude for the love, the patience, the wisdom, and the faithfulness of our Father in heaven.

3. It should teach us to cherish humble confidence. “All things work together for good to them that love God.” “All His paths are mercy and goodness.” “I will trust in Him, and not be afraid.”

4. It should lead us to exercise unreserved submission. The submission of patience, the submission of obedience, ought to be the result of these views of the Divine character.

5. Let there be practical imitation of the Divine conduct in our temper towards others—in patience, forbearance, forgiveness. “Be ye imitators of God, as dear children, and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us.”—Dr. Fletcher.—Abridged from “The Preacher.”


(Psalms 103:15-18)

The contrast between man’s frailty and transitoriness and God’s unchangeableness and eternity, which we found in Psalms 90:1-6, is here repeated. The similarity of thought and expression is so great that Hengstenberg says, “That David without doubt drew it from Moses.” As most of the ideas occurring in this passage were considered in our Homily on Psalms 90:1-6, it will be sufficient to present the outline of our subject here, and refer the reader to that homily. The chief points of the contrast seem to be these—

I. The frailty of man’s life upon earth, and the mercy of God. How frail is human life here! As the hot and burning east wind destroys the grass and the flower, so sickness, sorrow, suffering speedily cut short man’s career. The flower with its beauty and fragrance soon fades and dies, and man in his glory of corporeal beauty, mental ability, geniality of temper, and holiness of heart and life, soon passes away. But the mercy of the Lord is not a weak, perishable thing. It is great, glorious, abiding. Here is consolation and strength and inspiration for man. He is frail; but he may take refuge in the rich and all-sufficient mercy of God.

II. The brevity of man’s life upon earth, and the eternity of the mercy of God. As for the life of man, “the wind passeth over it, and it is gone. But the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting.” The loving-kindness of the Lord is eternal as His own Being. Man, saddened with the transciency of human strength and beauty and life, here is rest for thee in the eternal mercy of God! Here is what we, as sinners, need; and it is here in inexhaustible and unchangeable fulness and freeness.

III. The final departure of man from the earth, and the eternal mercy of God present with him wherever he may be.” “It is gone, and the place thereof shall know it no more.” Man goes hence to

“The undiscover’d country, from whose bourne
No traveller returns.”

It is a saddening and a solemn consideration that at death we leave this world never to return to it. The farm, the shop, the office, the study, the home, the Sunday school, the Church will “know us no more” when we have trod “the way to dusty death.” We shall have gone from earth for ever. But gone where? Ay, where? How shall we fare when we have taken the last, the lonely, the irretraceable journey? These considerations would be insupportably mysterious and painful, but for this fact: Wherever we may be, the loving-kindness of the Lord will be present with us. “The mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him.” We do not leave that behind us. We do not travel into any region where it ceases to be present and operative. Having that upon us, all must be well, &c.

IV. The final departure of good men from the earth, and the eternal mercy of God resting upon their descendants. Good men pass away for ever, but the loving-kindness of the Lord is continued to their posterity. Church members die, but the Church remains. God’s “righteousness is unto children’s children.” The covenant of mercy extends from generation to generation, provided that they do not violate their interest in it. For here is the limiting condition: “To such as keep His covenant, and to those that remember His commandments to do them.”

God will not forget or fail in His part of the covenant; let man also remember and keep his; and then he may take to himself the consolation, and inspiration, and strength of the contrast we have been considering.


(Psalms 103:19-22)

I. The glorious reign of the Lord. “The Lord hath prepared His throne in the heavens, and His kingdom ruleth over all.” Here are three ideas—

1. The stability of His reign. “The Lord hath prepared His throne.” Perowne: “Jehovah hath established His throne.” His throne is firm and stable. All the rage and rebellion of earth and hell cannot shake it. “His dominion is an everlasting dominion.”

2. The majesty of His reign. “His throne in the heavens.” The heavens are the most vast and sublime portion of the universe. In them the glory of the Lord is most conspicuously and splendidly displayed. His throne is said to be established there to indicate its loftiness and majesty.

3. The universality of His reign. “His kingdom ruleth over all.” He rules in all places. The heavens, the earth, and the seas are subject to His sway. The regularity and order of the universe proclaim His sovereignty. He rules over all creatures. He is the Creator, Sustainer, and Sovereign of all creatures. He rules over all persons. Holy angels delight to do His will. He is supreme in the world of men. And devils cannot sever their connection with His authority. He controls Satan himself.

II. The glorious praise of the Lord. The Poet began the Psalm by calling upon His soul to bless the Lord for His benefits; he proceeded to celebrate His goodness to all “them that fear Him”; now he summons the entire universe to unite in ascribing blessing to Him; and he concludes by calling upon his own soul to join in the praise. The praise of the Lord is celebrated by—

1. Holy angels. “Bless the Lord, ye His angels,” &c. (Psalms 103:20-21). In speaking of these angelic beings, the Psalmist brings into view—

(1) Their great power. They “excel in strength.” Margin and Perowne: “Mighty in strength.” Hengstenberg: “Strong warriors.” The deeds ascribed to them in Scripture indicate their amazing might. But in our text the strength which is spoken of is clearly intellectual and moral chiefly. They are mighty to do the will of God, and grow stronger by doing it.

(2) Their ready obedience. They “do His commandments, hearkening unto the voice of His word.” They wait and listen for the intimations of His will, and then hasten to carry them out. They are prompt in obedience to Him, and eager to “do His pleasure.”

(3) Their immense numbers. “All His hosts.” God’s angels are multitudinous. There are vast armies of them.

(4) Their Divine service. “Ministers of His, that do His pleasure.” They are His, for He made and sustains them; His, for He employs them in His service; His, for they are reverently and lovingly loyal to Him. These glorious beings bless the Lord by reverently celebrating His perfections and joyfully obeying His behests. They praise Him both by song and by service.

2. The unintelligent creation. “Bless the Lord all His works, in all places of His dominion.” All His works praise Him as they answer the end for which they were created. Sun, moon, and stars by diffusing light and heat, and by unfolding their beauty and glory, praise Him. The earth by its verdure, fruit-fulness, &c., praises Him. All His works throughout the universe unite to bless Him.

3. Redeemed men. “Bless the Lord, O my soul.” The Poet ends the Psalm as he began it by calling upon his own soul to bless the Lord. We who know His redeeming love have the most moving and mighty reasons for celebrating His praise.

CONCLUSION.—While the universe is songful in praise of the Lord, shall my tongue be silent? While others are glowing with enthusiasm, shall my heart be cold? “Bless the Lord, O my soul.” While others gladly obey and serve Him, shall my service be wanting? Shall I praise Him in words and not in deeds? Rather let my ears be attentive to hear His commands, and my feet swift and my hands dexterous to obey them. Let us all praise Him, both in song and in service, with lips and with lives.

Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on Psalms 103". Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/phc/psalms-103.html. Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1892.
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