But there arose (εγενοντο δε egenonto de). Second aorist middle indicative of γινομαι ginomai (cf. γινεται ginetai in 2 Peter 1:20).False prophets also (και πσευδοπροπηται kai pseudoprophētai). In contrast with the true prophets just pictured in 2 Peter 1:20. Late compound in lxx and Philo, common in N.T. (Matthew 7:15). Allusion to the O.T. times like Balaam and others (Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 28:9; Ezekiel 13:9). False teachers (πσευδοδιδασκαλοι pseudodidaskaloi). Late and rare compound (πσευδησ διδασκαλος pseudēsεσονται didaskalos) here alone in N.T. Peter pictures them as in the future here (εισιν esontai shall be) and again as already present (επλανητησαν eisin are, 2 Peter 2:17), or in the past (παρεισαχουσιν eplanēthēsan they went astray, 2 Peter 2:15). Shall privily bring in (παρεισαγω pareisaxousin). Future active of παρεισαγω pareisagō late double compound εισαγω pareisagō to bring in (παρα eisagō), by the side (παρεισακτους para), as if secretly, here alone in N.T., but see αιρεσεις απωλειας pareisaktous in Galatians 2:4 (verbal adjective of this same verb). Destructive heresies (αιρεσις haireseis apōleias). Descriptive genitive, “heresies of destruction” (marked by destruction) as in Luke 16:8. αιρεω Hairesis (from αρνουμενοι haireō) is simply a choosing, a school, a sect like that of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), of the Pharisees (Acts 15:5), and of Christians as Paul admitted (Acts 24:5). These “tenets” (Galatians 5:20) led to destruction. Denying (αρνεομαι arnoumenoi). Present middle participle of και τον δεσποτην arneomai This the Gnostics did, the very thing that Peter did, alas (Matthew 26:70) even after Christ‘s words (Matthew 10:33). Even the Master (τον αγορασαντα αυτους kai ton despotēn). Old word for absolute master, here of Christ as in Judges 1:4, and also of God (Acts 4:24). Without the evil sense in our “despot.” That bought them (αγοραζω ton agorasanta autous). First aorist active articular participle of λυτροω agorazō same idea with ταχινην απωλειαν lutroō in 1 Peter 1:18. These were professing Christians, at any rate, these heretics. Swift destruction (ταχινην tachinēn apōleian). See 2 Peter 1:14 for απωλειαν tachinēn and note repetition of επαγοντες apōleian This is always the tragedy of such false prophets, the fate that they bring on (epagontes) themselves.
Lascivious doings (ασελγειαις aselgeiais). Associative instrumental ease after εχακολουτησουσιν exakolouthēsousin (future active, for which verb see 2 Peter 1:16). See 1 Peter 4:3 for this word.By reason of whom (δι ους di' hous). “Because of whom” (accusative case of relative, referring to πολλοι polloi many). Αυτων Autōn (their) refers to πσευδοδιδασκαλοι pseudodidaskaloi (false teachers) while πολλοι polloi to their deluded followers. See Romans 2:23. for a picture of such conduct by Jews (quotation from Isaiah 52:5, with βλασπημεω blasphēmeō used as here with δι υμας di' humas because of you). The way of truth (η οδος της αλητειας hē hodos tēs alētheias). οδος Hodos (way) occurs often in N.T. for Christianity (Acts 9:2; Acts 16:17; Acts 18:25; Acts 22:4; Acts 24:14). This phrase is in Genesis 24:48 as “the right road,” and that is what Peter means here. So Psalm 119:30. See again 2 Peter 2:15, 2 Peter 2:21.
In covetousness (εν πλεονεχιαι en pleonexiāi). As did Balaam (2 Peter 2:15). These licentious Gnostics made money out of their dupes. A merely intellectual Gnosticism had its fruit in immorality and fraud.With feigned words (πλαστοις λογοις plastois logois). Instrumental case. Πλαστος Plastos is verbal adjective (from πλασσω plassō to mould as from clay, for which see Romans 9:20), here only in N.T. “With forged words.” See sample in 2 Peter 3:4. Shall make merchandise of you (υμας εμπορευσονται humas emporeusontai). Future middle of εμπορευομαι emporeuomai (from εμπορος emporos a travelling merchant), old word, to go in for trade, in N.T. only here and James 4:13, which see. Cf. our emporium (John 2:16, market house). Whose sentence (οις το κριμα hois to krima). “For whom (dative case) the sentence” (verdict, not process κρισις krisis). Now from of old (εκπαλαι ekpalai). Late and common compound adverb, in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 3:5. Lingereth not (ουκ αργει ouk argei). “Is not idle,” old verb, αργεω argeō (from αργος argos not working, alpha privative and εργον ergon), here only in N.T. Slumbereth not (ου νυσταζει ou nustazei). Old and common verb (from νυω nuō to nod), in N.T. only here and Matthew 25:5. Note απωλεια apōleia (destruction) three times in 2 Peter 2:1-3.
For if God spared not (ει γαρ ο τεος ουκ επεισατο ei gar ho theos ouk epheisato). First instance (γαρ gar) of certain doom, that of the fallen angels. Condition of the first class precisely like that in Romans 11:21 save that here the normal apodosis (υμων ου πεισεται humōn ou pheisetai) is not expressed as there, but is simply implied in 2 Peter 2:9 by οιδεν κυριος ρυεσται oiden kurios ruesthai (the Lord knows how to deliver) after the parenthesis in 2 Peter 2:8.Angels when they sinned (αγγελων αμαρτησαντων aggelōn hamartēsantōn). Genitive case after επεισατο epheisato (first aorist middle indicative of πειδομαι pheidomai) and anarthrous (so more emphatic, even angels), first aorist active participle of αμαρτανω hamartanō “having sinned.” Cast them down to hell (ταρταρωσας tartarōsas). First aorist active participle of ταρταροω tartaroō late word (from ταρταρος tartaros old word in Homer, Pindar, lxx Job 40:15; 41:23, Philo, inscriptions, the dark and doleful abode of the wicked dead like the Gehenna of the Jews), found here alone save in a scholion on Homer. Ταρταρος Tartaros occurs in Enoch 20:2 as the place of punishment of the fallen angels, while Gehenna is for apostate Jews. Committed (παρεδωκεν paredōken). First aorist active indicative of παραδιδωμι paradidōmi the very form solemnly used by Paul in Romans 1:21, Romans 1:26, Romans 1:28. To pits of darkness (σειροις ζοπου seirois zophou). οπος Zophos (kin to γνοποσ νεπος gnophosσειραις nephos) is an old word, blackness, gloom of the nether world in Homer, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:17; Judges 1:13; Hebrews 12:18. The MSS. vary between σειρα seirais (σειροις seira chain or rope) and σειρος seirois (Σειροις seiros old word for pit, underground granary). εις κρισιν τηρουμενους Seirois is right (Aleph A B C), dative case of destination. To be reserved unto judgment (τηρεω eis krisin tēroumenous). Present (linear action) passive participle of κολαζομενους τηρειν tēreō “Kept for judgment.” Cf. 1 Peter 1:4. Aleph A have κρισις kolazomenous tērein as in 2 Peter 2:9. Note krisis (act of judgment).
The ancient world (αρχαιου κοσμου archaiou kosmou). Genitive case after επεισατο epheisato (with ει ei understood) repeated (the second example, the deluge). This example not in Jude. Absence of the article is common in the prophetic style like 2 Peter. For αρχαιος archaios see Luke 9:8.Preserved (επυλαχεν ephulaxen). Still part of the long protasis with ει ei first aorist active indicative of πυλασσω phulassō seven others (ογδοον ogdoon). “Eighth,” predicate accusative adjective (ordinal), classic idiom usually with αυτον auton See 1 Peter 3:20 for this same item. Some take ογδοον ogdoon with κηρυκα kēruka (eighth preacher), hardly correct. A preacher of righteousness (δικαιοσυνης κηρυκα dikaiosunēs kēruka). “Herald” as in 1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11 alone in N.T., but κηρυσσω kērussō is common. It is implied in 1 Peter 3:20 that Noah preached to the men of his time during the long years. When he brought (επαχας epaxas). First aorist active participle (instead of the common second aorist active επαγαγων epagagōn) of εισαγω eisagō old compound verb to bring upon, in N.T. only here and Acts 5:28 (by Peter here also). A flood (κατακλυσμον kataklusmon). Old word (from κατακλυζω katakluzō to inundate), only of Noah‘s flood in N.T. (Matthew 24:38.; Luke 17:27; 2 Peter 2:5). Upon the world of the ungodly (κοσμοι ασεβων kosmoi asebōn). Anarthrous and dative case κοσμωι kosmōi The whole world were “ungodly” (ασεβεις asebeis as in 1 Peter 4:18) save Noah‘s family of eight.
Turning into ashes (τεπρωσας tephrōsas). First aorist participle of τεπροω tephroō late word from τεπρα tephra ashes (in Dio Cassius of an eruption of Vesuvius, Philo), here alone in N.T.The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (πολεις Σοδομων και Γομορρας poleis Sodomōn kai Gomorrās). Genitive of apposition after πολεις poleis (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Judges 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Genesis 19:24. Condemned them (κατεκρινεν katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω katakrinō still part of the protasis with ει ei an overthrow (καταστροπηι katastrophēi). Instrumental case or even dative like τανατωι thanatōi with κατακρινω katakrinō in Matthew 20:18. But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic. Having made them (τετεικως tetheikōs). Perfect active participle of τιτημι tithēmi example (υποδειγμα hupodeigma). For which see James 5:10; John 13:15. Cf. 1 Peter 2:21. Unto those that should live ungodly (μελλοντων ασεβεσιν mellontōn asebesin). Rather, “unto ungodly men of things about to be” (see Hebrews 11:20 for this use of μελλοντων mellontōn). But Aleph A C K L read ασεβειν asebein (present active infinitive) with μελλοντων mellontōn = ασεβησοντων asebēsontōn (future active participle of ασεβεω asebeō), from which we have our translation.
And delivered (και ερυσατο kai erusato). First aorist middle of ρυομαι ruomai as in Matthew 6:13, still part of the protasis with ει ei Lot (δικαιον Λοτ dikaion Lot). This adjective δικαιος dikaios occurs three times in 2 Peter 2:7, 2 Peter 2:8. See Wisdom 10:6.Sore distressed (καταπονουμενον kataponoumenon). Present passive participle of καταπονεω kataponeō late and common verb, to work down, to exhaust with labor, to distress, in N.T. only here and Acts 7:24. By the lascivious life of the wicked (υπο της των ατεσμων εν ασελγειαι αναστροπης hupo tēs tōn athesmōn en aselgeiāi anastrophēs). “By the life in lasciviousness of the lawless.” Ατεσμος Athesmos (alpha privative and τεσμος thesmos), late and common adjective (cf. ατεμιτος athemitos 1 Peter 4:3) for rebels against law (of nature and conscience here). Αναστροπη Anastrophē is frequent in 1 Peter.
For (γαρ gar). Parenthetical explanation in 2 Peter 2:8 of the remark about Lot.Dwelling (ενκατοικων enkatoikōn). Present active participle of ενκατοικεω enkatoikeō old but rare double compound, here only in N.T. In seeing and hearing (βλεμματι και ακοηι blemmati kai akoēi). “By sight (instrumental case of βλεμμα blemma old word, from βλεπω blepō to see, here only in N.T.) and hearing” (instrumental case of ακοη akoē from ακουω akouō to hear, common as Matthew 13:14). From day to day (ημεραν εχ ημερας hēmeran ex hēmerās). “Day in day out.” Accusative of time and ablative with εχ ex Same idiom in Psalm 96:2 for the more common εχ ημερας εις ημεραν ex hēmeras eis hēmeran (εβασανιζεν ebasanizen). Imperfect active (kept on vexing) of βασανιζω basanizō old word, to test metals, to torment (Matthew 8:29). With their lawless deeds (ανομοις εργοις anomois ergois). Instrumental case of cause, “because of their lawless (contrary to law) deeds.” For ανομος anomos see 2 Thessalonians 2:8.
The Lord knoweth how (οιδεν κυριος oiden kurios). The actual apodosis of the long protasis begun in 2 Peter 2:4. God can deliver his servants as shown by Noah and Lot and he will deliver you. The idiomatic use of οιδα oida and the infinitive (ρυεσται ruesthai present middle and see 2 Peter 2:7) for knowing how as in Matthew 7:11; James 4:17.The godly (ευσεβεις eusebeis). Old anarthrous adjective (from ευ eu and σεβομαι sebomai to worship), in N.T. only here and Acts 10:2, Acts 10:7 (by Peter). For temptation (πειρασμου peirasmou) see James 1:2, James 1:12; 1 Peter 1:6. To keep (τηρειν tērein). Present active infinitive of τηρεω tēreō after οιδεν oiden (αδικους adikous). As in 1 Peter 3:18. Under punishment (κολαζομενους kolazomenous). Present passive participle of κολαζω kolazō old verb (from κολος kolos lopped off), in N.T. only here and Acts 4:21. Present tense emphasises continuity of the punishment. See κολασιν αιωνιον kolasin aiōnion in Matthew 25:46.
Chiefly (μαλιστα malista). Especially. He turns now to the libertine heretics (2 Peter 2:2, 2 Peter 2:7).After the flesh (οπισω σαρκος opisō sarkos). Hebraistic use of οπισω opisō as with αμαρτιων hamartiōn (sins) in Isaiah 65:2. Cf. Matthew 4:19; 1 Timothy 5:15. Of defilement (μιασμου miasmou). Old word (from μιαινω miainō Titus 1:15), here only in N.T. Despise dominion (κυριοτητος καταπρονουντας kuriotētos kataphronountas). Κυριοτης Kuriotēs is late word for lordship (perhaps God or Christ) (from Κυριος Kurios), in Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 1:21; Judges 1:8. Genitive case after καταπρουντας kataphrountas (thinking down on, Matthew 6:24). Daring (τολμηται tolmētai). Old substantive (from τολμαω tolmaō to dare), daring men, here only in N.T. Self-willed (αυταδεις authadeis). Old adjective (from αυτος autos and ηδομαι hēdomai), self-pleasing, arrogant, in N.T. only here and Titus 1:7. They tremble not to rail at dignities (δοχας ου τρεμουσιν βλασπημουντες doxas ou tremousin blasphēmountes). “They tremble not blaspheming dignities.” Τρεμω Tremō is old verb (Mark 5:33), used only in present as here and imperfect. Here with the complementary participle βλασπημουντες blasphēmountes rather than the infinitive βλασπημειν blasphēmein See Judges 1:8. Perhaps these dignities (δοχας doxas) are angels (εςιλ evil).
Whereas (οπου hopou). Loose use of οπου hopou (in Xenophon) = “wherein.”Though greater (μειζονες οντες meizones ontes). Than the evil δοχαι doxai Concessive participle and comparative adjective. In might and strength (ισχυι και δυναμει ischui kai dunamei). Locative case. Both indwelling strength (ισχυς ischus Mark 12:30) and ability (δυναμις dunamis Matthew 25:15). Railing judgment (βλασπεμον κρισιν blasphemon krisin). “Blasphemous accusation.” Against them (κατ αυτων kat' autōn). The evil angels (δοχαι doxai). Before the Lord (παρα κυριωι para kuriōi). In God‘s presence. See Judges 1:9 and possibly Enoch 9.
But these (ουτοι δε houtoi de). The false teachers of 2 Peter 2:1.As creatures (ζωα zōa). Living creatures, old word, from ζωος zōos (alive), Judges 1:10; Revelation 4:6-9. Without reason (αλογα aloga). Old adjective, in N.T. only here, Judges 1:10; Acts 25:27. Brute beasts like τηρια thēria (wild animals). Born (γεγεννημενα gegennēmena). Perfect passive participle of γενναω gennaō animals (πυσικα phusika). Old adjective in ικος ̇ikos (from πυσις phusis nature), natural animals, here only in N.T. To be taken (εις αλωσιν eis halōsin). “For capture” (old substantive, from αλοω haloō here only in N.T.). And destroyed (και πτοραν kai phthoran). “And for destruction” just like a beast of prey caught. See 2 Peter 1:4. In matters whereof they are ignorant (εν οις αγνοουσιν en hois agnoousin). “In which things they are ignorant.” Here εν οις en hois = εν τουτοις α en toutois ha (in those things which), a common Greek idiom. For αγνοεω agnoeō (present active indicative) see 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 1 Timothy 1:7 for a like picture of loud ignoramuses posing as professional experts. Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed (εν τηι πτοραι αυτων πταρησονται en tēi phthorāi autōn phtharēsontai). Second future passive of πτειρω phtheirō Rhetorical Hebraism in the use of εν πτοραι en phthorāi (same root as πτειρω phtheirō), word four times in 2 Peter. See Judges 1:10.
Suffering wrong (αδικουμενοι adikoumenoi). Present middle or passive participle of αδικεω adikeō to do wrong. So Aleph B P, but A C K L have κομιουμενοι komioumenoi (future middle participle of κομιζω komizō), shall receive.As the hire of wrong-doing (μιστον αδικιας misthon adikias). The Elephantine papyrus has the passive of αδικεω adikeō in the sense of being defrauded, and that may be the idea here. Peter plays on words again here as often in 2 Peter. The picture proceeds now with participles like ηγουμενοι hēgoumenoi (counting). Pleasure (ηδονην hēdonēn). See James 4:1, James 4:3. To revel in the daytime (την εν ημεραι τρυπην tēn en hēmerāi truphēn). “The in the daytime revel” (old word τρυπη truphē from τρυπτω thruptō to enervate, in N.T. only here and Luke 7:25). Spots (σπιλοι spiloi). Old word for disfiguring spot, in N.T. only here and Ephesians 5:27. Blemishes (μωμοι mōmoi). Old word for blot (kin to μυω muō), only here in N.T. See 1 Peter 1:19 for αμωμος και ασπιλος amōmos kai aspilos (εντρυπωντες entruphōntes). Present active participle of εντρυπαω entruphaō old compound for living in luxury, only here in N.T. In their love-feasts (εν ταις αγαπαις en tais agapais). So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read απαταις apatais (in their deceivings). If αγαπαις agapais is genuine as it is in Judges 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of αγαπη agapē they feast with you (συνευωχουμενοι suneuōchoumenoi). Present passive participle of late and rare verb συνευωχεω suneuōcheō (συν sun together, and ευωχεω euōcheō to feed abundantly) to entertain with. Clement of Alex. (Paed. ii. I. 6) applies ευωχια euōchia to the αγαπη agapē f0).
Of adultery (μοιχαλιδος moichalidos). Rather, “of an adulteress,” like James 4:4. Vivid picture of a man who cannot see a woman without lascivious thoughts toward her (Mayor). Cf. Matthew 5:28.That cannot cease (ακαταπαστους akatapastous). Reading of A B in place of ακαταπαυστους akatapaustous (alpha privative and verbal of καταπαυω katapauō to cease). “Unable to stop.” This a late verbal, only here in N.T. It is probable that ακαταπαστους akatapastous is merely a misspelling of ακαταπαυστους akatapaustous sin (αμαρτιας hamartias). Ablative case as in 1 Peter 4:1 (αμαρτιας hamartias). Insatiable lust. Enticing (δελεαζοντες deleazontes). Present active participle of δελεαζω deleazō to catch by bait as in 2 Peter 2:18; James 1:14. Unsteadfast (αστηρικτους astēriktous). Late verbal adjective (alpha privative and στηριζω stērizō), in Longinus and Vettius Valens, here alone in N.T. Exercised (γεγυμνασμενην gegumnasmenēn). Perfect passive predicate participle with εχοντες echontes from γυμναζω gumnazō precisely as in Hebrews 5:14. Rhetorical metaphor from the gymnasium. In covetousness (πλεονεχιας pleonexias). Genitive case after the participle. Children of cursing (καταρας τεκνα kataras tekna). Hebraism like τεκνα υπακοης tekna hupakoēs in 1 Peter 1:14 = accursed (καταρατοι kataratoi).
Forsaking (καταλειποντες kataleipontes). Present active participle of καταλειπω kataleipō (continually leaving) or καταλιποντες katalipontes (second aorist active), having left.The right way (ευτειαν οδον eutheian hodon). “The straight way” of 1 Samuel 12:23 (cf. Matthew 7:13. for this use of οδος hodos), “the way of truth” (2 Peter 2:2). They went astray (επλανητησαν eplanēthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of πλαναω planaō like Mark 12:24. The way of Balaam (τηι οδωι του αλααμ tēi hodōi tou Balaam). Associative instrumental case after εχακολουτησαντες exakolouthēsantes for which verb see 2 Peter 1:16; 2 Peter 2:2. These false teachers, as shown in 2 Peter 2:13, followed the way of Balaam, “who loved the hire of wrong-doing” (ος μιστον αδικιας ηγαπησεν hos misthon adikias ēgapēsen).
But he was rebuked (ελεγχιν δε εσχεν elegxin de eschen). “But he had rebuke.” Second aorist active indicative of εχω echō and accusative of ελεγχις elegxis (late word from ελεγχω elegchō a periphrasis for ελεγχω elegchō here only in N.T.For his own transgression (ιδιας παρανομιας idias paranomias). Objective genitive of παρανομια paranomia old word (from παρανομος paranomos lawbreaker), here only in N.T. A dumb ass (υποζυγιον απωνον hupozugion aphōnon). Dumb is without voice, old word for idols and beasts. The adjective υποζυγιος hupozugios (υπο ζυγον ον hupo zugon on) “being under a yoke,” is applied to the ass as the common beast of burden (papyri, Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 160), in N.T. only here and Matthew 21:5. Spake (πτεγχαμενον phthegxamenon). First aorist middle participle of πτεγγομαι phtheggomai old verb, to utter a sound, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:18, Acts 4:18. Stayed (εκωλυσεν ekōlusen). First aorist active indicative of κωλυω kōluō to hinder. Madness (παραπρονιαν paraphronian). Only known example of this word instead of the usual παραπροσυνη paraphrosunē or παραπρονησις paraphronēsis It is being beside one‘s wits.
Without water (ανυδροι anudroi). As in Matthew 12:43; Luke 11:24. Old word for common and disappointing experience of travellers in the orient.Mists (ομιχλαι homichlai). Old word for fog, here alone in N.T. Driven by a storm (υπο λαιλαπος ελαυνομεναι hupo lailapos elaunomenai). Λαιλαπς Lailaps is a squall (Mark 4:37; Luke 8:23, only other N.T. examples). See James 3:4 for another example of ελαυνω elaunō for driving power of wind and waves. For whom (οις hois). Dative case of personal interest. The blackness (ο ζοπος ho zophos). See 2 Peter 2:4 for this word. Hath been reserved (τετηρηται tetērētai). Perfect passive participle of τηρεω tēreō for which see 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:9.
Great swelling words (υπερογκα huperogka). Old compound adjective (υπερ huper and ογκος ogkos a swelling, swelling above and beyond), in N.T. only here and Judges 1:16.Of vanity (ματαιοτητος mataiotētos). Late and rare word (from ματαιος mataios empty, vain), often in lxx, in N.T. here, Romans 8:20; Ephesians 4:17. By lasciviousness (ασελγειαις aselgeiais). Instrumental plural, “by lascivious acts.” Note asyndeton as in 2 Peter 1:9, 2 Peter 1:17. Those who are just escaping (τους ολιγως αποπευγοντας tous oligōs apopheugontas). So A B read ολιγως oligōs (slightly, a little), while Aleph C K L P read οντως ontōs (actually). Ολιγως Oligōs late and rare, only here in N.T. So again the Textus Receptus has αποπυγοντας apophugontas (second aorist active participle, clean escaped) while the correct text is the present active αποπευγοντας apopheugontas them that live in error (τους εν πλανηι αναστρεπομενους tous en planēi anastrephomenous). Accusative case after αποπευγοντας apopheugontas (escaping from) according to regular idiom. Peter often uses αναστρεπω anastrephō and αναστροπη anastrophē f0).
Liberty (ελευτεριαν eleutherian). Promising “personal liberty,” that is license, after the fashion of advocates of liquor today, not the freedom of truth in Christ (John 8:32; Galatians 5:1, Galatians 5:13).Themselves bondservants (αυτοι δουλοι autoi douloi). “Themselves slaves” of corruption and sin as Paul has it in Romans 6:20. Of whom (ωι hōi). Instrumental case, but it may mean “of what.” Is overcome (ηττηται hēttētai). Perfect passive indicative of ητταω hēttaō (from ηττων hēttōn less) old verb, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Corinthians 12:13. Of the same (τουτωι toutōi). “By this one (or thing).” Is brought into bondage (δεδουλωται dedoulōtai). Perfect passive indicative of δουλοω douloō Like Paul again (Romans 6:16, Romans 6:18; Romans 8:21).
After they have escaped (αποπυγοντες apophugontes). Second aorist active participle here (see 2 Peter 2:18).The defilements (τα μιασματα ta miasmata). Old word miasma, from μιαινω miainō here only in N.T. Our “miasma.” The body is sacred to God. Cf. μιασμου miasmou in 2 Peter 2:10. They are again entangled (παλιν εμπλακεντες palin emplakentes). Second aorist passive participle of εμπλεκω emplekō old verb, to inweave (noosed, fettered), in N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:4. Overcome (ηττωνται hēttōntai). Present passive indicative of ητταοω hēttaoō for which see 2 Peter 2:19, “are repeatedly worsted.” Predicate in the condition of first class with ει ei It is not clear whether the subject here is “the deluded victims” (Bigg) or the false teachers themselves (Mayor). See Hebrews 10:26 for a parallel. Therein (τουτοις toutois). So locative case (in these “defilements”), but it can be instrumental case (“by these,” Strachan). With them (αυτοις autois). Dative of disadvantage, “for them.” Than the first (των πρωτων tōn prōtōn). Ablative case after the comparative χειρονα cheirona See this moral drawn by Jesus (Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26).
It were better (κρειττον ην kreitton ēn). Apodosis of a condition of second class without αν an as is usual with clauses of possibility, propriety, obligation (Matthew 26:24; 1 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 7:7; Hebrews 9:26).Not to have known (μη επεγνωκεναι mē epegnōkenai). Perfect active infinitive of επιγινωσκω epiginōskō (cf. επιγνωσει epignōsei 2 Peter 2:20) to know fully. The way of righteousness (την οδον της δικαιοσυνης tēn hodon tēs dikaiosunēs). For the phrase see Matthew 21:33, also the way of truth (2 Peter 2:2), the straight way (2 Peter 2:15). After knowing it (επιγνουσιν epignousin). Second aorist active participle of επιγινωσκω epiginōskō (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with αυτοις autois (for them). To turn back (υποστρεπσαι hupostrepsai). First aorist active infinitive of υποστρεπω hupostrephō old and common verb, to turn back, to return. From (εκ ek). Out of. So in Acts 12:25 with υποστρεπω hupostrephō With ablative case. See Romans 7:12 for αγια hagia applied to η εντολη hē entolē (cf. 1 Timothy 6:14). 2 Peter strikes a high ethical note (2 Peter 1:5.). Delivered (παραδοτεισης paradotheisēs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμι paradidōmi f0).
It has happened (συμβεβηκεν sumbebēken). Perfect active indicative of συμβαινω sumbainō for which see 1 Peter 4:12.According to the true proverb (το της αλητους παροιμιας to tēs alēthous paroimias). “The word (το to used absolutely, the matter of, as in Matthew 21:21; James 4:14) of the true proverb” (παροιμια paroimia a wayside saying, for which see John 10:6; John 16:25, John 16:29). The first proverb here given comes from Proverbs 26:11. Εχεραμα Exerama is a late and rare word (here only in N.T., in Diosc. and Eustath.) from εχεραω exeraō to vomit. The sow that had washed (ς λουσαμενη hūs lousamenē). ς Hūs old word for hog, here only in N.T. Participle first aorist direct middle of λουω louō shows that it is feminine (anarthrous). This second proverb does not occur in the O.T., probably from a Gentile source because about the habit of hogs. Epictetus and other writers moralize on the habit of hogs, having once bathed in a filthy mud-hole, to delight in it. To wallowing (εις κυλισμον eis kulismon). “To rolling.” Late and rare word (from κυλιω kuliō Mark 9:20), here only in N.T. In the mire (βορβορου borborou). Objective genitive, old word for dung, mire, here only in N.T. J. Rendel Harris (Story of Ahikar, p. LXVII) tells of a story about a hog that went to the bath with people of quality, but on coming out saw a stinking drain and went and rolled himself in it.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 2 Peter 2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany