He began to speak unto them in parables (ηρχατο αυτοις εν παραβολαις λαλειν ērxato autois en parabolais lalein). Mark‘s common idiom again. He does not mean that this was the beginning of Christ‘s use of parables See note on Mark 4:2), but simply that his teaching on this occasion took the parabolic turn. “The circumstances called forth the parabolic mood, that of one whose heart is chilled, and whose spirit is saddened by a sense of loneliness, and who, retiring within himself, by a process of reflection, frames for his thoughts forms which half conceal, half reveal them” (Bruce). Mark does not give the Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32) nor that of the Marriage Feast of the King‘s Son (Matthew 22:1-14). He gives here the Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen. Also in Matthew 21:33-46 and Luke 20:9-19. See discussion in Matthew. Matthew 21:33 calls the man “a householder” (οικοδεσποτης oikodespotēs).A pit for the winepress (υποληνιον hupolēnion). Only here in the N.T. Common in the lxx and in late Greek. Matthew had ληνον lēnon winepress. This is the vessel or trough under the winepress on the hillside to catch the juice when the grapes were trodden. The Romans called it lacus (lake) and Wycliff dalf (lake), like delved. See note on Matthew for details just alike. Husbandmen (γεωργοις geōrgois). Workers in the ground, tillers of the soil (εργον γη ergon gē).
At the season (τωι καιρωι tōi kairōi). For fruits as in the end of the sentence.A servant (δουλον doulon). Bondslave. Matthew has plural. That he might receive (ινα λαβηι hina labēi). Purpose clause with second aorist subjunctive. Matthew has infinitive λαβειν labein purpose also. Wounded in the head (εκεπαλιωσαν ekephaliōsan). An old verb (κεπαλαιω kephalaiō), to bring under heads (κεπαλη kephalē), to summarize. Then to hit on the head. Only here in the N.T.
Beating some and killing some (ους μεν δεροντεσ ους δε αποκτεννυντες hous men derontes ον μεν ον δε ον δε hous de apoktennuntes). This distributive use of the demonstrative appears also in Matthew 21:35 in the singular (δερω hon men Αποκτεννυντες hon de μι hon de). Originally αποκτεννυμι derō in Homer meant to skin, flay, then to smite, to beat. Apoktennuntes is a mi form of the verb (apoktennumi) and means to kill off.
A beloved son (υιον αγαπητον huion agapēton). Luke 20:13 has τον υιον τον αγαπητον ton huion ton agapēton Jesus evidently has in mind the language of the Father to him at his baptism (Mark 1:11; Matthew 3:17; Luke 3:22).Last (εσχατον eschaton). Only in Mark. See Matthew 21:35 for discussion of “reverence.”
Among themselves (προς εαυτους pros heautous). This phrase alone in Mark. Luke 20:14 has “with one another” (προς αλληλους pros allēlous), reciprocal instead of reflexive, pronoun.
Killed him and cast him forth (απεκτειναν αυτον και εχεβαλον αυτον apekteinan auton kai exebalon auton). Matthew and Luke reverse the order, cast forth and killed.
This scripture (την γραπην ταυτην tēn graphēn tautēn). This passage of scripture (Luke 4:21; John 19:37; Acts 1:16). It is a quotation from Psalm 118:22. See Matthew 21:42 for discussion.
This (αυτη hautē). Feminine in lxx may refer to τουτο kephalē (head) or may be due to the Hebrew original zōth (this thing) which would be neuter touto in a Greek original, a translation Hebraism.
Against them (προς αυτους pros autous). So Luke. It was a straight shot, this parable of the Rejected Stone (Mark 12:10.) and the longer one of the Wicked Husbandmen. There was no mistaking the application, for he had specifically explained the application (Matthew 21:43-45). The Sanhedrin were so angry that they actually started or sought to seize him, but fear of the populace now more enthusiastic for Jesus than ever held them back. They went off in disgust, but they had to listen to the Parable of the King‘s Son before going (Matthew 22:1-14).
That they might catch him in talk (ινα αυτον αγρευσωσιν λογωι hina auton agreusōsin logōi). Ingressive aorist subjunctive. The verb is late from αγρα agra (a hunt or catching). It appears in the lxx and papyri. Here alone in the N.T. Luke 20:20 has the same idea, “that they may take hold of his speech” (επιλαβωνται αυτου λογον epilabōntai autou logon) while Matthew 22:15 uses παγιδευσωσιν pagideusōsin (to snare or trap). See discussion in Matthew. We have seen the scribes and Pharisees trying to do this very thing before (Luke 11:33.). Mark and Matthew note here the combination of Pharisees and Herodians as Mark did in Mark 3:6. Matthew speaks of “disciples” or pupils of the Pharisees while Luke calls them “spies” (ενκατετους enkathetous).
Shall we give or shall we not give? (δωμεν η μη δωμεν dōmen ē mē dōmeṉ). Mark alone repeats the question in this sharp form. The deliberative subjunctive, aorist tense active voice. For the discussion of the palaver and flattery of this group of theological students see Matthew 22:16-22.
Knowing their hypocrisy (ειδως αυτων την υποχρισιν eidōs autōn tēn hupocrisin). Matthew 22:18 has “perceived their wickedness” (γνους την πονηριαν αυτων gnous tēn ponērian autōn) while Luke 20:23 says, “perceived their craftiness” (κατανοησας αυτων την πανουργιαν katanoēsas autōn tēn panourgian). Each of these words throws a flash-light on the spirit and attitude of these young men. They were sly, shrewd, slick, but they did not deceive Jesus with their pious palaver. See notes on Matthew for further details.
Marvelled greatly at him (εχεταυμαζον επ αυτωι exethaumazon ep' autōi). Imperfect tense with perfective use of the preposition εχ ex Both Matthew and Luke use the ingressive aorist. Luke adds that they “held their peace” (εσιγησαν esigēsan) while Matthew notes that they “went their way” (απηλταν apēlthan), went off or away.
There come unto him Sadducees (ερχονται Σαδδουκαιοι προς αυτον erchontai Saddoukaioi pros auton). Dramatic present. The Pharisees and Herodians had had their turn after the formal committee of the Sanhedrin had been so completely routed. It was inevitable that they should feel called upon to show their intellectual superiority to these raw Pharisaic and Herodian theologians. See Matthew 22:23-33 for discussion of details. It was a good time to air their disbelief in the resurrection at the expense of the Pharisees and to score against Jesus where the Sanhedrin and then the Pharisees and Herodians had failed so ignominiously.
Moses wrote (Μωυσης εγραπσεν Mōusēs egrapsen). So Luke 20:28 (Genesis 38:8; Deuteronomy 25:5.). Matthew has “said” (ειπεν eipen).
Took a wife (ελαβεν γυναικα elaben gunaika). So Luke 20:29. Matthew has “married” (γημας gēmas).
Last of all (εσχατον παντων eschaton pantōn). Adverbial use of εσχατον eschaton f0).
To wife (γυναικα gunaika). Predicate accusative in apposition with “her” (αυτην autēn). So Luke, but Matthew merely has “had her” (εσχον αυτην eschon autēn), constative aorist indicative active.
Is it not for this cause that ye err? (Ου δια τουτο πλαναστε Ou dia touto planāsthe̱). Mark puts it as a question with ου ou expecting the affirmative answer. Matthew puts it as a positive assertion: “Ye are.” Πλαναομαι Planaomai is to wander astray (cf. our word planet, wandering stars, αστερες πλανηται asteres planētai Judges 1:13) like the Latin errare (our error, err).That ye know not the scriptures (μη ειδοτες τας γραπας mē eidotes tas graphas). The Sadducees posed as men of superior intelligence and knowledge in opposition to the traditionalists among the Pharisees with their oral law. And yet on this very point they were ignorant of the Scriptures. How much error today is due to this same ignorance among the educated! Nor the power of God (μηδε την δυναμιν του τεου mēde tēn dunamin tou theou). The two kinds of ignorance generally go together (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:34).
When they shall rise from the dead (οταν εκ νεκρων αναστωσιν hotan ek nekrōn anastōsin). Second aorist active subjunctive with οταν hotan (οτε hote plus αν an). Matthew 22:30 has it “in the resurrection,” Luke 20:35 “to attain to the resurrection.” The Pharisees regarded the future resurrection body as performing marriage functions, as Mohammedans do today. The Pharisees were in error on this point. The Sadducees made this one of their objections to belief in the resurrection body, revealing thus their own ignorance of the true resurrection body and the future life where marriage functions do not exist.As angels in heaven (ως αγγελοι εν τωι ουρανωι hōs aggeloi en tōi ouranōi). So Matthew 22:30. Luke 20:36 has “equal unto the angels” (ισαγγελοι isaggeloi). “Their equality with angels consists in their deliverance from mortality and its consequences” (Swete). The angels are directly created, not procreated.
In the place concerning the Bush (επι του βατου epi tou batou). This technical use of επι epi is good Greek, in the matter of, in the passage about, the Bush. ατος Batos is masculine here, feminine in Luke 20:37. The reference is to Exodus 3:3-6 (in the book of Moses, εν τηι βιβλωι en tēi biblōi).
Ye do greatly err (πολυ πλαναστε polu planāsthe). Only in Mark. Solemn, severe, impressive, but kindly close (Bruce).
Heard them questioning together (ακουσας αυτων συνζητουντων akousas autōn sunzētountōn). The victory of Christ over the Sadducees pleased the Pharisees who now had come back with mixed emotions over the new turn of things (Matthew 22:34). Luke 20:39 represents one of the scribes as commending Jesus for his skilful reply to the Sadducees. Mark here puts this scribe in a favourable light, “knowing that he had answered them well” (ειδως οτι καλως απεκριτη αυτοις eidōs hoti kalōs apekrithē autois). “Them” here means the Sadducees. But Matthew 22:35 says that this lawyer (νομικος nomikos) was “tempting” (πειραζων peirazōn) by his question. “A few, among whom was the scribe, were constrained to admire, even if they were willing to criticize, the Rabbi who though not himself a Pharisee, surpassed the Pharisees as a champion of the truth.” That is a just picture of this lawyer.The first of all (πρωτη παντων prōtē pantōn). First in rank and importance. Matthew 22:36 has “great” (μεγαλη megalē). See discussion there. Probably Jesus spoke in Aramaic. “First” and “great” in Greek do not differ essentially here. Mark quotes Deuteronomy 6:4f. as it stands in the lxx and also Leviticus 19:18. Matthew 22:40 adds the summary: “On these two commandments hangeth (κρεμαται krematai) the whole law and the prophets.”
And the scribe said (ειπεν αυτωι ο γραμματευς eipen autōi ho grammateus). Mark alone gives the reply of the scribe to Jesus which is a mere repetition of what Jesus had said about the first and the second commandments with the additional allusion to 1 Samuel 15:22 about love as superior to whole burnt offerings.Well (καλως kalōs). Not to be taken with “saidst” (ειπες eipes) as the Revised Version has it following Wycliff. Probably καλως kalōs (well) is exclamatory. “Fine, Teacher. Of a truth (επ αλητειας ep' alētheias) didst thou say.”
Discreetly (νουνεχως nounechōs). From νους nous (intellect) and εχω echō to have. Using the mind to good effect is what the adverb means. He had his wits about him, as we say. Here only in the N.T. In Aristotle and Polybius. Νουνεχοντως Nounechontōs would be the more regular form, adverb from a participle.Not far (ου μακραν ou makran). Adverb, not adjective, feminine accusative, a long way (οδον hodon understood). The critical attitude of the lawyer had melted before the reply of Jesus into genuine enthusiasm that showed him to be near the kingdom of God. No man after that (ουδεις ουκετι oudeis ouketi). Double negative. The debate was closed (ετολμα etolma imperfect tense, dared). Jesus was complete victor on every side.
How say the scribes (Πως λεγουσιν οι γραμματεις Pōs legousin hoi grammateis). The opponents of Jesus are silenced, but he answers them and goes on teaching (διδασκων didaskōn) in the temple as before the attacks began that morning (Mark 11:27). They no longer dare to question Jesus, but he has one to put to them “while the Pharisees were gathered together” (Matthew 22:41). The question is not a conundrum or scriptural puzzle (Gould), but “He contents himself with pointing out a difficulty, in the solution of which lay the key to the whole problem of His person and work” (Swete). The scribes all taught that the Messiah was to be the son of David (John 7:41). The people in the Triumphal Entry had acclaimed Jesus as the son of David (Matthew 21:9). But the rabbis had overlooked the fact that David in Psalm 110:1 called the Messiah his Lord also. The deity and the humanity of the Messiah are both involved in the problem. Matthew 22:45 observes that “no one was able to answer him a word.”
The footstool (υποποδιον hupopodion). Westcott and Hort read υποκατω hupokatō (under) after Aleph B D L.
The common people heard him gladly (ο πολυς οχλος ηκουεν αυτου εδεως ho polus ochlos ēkouen autou hedeōs). Literally, the much multitude (the huge crowd) was listening (imperfect tense) to him gladly. Mark alone has this item. The Sanhedrin had begun the formal attack that morning to destroy the influence of Jesus with the crowds whose hero he now was since the Triumphal Entry. It had been a colossal failure. The crowds were drawn closer to him than before.
Beware of the scribes (βλεπετε απο των γραμματεων blepete apo tōn grammateōn). Jesus now turns to the multitudes and to his disciples (Matthew 23:1) and warns them against the scribes and the Pharisees while they are still there to hear his denunciation. The scribes were the professional teachers of the current Judaism and were nearly all Pharisees. Mark (Mark 14:38-40) gives a mere summary sketch of this bold and terrific indictment as preserved in Matthew 23 in words that fairly blister today. Luke 20:45-47 follows Mark closely. See note on Mark 8:15 for this same use of βλεπετε απο blepete apo with the ablative. It is usually called a translation-Hebraism, a usage not found with βλεπω blepō in the older Greek. But the papyri give it, a vivid vernacular idiom. “Beware of the Jews” (βλεπε σατον απο των Ιουδαιων blepe saton apo tōn Ioudaiōn Berl. G. U. 1079. a.d. 41). See Robertson, Grammar, p. 577. The pride of the pompous scribes is itemized by Mark:To walk in long robes (στολαις stolais), stoles, the dress of dignitaries like kings and priests. Salutations in the marketplaces (ασπασμους εν ταις αγοραις aspasmous en tais agorais), where the people could see their dignity recognized.
First seats in the synagogues (πρωτοκατεδριας prōtokathedrias). As a mark of special piety, seats up in front while now the hypocrites present in church prefer the rear seats.Chief places at feasts (πρωτοκλισιας εν τοις δειπνοις prōtoklisias en tois deipnois). Recognizing proper rank and station. Even the disciples fall victims to this desire for precedence at table (Luke 22:24).
Devour widows‘ houses (οι κατεστοντες τας οικιας των χηρων hoi katesthontes tās oikias tōn chērōn). New sentence in the nominative. Terrible pictures of civil wrong by graft grabbing the homes of helpless widows. They inveigled widows into giving their homes to the temple and took it for themselves.For a pretence make long prayers (προπασει μακρα προσευχομενοι prophasei makra proseuchomenoi). Προπασει Prophasei instrumental case of the same word (προπημι prophēmi) from which prophet comes, but here pretext, pretence of extra piety while robbing the widows and pushing themselves to the fore. Some derive it from προπαινω prophainō to show forth. Greater (περισσοτερον perissoteron). More abundant condemnation. Some comfort in that at any rate.
Sat down over against the treasury (κατισας κατεναντι του γαζοπυλακιου kathisas katenanti tou gazophulakiou). The storm is over. The Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians, scribes, have all slunk away in terror ere the closing words. Mark draws this immortal picture of the weary Christ sitting by the treasury (compound word in the lxx from γαζα gaza Persian word for treasure, and πυλακη phulakē guard, so safe for gifts to be deposited).Beheld (ετεωρει etheōrei). Imperfect tense. He was watching how the multitude cast money (πως ο οχλος βαλλει pōs ho ochlos ballei) into the treasury. The rich were casting in (εβαλλον eballon imperfect tense) as he watched.
One poor widow (μια χηρα πτωχη mia chēra ptōchē). Luke has πενιχρα penichra a poetical late form of πενης penēs In the N.T. the πτωχος ptōchos is the pauper rather than the mere peasant, the extreme opposite of the rich (πλουσιοι plousioi). The money given by most was copper (χαλκον chalkon).Two mites (δυο λεπτα duo lepta). Λεπτος Leptos means peeled or stripped and so very thin. Two λεπτα lepta were about two-fifths of a cent. Farthing (κοδραντες kodrantes Latin quadrans, a quarter of an as).
Called unto him (προσκαλεσαμενος proskalesamenos). Indirect middle voice. The disciples themselves had slipped away from him while the terrific denunciation of the scribes and Pharisees had gone on, puzzled at this turn of affairs.More than all (πλειον παντων pleion pantōn). Ablative of comparison (παντων pantōn). It may mean, more than all the rich put together. All that she had (παντα οσα ειχεν panta hosa eichen). Imperfect tense. Cast in (εβαλεν ebalen). Aorist tense, in sharp contrast. All her living (ολον τον βιον αυτης holon ton bion autēs). Her livelihood (βιος bios), not her life (ζωη zōē). It is a tragedy to see a stingy saint pose as giving the widow‘s mite when he could give thousands instead of pennies.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Mark 12". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Sunday after Epiphany