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Bible Commentaries

Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the Gospels

Luke 8

Verses 1-3

LET us mark, in these verses, our Lord Jesus Christ’s unwearied diligence in doing good. We read that "He went throughout every city and village, preaching and showing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God." We know the reception that He met with in many places. We know that while some believed, many believed not. But man’s unbelief did not move our Lord, or hinder His working. He was always "about His Father’s business." Short as His earthly ministry was in point of duration, it was long when we consider the work that it comprised.

Let the diligence of Christ be an example to all Christians. Let us follow in His steps, however far we may come short of His perfection. Like Him, let us labor to do good in our day and generation, and to leave the world a better world than we found it. It is not for nothing that the Scripture says expressly: "He that abideth in him ought himself also so to walk even as he walked." (1 John 2:6.)

Time is undoubtedly short. But much is to be done with time, if it is well economized and properly arranged. Few have an idea how much can be done in twelve hours, if men will stick to their business and avoid idleness and frivolity. Then let us, like our Lord, be diligent, and "redeem the time."

Time is undoubtedly short. But it is the only season in which Christians can do any active work of mercy. In the world to come there will be no ignorant to instruct, no mourners to comfort, no spiritual darkness to enlighten, no distress to relieve, no sorrow to make less. Whatever work we do of this kind must be done on this side of the grave. Let us awake to a sense of our individual responsibility. Souls are perishing, and time is flying! Let us resolve, by God’s grace, to do something for God’s glory before we die. Once more let us remember our Lord’s example, and, like Him, be diligent and "redeem the time."

Let us mark, secondly, in these verses, the power of the grace of God, and the constraining influence of the love of Christ. We read that among those who followed our Lord in his journeyings, were "certain women which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities."

We can well imagine that the difficulties these holy women had to face in becoming Christ’s disciples were neither few nor small. They had their full share of the contempt and scorn which was poured on all followers of Jesus by the Scribes and Pharisees. They had, besides, many a trial from the hard speeches and hard usage which any Jewish woman who thought for herself about religion would probably have to undergo. But none of these things moved them. Grateful for mercies received at our Lord’s hands, they were willing to endure much for His sake. Strengthened inwardly, by the renewing power of the Holy Ghost, they were enabled to cleave to Jesus and not give way.—And nobly they did cleave to Him to the very end! It was not a woman who sold the Lord for thirty pieces of silver. They were not women who forsook the Lord in the garden and fled. It was not a woman who denied Him three times in the high priest’s house.—But they were women who wailed and lamented when Jesus was led forth to be crucified. They were women who stood to the last by the cross. And they were women who were first to visit the grave "where the Lord lay." Great indeed is the power of the grace of God!

Let the recollection of these women encourage all the daughters of Adam who read of them, to take up the cross and to follow Christ. Let no sense of weakness, or fear of falling away, keep them back from a decided profession of religion. The mother of a large family, with limited means, may tell us that she has no time for religion.—The wife of an ungodly husband may tell us that she dares not take up religion.—The young daughter of worldly parents may tell us that it is impossible for her to have any religion.—The maid-servant in the midst of unconverted companions, may tell us that in her place a person cannot follow religion.—But they are all wrong, quite wrong. With Christ nothing is impossible. Let them think again, and change their minds. Let them begin boldly in the strength of Christ, and trust Him for the consequences. The Lord Jesus never changes. He who enabled "many women" to serve Him faithfully while He was on earth, can enable women to serve Him, glorify Him, and be His disciples at the present day.

Let us mark lastly, in these verses, the peculiar privilege which our Lord grants to His faithful followers. We read that those who accompanied Him in His journeyings, "ministered to him of their substance." Of course He needed not their help. "All the beasts of the forest were his, and the cattle upon a thousand hills." (Psalms 50:10.) That mighty Savior who could multiply a few loaves and fishes into food for thousands, could have called forth food from the earth for His own sustenance, if He had thought fit. But He did not do so, for two reasons.—One reason was, that He would show us that He was man like ourselves in all things, sin only excepted, and that He lived the life of faith in His Father’s providence. The other reason was, that by allowing His followers to minister to Him, He might prove their love, and test their regard for Himself. True love will count it a pleasure to give anything to the object loved. False love will often talk and profess much, but do and give nothing at all.

This matter of "ministering to Christ" opens up a most important train of thought, and one which we shall do well to consider. The Lord Jesus Christ is continually providing His Church at the present day. No doubt it would be easy for Him to convert the Chinese or Hindoos in a moment, and to call grace into being with a word, as He created light on the first day of this world’s existence.—But He does not do so. He is pleased to work by means. He condescends to use the agency of missionaries, and the foolishness of man’s preaching, in order to spread His Gospel. And by so doing, He is continually proving the faith and zeal of the churches. He lets Christians be fellow workers with Him, that He may prove who has a will to "minister" and who has none. He lets the spread of the Gospel be carried on by subscriptions, contributions, and religious Societies, that He may prove who are the covetous and unbelieving, and who are the truly "rich towards God." In short, the visible Church of Christ may be divided into two great parties, those who "minister" to Christ, and those who do not.

May we all remember this great truth and prove our own selves! While we live we are all upon our trial. Our lives are continually showing whose we are and whom we serve, whether we love Christ or whether we love the world. Happy are they who know something of "ministering to Christ of their substance"! It is a thing which can still be done, though we do not see Him with our eyes. Those words which describe the proceedings of the Judgment day are very solemn, "I was an hungered and ye gave me no meat, I was thirsty and ye gave me no drink." (Matthew 25:42.)

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Notes

v1.—[He went throughout.] The word so translated is only used in one other place in the New Testament: Acts 17:1. It is there rendered "passed through." The full idea is that of one going on a journey through a place or country.

v2.—[Mary called Magdalene.] The origin of this name is differently explained by commentators. Some think that she was so called from a Hebrew word signifying "a plaiter of hair." Some think that she was so called from the town of "Magdala," in Galilee. Talmudic authority favours the first explanation, but the second seems more probable. The question will be found fully discussed in Lightfoot’s Horæ Hebraicæ on Matthew 27:50.

There is no Scriptural authority for the common opinion that Mary Magdalene was ever a notorious sinner against the seventh commandment. That she had been a sufferer from an extraordinary possession of the devil is plain, from this verse, and Mark 16:9, the number "seven devils" being specified in each place with peculiar emphasis. But there is not a whit of satisfactory evidence that she was ever a harlot. Chemnitius considers Gregory the Great to have been the author of the common opinion about Mary Magdalene.

v3.—[Joanna, the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward.] This person is only mentioned here in the New Testament, and we know nothing more of her. Her case reminds us of Obadiah in Ahab’s house, and "the saints in Nero’s household." It also teaches us that not all our Lord’s followers were poor. Some rich, though not many, were called. It also throws light on Herod’s anxiety to see our Lord, when He was sent to him by Pilate. He had probably heard of Him through his steward’s family. It also suggests the pleasant idea, that John the Baptist’s imprisonment by Herod was a cause of conversion to some of Herod’s retainers. Who can tell but Joanna first heard of our Lord through John the Baptist?

[Chuza, Herod’s steward.] The word translated "steward" is only found here and in two other places: Matthew 20:8, and Galatians 4:2. In the latter text it is translated "tutors." Whether Chuza was Herod’s treasurer or only the head of his household we cannot certainly pronounce. The word admits of either sense. At any rate he was a person holding a high and responsible office.

[Susanna.] This is the only place in which we find this woman mentioned. Of her past or subsequent history we know nothing.

[Many others.] Who these were we do not know. The names of most of them probably are in the book of life, and "the day will declare" them.

[Ministered to him of their substance.] Maldonatus in commenting on this expression quotes a passage from Jerome, which throws some light on it. He says, "It was a Jewish custom, and from the ancient habit of the nation it was thought a blameless custom, for women to supply to their instructors food and clothing from their substance."

Hammond, in commenting on this place, thinks that Phœbe, mentioned by Paul to the Romans, (Romans 16:1,) was a woman who had travelled with the apostles, and ministered to their wants.

Verses 4-15

THE parable of the sower, contained in these verses, is reported more frequently than any parable in the Bible. It is a parable of universal application. The things it relates are continually going on in every congregation to which the Gospel is preached. The four kinds of hearts it describes are to be found in every assembly which hears the word. These circumstances should make us always read the parable with a deep sense of its importance. We should say to ourselves, as we read it: "This concerns me. My heart is to be seen in this parable. I, too, am here."

The passage itself requires little explanation. In fact, the meaning of the whole picture is so fully explained by our Lord Jesus Christ, that no exposition of man can throw much additional light on it. The parable is preeminently a parable of caution, and caution about a most important subject,—the way of hearing the word of God. It was meant to be a warning to the apostles, not to expect too much from hearers. It was meant to be a warning to all ministers of the Gospel, not to look for too great results from sermons. It was meant, not least, to be a warning to hearers, to take heed how they hear. Preaching is an ordinance of which the value can never be overrated in the Church of Christ. But it should never be forgotten, that there must not only be good preaching, but good hearing.

The first caution that we learn from the parable of the sower, is to beware of the devil when we hear the Word. Our Lord tells us that the hearts of some hearers are like "the wayside." The seed of the Gospel is plucked away from them by the devil almost as soon as it is sown. It does not sink down into their consciences. It does not make the least impression on their minds.

The devil, no doubt, is everywhere. That malicious spirit is unwearied in his efforts to do us harm. He is ever watching for our halting, and seeking occasion to destroy our souls. But nowhere perhaps is the devil so active as in a congregation of Gospel-hearers. Nowhere does he labor so hard to stop the progress of that which is good, and to prevent men and women being saved. From him come wandering thoughts and roving imaginations,—listless minds and dull memories,—sleepy eyes and fidgety nerves, weary ears and distracted attention. In all these things Satan has a great hand. People wonder where they come from, and marvel how it is that they find sermons so dull, and remember them so badly! They forget the parable of the sower. They forget the devil.

Let us take heed that we are not way-side hearers. Let us beware of the devil. We shall always find him at Church. He never stays away from public ordinances. Let us remember this, and be upon our guard. Heat, and cold, and draughts, and damp, and wet, and rain, and snow, are often dreaded by Church goers, and alleged as reasons for not going to Church. But there is one enemy whom they ought to fear more than all these things together. That enemy is Satan.

The second caution that we learn from the parable of the sower, is to beware of resting on mere temporary impressions when we have heard the word. Our Lord tells us that the hearts of some hearers are like rocky ground. The seed of the word springs up immediately, as soon as they hear it, and bears a crop of joyful impressions, and pleasurable emotions. But these impressions, unhappily, are only on the surface. There is no deep and abiding work done in their souls. And hence, so soon as the scorching heat of temptation or persecution begins to be felt, the little bit of religion which they seemed to have attained, withers and vanishes away.

Feelings, no doubt, fill a most important office in our personal Christianity. Without them there can be no saving religion. Hope, and joy, and peace, and confidence, and resignation, and love, and fear, are things which must be felt, if they really exist. But it must never be forgotten that there are religious affections, which are spurious and false, and spring from nothing better than animal excitement. It is quite possible to feel great pleasure, or deep alarm, under the preaching of the Gospel, and yet to be utterly destitute of the grace of God. The tears of some hearers of sermons, and the extravagant delight of others, are no certain marks of conversion. We may be warm admirers of favorite preachers, and yet remain nothing better than stony-ground hearers. Nothing should content us but a deep, humbling, self-mortifying work of the Holy Ghost, and a heart-union with Christ.

The third caution contained in the parable of the sower is to beware of the cares of this world. Our Lord tells us that the hearts of many hearers of the word are like thorny ground. The seed of the word, when sown upon them, is choked by the multitude of other things, by which their affections are occupied. They have no objection to the doctrines and requirements of the Gospel. They even wish to believe and obey them. But they allow the things of earth to get such hold upon their minds, that they leave no room for the word of God to do its work. And hence it follows that however many sermons they hear, they seem nothing bettered by them. A weekly process of truth-stifling goes on within. They bring no fruit to perfection.

The things of this life form one of the greatest dangers which beset a Christian’s path. The money, the pleasures, the daily business of the world, are so many traps to catch souls. Thousands of things, which in themselves are innocent, become, when followed to excess, little better than soul-poisons, and helps to hell. Open sin is not the only thing that ruins souls. In the midst of our families, and in the pursuit of our lawful callings, we have need to be on our guard. Except we watch and pray, these temporal things may rob us of heaven, and smother every sermon we hear. We may live and die thorny-ground hearers.

The last caution contained in the parable of the sower, is to beware of being content with any religion which does not bear fruit in our lives. Our Lord tells us that the hearts of those who hear the word aright, are like good ground. The seed of the Gospel sinks down deeply into their wills, and produces practical results in their faith and practice. They not only hear with pleasure, but act with decision. They repent. They believe. They obey.

Forever let us bear in mind that this is the only religion that saves souls. Outward profession of Christianity, and the formal use of Church ordinances and sacraments, never yet gave man a good hope in life, or peace in death, or rest in the world beyond the grave. There must be fruits of the Spirit in our hearts and lives, or else the Gospel is preached to us in vain. Those only who bear such fruits, shall be found at Christ’s right hand in the day of His appearing.

Let us leave the parable with a deep sense of the danger and responsibility of all hearers of the Gospel. There are four ways in which we may hear, and of these four only one is right.—There are three kinds of hearers whose souls are in imminent peril. How many of these three kinds are to be found in every congregation!—There is only one class of hearers which is right in the sight of God. And what are we? Do we belong to that one?

Finally, let us leave the parable with a solemn recollection of the duty of every faithful preacher to divide his congregation, and give to each class his portion. The clergyman who ascends his pulpit every Sunday, and addresses his congregation as if he thought every one was going to heaven, is surely not doing his duty to God or man. His preaching is flatly contradictory to the parable of the sower.

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Notes

v4.—[When much people were gathered, &c.] Let us note, in this expression, a strong indirect evidence of our Lord’s faithfulness and honesty as a public teacher. So far was He from flattering men. and speaking smooth things to procure popularity, that He speaks one of the most heart-searching and conscience-pricking of His parables, when the crowd of hearers was greatest.

Faithful ministers should always denounce sin most plainly, when their churches are most full, and their congregations most large. Then is the time to "cry aloud and spare not," and show people their sins. It is a snare to some ministers, to flatter full congregations and scold thin ones. Such dealing is very unlike that of our Lord.

v5.—[A sower went out to sow.] It is highly probable that in this parable, our Lord describes something which was actually going on within sight. Many of His parables, we must remember, were spoken in the open air, and the images, in many cases, were borrowed from subjects before his eyes. Hence His lessons were seen as well as heard.

v6.—[Upon a rock.] The rocky soil of many parts of Palestine makes the circumstances here mentioned far more likely than it appears to us, who live in a country like England.

v7.—[Among thorns.] The precise nature of the plant or weed here called "thorns," we cannot exactly determine. It is the same word that is used in describing the "crown of thorns," plaited by the soldiers in the day of the crucifixion, and put in mockery on our Lord’s head. Whether those thorns were the prickly thorns or briars, with which we are all familiar, has been much doubted, and remains an undecided question.

The description of the growth of the "thorns" here mentioned, would rather lead us to suppose that they were some plant or weed which grew up out of the soil together with the seed corn.

v8.—[He that hath ears to hear let him hear.] Let it be noted, that this expression is specially recorded by all the three evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, in their report of this parable. It seems to point out the special importance of the parable.

v10.—[Seeing they might not see.] The expression used in this verse, is evidently quoted from the words in Isaiah 6:9. It is worthy of observation that hardly any passage in the Old Testament is so frequently quoted in the New Testament as this. It is found six times, Matthew 13:14-15; Mark 4:12; John 12:40; Acts 28:26; Romans 11:8, and in this place. On each occasion it is applied to the same subject, the hardened and unbelieving state of mind, in which the Jews were.

v11.—[The seed is the word of God.] Let us observe here, that the word "is" means, "signifies," or "represents," according to the Hebrew manner of speaking. It is important to remember this, because it throws light on the well-known words used by our Lord at the appointment of the Lord’s supper, "This is my body. This is my blood."

v12.—[Then cometh the devil.] This is one of those expressions which bring out strongly the existence, personality, and agency of the devil. There is an active, living agent, distinct from man, operating powerfully in man’s heart, and to man’s injury.

v13.—[Fall away.] The word so translated, is, in the Greek language, the root of our well-known word "apostacy."

v14.—[Go forth.] The meaning of this expression has been explained in various ways. Some think that it simply means "going away from the hearing of the word." Others think it means, "as they pass through life,—in their progress through life," and compare it with Luke 1:6, where Zacharias and Elisabeth are said, "to walk in the ordinances of the Lord." The Greek word there is the same that is used here.

[Bring...fruit to perfection.] This expression is rendered in the Greek by a single word, which is found nowhere else in the New Testament.

v15.—[Honest and good heart.] We must carefully remember that this expression does not imply that any one’s heart is naturally "good," or ever can become so, without the grace of God. The fairest sense of the words is, "an unprejudiced heart, willing to be taught," such as was peculiarly lacking among the Jews in our Lord’s time. The Bereans are an illustration of this expression. Acts 17:11.

[Keep it.] The word so translated is not the word sometimes translated "observe." It rather signifies "hold fast," so as not to let go, and is used in this sense in 1 Thessalonians 5:21, Hebrews 3:6, and Hebrews 10:23.

[Patience.] The word so translated is sometimes used in an active sense, and sometimes in a passive. Here it is probably active, like Romans 2:7, and 2 Corinthians 1:6.

Verses 16-21

THESE verses form a practical application of the famous parable of the sower. They are intended to nail and clench in our minds the mighty lesson which that parable contains. They deserve the especial attention of all true-hearted hearers of the Gospel of Christ.

We learn, firstly, from these verses, that spiritual knowledge ought to be diligently used. Our Lord tells us that it is like a lighted candle, utterly useless, when covered with a bushel, or put under a bed,—only useful when set upon a candlestick, and placed where it can be made serviceable to the wants of men.

When we hear this lesson, let us first think of ourselves. The Gospel which we possess was not given us only to be admired, talked of, and professed,—but to be practiced. It was not meant merely to reside in our intellect, and memories, and tongues,—but to be seen in our lives. Christianity is a talent committed to our charge, and one which brings with it great responsibility. We are not in darkness like the heathen. A glorious light is put before us. Let us take heed that we use it. While we have the light let us walk in the light. (John 12:35.)

But let us not only think of ourselves. Let us also think of others. There are millions in the world who have no spiritual light at all. They are without God, without Christ, and without hope. (Ephesians 2:12.) Can we do nothing for them?—There are thousands around us, in our own land, who are unconverted and dead in sins, seeing nothing and knowing nothing aright. Can we do nothing for them?—These are questions to which every true Christian ought to find an answer. We should strive, in every way, to spread our religion. The highest form of selfishness is that of the man who is content to go to heaven alone. The truest charity is to endeavor to share with others every spark of religious light we possess ourselves, and so to hold our own candle that it may give light to every one around us. Happy is that soul, which, as soon as it receives light from heaven, begins to think of others as well as itself! No candle which God lights was ever meant to burn alone.

We learn, secondly, from these verses, the great importance of right hearing. The words of our Lord Jesus Christ ought to impress that lesson deeply on our hearts. He says, "Take heed how ye hear."

The degree of benefit which men receive from all the means of grace depends entirely on the way in which they use them. Private prayer lies at the very foundation of religion; yet the mere formal repetition of a set of words, when "the heart is far away," does good to no man’s soul.—Reading the Bible is essential to the attainment of sound Christian knowledge; yet the mere formal reading of so many chapters as a task and duty, with out a humble desire to be taught of God, is little better than a waste of time.—Just as it is with praying and Bible reading, so it is with hearing. It is not enough that we go to Church and hear sermons. We may do so for fifty years, and "be nothing bettered, but rather worse." "Take heed," says our Lord, "how ye hear."

Would any one know how to hear aright? Then let him lay to heart three simple rules. For one thing, we must hear with faith, believing implicitly that every word of God is true, and shall stand. The word in old time did not profit the Jews, "not being mixed with faith in them that heard it." (Hebrews 4:2.)—For another thing, we must hear with reverence, remembering constantly that the Bible is the book of God. This was the habit of the Thessalonians. They received Paul’s message, "not as the word of men, but the word of God." (1 Thessalonians 2:13.)—Above all, we must hear with prayer, praying for God’s blessing before the sermon is preached, praying for God’s blessing again when the sermon is over. Here lies the grand defect of the hearing of many. They ask no blessing, and so they have none. The sermon passes through their minds like water through a leaky vessel, and leaves nothing behind.

Let us bear these rules in mind every Sunday morning, before we go to hear the Word of God preached. Let us not rush into God’s presence careless, reckless, and unprepared, as if it mattered not in what way such work was done. Let us carry with us faith, reverence, and prayer. If these three are our companions, we shall hear with profit, and return with praise.

We learn, finally, from these verses, the great privileges of those who hear the word of God and do it. Our Lord Jesus Christ declares that He regards them as his "mother and his brethren."

The man who hears the word of God, and does it, is the true Christian. He hears the call of God to repent and be converted, and he obeys it. He ceases to do evil, and learns to do well. He puts off the old man, and puts on the new.—He hears the call of God to believe on Jesus Christ for justification, and he obeys it. He forsakes his own righteousness, and confesses his need of a Savior. He receives Christ crucified as his only hope, and counts all things loss for the knowledge of Him.—He hears the call of God to be holy, and he obeys it. He strives to mortify the deeds of his body, and to walk after the Spirit. He labors to lay aside every weight, and the sin that so easily besets him.—This is true vital Christianity. All men and women who are of this character are true Christians.

Now the troubles of all who "hear the word of God and do it" are neither few nor small. The world, the flesh, and the devil continually vex them. They often groan, being burdened. (2 Corinthians 5:4.) They often find the cross heavy, and the way to heaven rough and narrow. They often feel disposed to cry with Paul, "O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death?" (Romans 7:24.)

Let all such take comfort in the words of our Lord Jesus Christ which we are now considering. Let them remember that the Son of God himself regards them as his own near relations! Let them not heed the laughter, and mockery, and persecution of this world. The woman of whom Christ says, "She is my mother," and the man of whom Christ says, "He is my brother," have no cause to be ashamed.

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Notes

v16.—[Under a bed.] The word rendered "bed," signifies "a couch," such as was found in all sitting-rooms in eastern houses, and under which it is probable many things were put away, when not wanted.

v17.—[For nothing is secret. &c.] The application of these words and their connection with the context are not quite clear. Their primary sense appears to be that the disciples must not suppose that our Lord’s instructions were intended to be kept secret, and reserved from the world. They were not to be confined to a few favoured hearers, like the lessons of the heathen philosophers, but to be published, proclaimed, and made known to all mankind. In this way the light given to the apostles would be "placed on a candlestick," and not covered and hidden.

Some think that the words point to the day of judgment. and the account which will then be taken of the use which all who have seen the light of the Gospel, have made of it.

v18.—[Take heed how ye hear.] Let it be remembered, in reading such sayings as these, that the bulk of mankind in all ages are peculiarly dependent on oral teaching. The number of those who have time and abilities for reading and private study will always be small. In the days when printing was not invented, and the writings of men were few, the lesson must have been specially important. But it will never lose its importance as long as the world endures.

[Whosoever hath.] This expression evidently means, "whosoever hath and makes a good use of what he hath." The other expression in the verse "whosoever hath not," in like manner means, "whosoever has made no use of what he has received."

v19.—[His mother and his brethren.] From this expression, many have concluded that Joseph, the husband of Mary, was now dead. Whether this was the case we do not know. He certainly seems to have been dead at the time of the crucifixion, from the fact of our Lord commending His mother to the care of John. (John 19:27.)

Who are meant by our Lord’s "brethren," cannot now be determined. It is certain that the word so translated, does not necessarily mean the sons of our Lord’s mother. It is clear, from many passages in the Bible, that the word "brethren" has frequently a wide signification, and may mean either cousins, or more distant relations. (Compare Genesis 31:46; Matthew 13:55; Matthew 27:56; Mark 3:18; Galatians 1:19.) Some think that these "brethren," were sons of Joseph by a former marriage, before be was Mary’s husband. Some think that they were the sons of one of Mary’s sisters. Nothing certain is known on the subject.

Whether our Lord’s mother clearly saw the nature of His work on earth, at this particular time, may seriously be questioned. There is no reason to suppose that her mind was entirely free from that obscurity under which the holiest and best Jews appear to have been, about the humiliations and sufferings of Messiah.

[Come at him.] The word translated "come at," is only found here in the New Testament. According to Parkhurst, it simply means, "to meet with, meet, light upon, or get to." The Syriac version of this place, renders it to "speak with."

Verses 22-25

THE event in our Lord’s life described in these verses is related three times in the Gospels. Matthew, Mark, and Luke were all inspired to record it. This circumstance should teach us the importance of the event, and should make us "give the more heed" to the lessons it contains.

We see, firstly, in these verses, that our Lord Jesus Christ was really man as well as God. We read that as he sailed over the Lake of Gennesaret in a ship with his disciples, "he fell asleep." Sleep, we must be all aware, is one of the conditions of our natural constitution as human beings. Angels and spirits require neither food nor refreshment. But flesh and blood, to keep up a healthy existence, must eat, and drink, and sleep. If the Lord Jesus could be weary, and need rest, He must have had two natures in one person—a human nature as well as a divine.

The truth now before us is full of deep consolation and encouragement for all true Christians. The one Mediator, in whom we are bid to trust, has been Himself "partaker of flesh and blood." The mighty High Priest, who is living for us at God’s right hand, has had personal experience of all the sinless infirmities of the body. He has himself hungered, and thirsted, and suffered pain. He has himself endured weariness, and sought rest in sleep.—Let us pour out our hearts before him with freedom, and tell Him our least troubles without reserve. He who made atonement for us on the cross is one who "can be touched with the feeling of our infirmities." (Hebrews 4:15.) To be weary of working for God is sinful, but to be wearied and worn in doing God’s work is no sin at all. Jesus himself was weary, and Jesus slept.

We see, secondly, in these verses, what fears and anxiety may assault the hearts of true disciples of Christ. We read, that "when a storm of wind came down on the lake," and the boat in which our Lord was sailing was filled with water, and in jeopardy, His companions were greatly alarmed. "They came to Him and awoke Him, saying, Master, Master, we perish." They forgot, for a moment, their Master’s never-failing care for them in time past. They forgot that with Him they must be safe, whatever happened. They forgot everything but the sight and sense of present danger, and, under the impression of it, could not even wait till Christ awoke. It is only too true that sight, and sense, and feeling, make men very poor theologians.

Facts like these are sadly humbling to the pride of human nature. It ought to lower our self-conceit and high thoughts to see what a poor creature is man, even at his best estate,—but facts like these are deeply instructive. They teach us what to watch and pray against in our own hearts. They teach of what we must make up our minds to find in other Christians. We must be moderate in our expectations. We must not suppose that men cannot be believers if they sometimes exhibit great weakness, or that men have no grace because they are sometimes overwhelmed with fears. Even Peter, James, and John, could cry, "Master, Master, we perish."

We see, thirdly, in these verses, how great is the power of our Lord Jesus Christ. We read that when His disciples awoke Him in the storm, "He arose, and rebuked the wind, and the raging of the waters, and they ceased, and there was a calm." This was, no doubt, a mighty miracle. It needed the power of Him who brought the flood on the earth in the days of Noah, and in due season took it away,—who divided the Red Sea and the river Jordan into two parts, and made a path for His people through the waters,—who brought the locusts on Egypt by an east wind, and by a west wind swept them away. (Exodus 10:13, Exodus 10:19.) No power short of this could in a moment turn a storm into a calm. "To speak to the winds and waves" is a common proverb for attempting that which is impossible. But here we see Jesus speaking, and at once the winds and waves obey! As man He had slept. As God He stilled the storm.

It is a blessed and comfortable thought, that all this almighty power of our Lord Jesus Christ is engaged on behalf of His believing people. He has undertaken to save every one of them to the uttermost, and He is "mighty to save." The trials of His people are often many and great. The devil never ceases to make war against them. The rulers of this world frequently persecute them. The very heads of the Church, who ought to be tender shepherds, are often bitterly opposed to the truth as it is in Jesus. Yet, notwithstanding all this, Christ’s people shall never be entirely forsaken. Though sorely harassed, they shall not be destroyed. Though cast down, they shall not be cast away. At the darkest time let true Christians rest in the thought, that "greater is He who is for them than all they that be against them." The winds and waves of political and ecclesiastical trouble may beat fiercely over them, and all hope may seem taken away. But still let them not despair. There is One living for them in heaven who can make these winds and waves to cease in a moment. The true Church, of which Christ is the Head, shall never perish. Its glorious Head is almighty, and lives for evermore, and His believing members shall all live, also, and reach home safe at last. (John 14:19.)

We see, lastly, in these verses, how needful it is for Christians to keep their faith ready for use. We read that our Lord said to His disciples when the storm had ceased, and their fears had subsided, "Where is your faith?" Well might He ask that question! Where was the profit of believing, if they could not believe in the time of need? Where was the real value of faith, unless they kept it in active exercise? Where was the benefit of trusting, if they were to trust their Master in sunshine only, but not in storms?

The lesson now before us is one of deep practical importance. To have true saving faith is one thing. To have that faith always ready for use is quite another. Many receive Christ as their Savior, and deliberately commit their souls to Him for time and eternity, who yet often find their faith sadly failing when something unexpected happens, and they are suddenly tried. These things ought not so to be. We ought to pray that we may have a stock of faith ready for use at a moment’s notice, and may never be found unprepared. The highest style of Christian is the man who lives like Moses, "seeing Him who is invisible." (Hebrews 11:27.) That man will never be greatly shaken by any storm. He will see Jesus near him in the darkest hour, and blue sky behind the blackest cloud.

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Notes

v22.—[He went into a ship, &c.] The events here recorded took place on the lake of Gennesaret, or sea of Galilee. At the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry, the country round this lake was thickly inhabited, and there seems to have been many boats on it. At present, according to the latest travellers, there are very few boats on it, and the population around it is very thin.

v23.—[There came down a storm of wind.] All travellers agree in saying, that the lake of Gennesaret is very liable to be visited by such storms. It lies very low, and is surrounded, on almost all sides, by high hills. Sudden gusts, or squalls of wind are consequently very common.

v24.—[They ceased, and there was a calm.] The well-known story of King Canute, in vain attempting to stop the rising tide by his command, will naturally occur to any reader of English history. There is a striking contrast between the utter failure of Canute’s attempt and the almighty power of Christ’s words here recorded.

v25.—[Where is your faith?] Leigh remarks that this would be more accurately rendered "Where is that your faith?" That is, Where is that measure, or degree of faith, which you have showed?

Verses 26-36

THE well-known narrative which we have now read, is carefully recorded by all of the first three Gospel-writers. It is a striking instance of our Lord’s complete dominion over the prince of this world. We see the great enemy of our souls for once completely vanquished,—the "strong man" foiled by One stronger than he, and the lion spoiled of his prey.

Let us mark, first, in this passage, the miserable condition of those over whom the devil reigns. The picture brought before us is a frightful one. We are told that when our Lord arrived in the country of the Gadarenes, there met Him "a certain man which had devils long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs." We are also told that although he had been "bound with chains and in fetters, he brake the bands, and was driven of the devil into the wilderness." In short, the case seems to have been one of the most aggravated forms of demoniacal possession. The unhappy sufferer was under the complete dominion of Satan, both in body and soul. So long as he continued in this state, he must have been a burden and a trouble to all around him. His mental faculties were under the direction of a "legion" of devils. His bodily strength was only employed for his own injury and shame. A more pitiable state for mortal man to be in, it is difficult to conceive.

Cases of bodily possession by Satan, like this, are, to say the least, very rarely met with in modern times. Yet we must not, on this account, forget that the devil is continually exercising a fearful power over many hearts and souls. He still urges many, in whose hearts he reigns, into self-dishonoring and self-destroying habits of life. He still rules many with a rod of iron,—goads them on from vice to vice, and from profligacy to profligacy,—drives them far from decent society, and the influence of respectable friends,—plunges them into the lowest depths of wickedness,—makes them little better than self-murderers,—and renders them as useless to their families, the Church, and the world, as if they were dead, and not alive. Where is the faithful minister who could not put his finger on many such cases? What truer account can be given of many a young man, and many a young woman, than that they seem possessed of devils? It is vain to shut our eyes to facts. Demoniacal possession of men’s bodies may be comparatively rare. But many, unhappily, are the cases in which the devil appears completely to possess men’s souls.

These things are fearful to think upon. Fearful is it to see to what a wreck of body and mind Satan often brings young persons! Fearful is it to observe how he often drives them out of the reach of all good influence, and buries them in a wilderness of bad companions and loathsome sins! Fearful, above all, is it to reflect that yet a little while Satan’s slaves will be lost forever, and in hell! There often remains only one thing that can be done for them. They can be named before Christ in prayer. He that came to the country of the Gadarenes, and healed the miserable demoniac there, still lives in heaven, and pities sinners. The worst slave of Satan in England is not beyond a remedy. Jesus may yet take compassion on him, and set him free.

Let us mark, secondly, in these verses, the absolute power which the Lord Jesus Christ possesses over Satan. We are told that he "commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man," whose miserable condition we have just heard described. At once the unhappy sufferer was healed. The "many devils" by whom he had been possessed were compelled to leave him. Nor is this all. Cast forth from their abode in the man’s heart, we see these malignant spirits beseeching our Lord that He would "not torment" them, or "command them to go out into the deep," and so confessing His supremacy over them. Mighty as they were, they plainly felt themselves in the presence of One mightier than themselves. Full of malice as they were, they could not even hurt the "swine" of the Gadarenes until our Lord granted them permission.

Our Lord Jesus Christ’s dominion over the devil should be a cheering thought to all true Christians. Without it, indeed, we might well despair of salvation. To feel that we have ever near us an invisible spiritual enemy, laboring night and day to compass our destruction, would be enough to crush out every hope, if we did not know a Friend and Protector. Blessed be God! The Gospel reveals such an One. The Lord Jesus is stronger than that "strong man armed," who is ever warring against our souls. The Lord Jesus is able to deliver us from the devil. He proved his power over him frequently when upon earth. He triumphed over him gloriously on the cross. He will never let him pluck any of His sheep out of His hand. He will one day bruise him under our feet, and bind him in the prison of hell. (Romans 16:20; Revelation 20:1-2.) Happy are they who hear Christ’s voice and follow Him! Satan may vex them, but he cannot really hurt them! He may bruise their heel, but he cannot destroy their souls. They shall be "more than conquerors" through Him who loved them. (Romans 8:37.)

Let us mark, finally, the wonderful change which Christ can work in Satan’s slaves. We are told that the Gadarenes "found the man out of whom the devil was departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind." That sight must indeed have been strange and astonishing! The man’s past history and condition, no doubt, were well known. He had probably been a nuisance and a terror to all the neighborhood. Yet here, in one moment, a complete change had come over him. Old things had passed away, and all things had become new. The power by which such a cure was wrought must indeed have been almighty. When Christ is the physician nothing is impossible.

One thing, however, must never be forgotten. Striking and miraculous as this cure was, it is not really more wonderful than every case of decided conversion to God. Marvelous as the change was which appeared in this demoniac’s condition when healed, it is not one whit more marvelous than the change which passes over every one who is born again, and turned from the power of Satan to God. Never is a man in his right mind till he is converted, or in his right place till he sits by faith at the feet of Jesus, or rightly clothed till he has put on the Lord Jesus Christ. Have we ever considered what real conversion to God is? It is nothing else than the miraculous release of a captive, the miraculous restoration of a man to his right mind, the miraculous deliverance of a soul from the devil.

What are we ourselves? This, after all, is the grand question which concerns us. Are we bondsmen of Satan or servants of God? Has Christ made us free, or does the devil yet reign in our hearts? Do we sit at the feet of Jesus daily? Are we in our right minds? May the Lord help us to answer these questions aright!

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Notes

v27.—[A certain man, which had devils long time.] There is much in this case, like all the cases of demoniacal possession in Scripture, which is deeply mysterious. It must needs be so from the fact that such possession appears to have been far more common, and much more distinctly marked in its symptoms, when our Lord was upon earth, than it ever has been since.

Let it suffice us to believe implicitly, that diabolical possession of the entire man, both body, mind, and soul. was an undeniable fact during the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry, and that all attempts to explain away the cases described in the Gospels, by calling them epilepsy, lunacy, and the like, are utterly unsatisfactory. For the rest, what we cannot thoroughly understand, we must be content to believe.

That there is such a thing as Satanic possession now, though comparatively a rare thing, is an opinion held by many able physicians, who have given special attention to this subject. Disease of the mind, or madness, is at all times a deeply mysterious subject. It is highly probable that Satan has far more to do with it than we think.

[In the tombs.] Trench quotes a remarkable circumstance, mentioned by the traveller Warburton, in "The Crescent and the Cross," which throws some light on this expression. "On descending from the height of Lebanon, I found myself in a cemetery, where sculptured turbans showed us, that the neighbouring village was Moslem, The silence of the night was now broken by fierce yells and howlings, which I discovered proceeded from a naked maniac, who was fighting with some wild dogs for a bone. The moment he perceived us, he left his canine companions, and bounding along with rapid strides, seized my horse’s bridle and almost forced him backwards over the cliff."

The determined propensity to wear no clothes and go naked, which is a striking symptom of some kinds of mania, is another curious illustration of the case described in this verse.

v28.—[What have I to do with thee?] The Greek expression so rendered, let it be noted, is the same which our Lord uses when He addresses His mother at the marriage of Cana in Galilee. (John 2:4.)

The words here used are the words of the devil by whom the man was possessed, rather than the man himself. This fact shows us how entirely all the faculties and powers of the unhappy demoniac were occupied and employed by the evil spirit which possessed him.

[Jesus, thou Son of God, torment me not.] These words are a striking incidental proof that there will be a judgment, and a hell. The devils believe this, if men do not.

v29.—[Brake the bands.] Prodigious muscular strength has often been remarked as accompanying some cases of mania.

v30.—[Legion.] This is a well-known name by which a division of the Roman army was designated. A Roman Legion is supposed to have contained 5 or 6000 men. The word here is evidently used indefinitely to express a great number.

v31.—[Into the deep.] The "deep" here means the abyss or pit of hell. It is the same Greek word which is five times translated "bottomless pit," in the book of Revelation. For instance, Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3.

v32.—[An herd of many swine feeding.] Let it be noted that to keep swine was a breach of the Mosaic law, swine being unclean animals. (Leviticus 11:7.) If, therefore, the Gadarenes were Jews, and there seems strong reason for supposing they were, they were committing an habitual sin.

[He suffered them.] It has often been asked, why our Lord suffered the devils to go into the swine, and permitted the consequent destruction of animal life which ensued. It might suffice to say in reply to this question, that Scripture shows us that animal life was continually taken away by God’s own command, when some great spiritual truth was to be taught to man, as in the case of the sacrifices of the law. But in addition to this, it is fair to suppose that our Lord permitted the destruction of the swine, as a mark of God’s displeasure against the Gadarenes for keeping them.

After all, the question is ultimately bound up with the deepest of all things:—viz. the origin and permission of evil in creation. To explain this is impossible. Enough for us to see that it exists, and to use the great remedy which God has provided against it. So doing, "what we know not now, we shall know hereafter."

v33.—[The herd ran violently down, &c.] The extraordinary malice, hatred of God’s creation, and love of mischief, which are attributes of Satan, appear strikingly in this fact. Satan must be doing harm. If he cannot harm man he will harm swine. Well would it be for the world, if Christians were as unwearied and zealous in doing good, as devils are in doing evil.

v34.—[In the country.] This expression would be rendered more literally "in the fields."

Before leaving this miracle it may be well to say something about the apparent discrepancy between the account given of it by Matthew, and those given by Mark and Luke. Matthew speaks of two demoniacs. Mark and Luke speak of only one.

The explanations of the discrepancy are various. According to Augustine, Theophylact, and Grotius, the one mentioned by Mark and Luke was a more illustrious and well known person than the other. According to Chrysostom, Euthymius, and Maldonatus, he was the fiercest of the two. According to Lightfoot, one of the demoniacs was a Jew and the other a heathen, and the healing of the heathen one is the case which Mark and Luke dwell on.

I venture to suggest that the reason why Mark and Luke only mention one, is the fact that only one of the two asked to be allowed to remain with our Lord, after he was healed, and only one ultimately became a witness to the Lord in the country of the Gadarenes. The case of the other man presented no peculiar circumstances of interest, and therefore Mark and Luke pass it over.

It is hardly necessary to remark that there is no contradiction between the two accounts. Though Mark and Luke only describe the cure of one demoniac, it would be absurd to say that they denied that two were cured. They only describe the case which was most remarkable.

Verses 37-40

WE see in this passage two requests made to our Lord Jesus Christ. They were widely different one from the other, and were preferred by persons of widely different character. We see, moreover, how these requests were received by our Lord Jesus Christ. In either case the request received a most remarkable answer. The whole passage is singularly instructive.

Let us observe, in the first place, that the Gadarenes besought our Lord to depart from them, and their request was granted. We read these painfully solemn words—"He went up into the ship, and returned back again."

Now why did these unhappy men desire the Son of God to leave them? Why, after the amazing miracle of mercy which had just been wrought among them, did they feel no wish to know more of Him who wrought it? Why, in a word, did they become their own enemies, forsake their own mercies, and shut the door against the Gospel?—There is but one answer to these questions. The Gadarenes loved the world, and the things of the world, and were determined not to give them up. They felt convinced, in their own consciences, that they could not receive Christ among them and keep their sins, and their sins they were resolved to keep. They saw, at a glance, that there was something about Jesus with which their habits of life would never agree, and having to choose between the new ways and their own old ones, they refused the new and chose the old.

And why did our Lord Jesus Christ grant the request of the Gadarenes, and leave them? He did it in judgment, to testify His sense of the greatness of their sin. He did it in mercy to His Church in every age, to show how great is the wickedness of those who wilfully reject the truth. It seems an eternal law of His government, that those who obstinately refuse to walk in the light shall have the light taken from them. Great is Christ’s patience and long-suffering! His mercy endureth for ever. His offers and invitations are wide, and broad, and sweeping, and universal. He gives every church its day of grace and time of visitation. (Luke 19:44.) But if men persist in refusing His counsel, He has nowhere promised to persist in forcing it upon them. People who have the Gospel, and yet refuse to obey it, must not be surprised if the Gospel is removed from them. Hundreds of churches, and parishes, and families, are at this moment in the state of the Gadarenes. They said to Christ, "Depart from us," and He has taken them at their word. They were joined to idols, and are now "let alone." (Job 21:14; Hosea 4:17.)

Let us take heed that we do not sin the sin of the Gadarenes. Let us beware lest by coldness, and inattention, and worldliness, we drive Jesus from our doors, and compel Him to forsake us entirely. Of all sins which we can sin, this is the most sinful. Of all states of soul into which we can fall, none is so fearful as to be "let alone." Let it rather be our daily prayer that Christ may never leave us to ourselves. The old wreck, high and dry on the sand-bank, is not a more wretched sight than the man whose heart Christ has visited with mercies and judgments, but has at last ceased to visit, because He was not received. The barred door is a door at which Jesus will not always knock. The Gadarene mind must not be surprised to see Christ leaving it and going away.

Let us observe, in the second place, that the man out of whom the devils were departed, besought our Lord that he might be with Him, but his request was not granted. We read that Jesus sent him away, saying, "Return to thine own house, and show how great things God hath done unto thee."

We can easily understand the request that this man made. He felt deeply grateful for the amazing mercy which he had just received in being cured. He felt full of love and warm affection toward Him, who had so wonderfully and graciously cured him. He felt that he could not see too much of Him, be too much in His company, cleave to Him too closely. He forgot everything else under the influence of these feelings. Family, relations, friends, home, house, country, all seemed as nothing in his eyes. He felt that he cared for nothing but to be with Christ. And we cannot blame him for his feelings. They may have been tinged with something of enthusiasm and inconsideration. There may have been about them a zeal not according to knowledge. In the first excitement of a newly felt cure, he may not have been fit to judge what his future line of life should be. But excited feelings in religion are far better than no feelings at all. In the petition he made, there was far more to praise than to blame.

But why did our Lord Jesus Christ refuse to grant this man’s request? Why, at a time when he had few disciples, did He send this man away? Why, instead of allowing him to take place with Peter and James and John, did He bid him return to his own house?—Our Lord did what He did in infinite wisdom. He did it for the benefit of the man’s own soul. He saw it was more for his good to be a witness for the Gospel at home than a disciple abroad. He did it in mercy to the Gadarenes. He left among them one standing testimony of the truth of His own divine mission.—He did it, above all, for the perpetual instruction of His whole church. He would have us know that there are various ways of glorifying Him, that He may be honored in private life as well as in the apostolic office, and that the first place in which we should witness for Christ is our own house.

There is a lesson of deep experimental wisdom in this little incident, which all true Christians would do well to lay to heart. That lesson is our own utter ignorance of what position is good for us in this world, and the necessity of submitting our own wills to the will of Christ. The place that we wish to fill is not always the place that is best for us. The line of life that we want to take up, is not always that which Christ sees to be most for the benefit of our souls. The place that we are obliged to fill is sometimes very distasteful, and yet it may be needful to our sanctification. The position we are compelled to occupy may be very disagreeable to flesh and blood, and yet it may be the very one that is necessary to keep us in our right mind. It is better to be sent away from Christ’s bodily presence, by Christ Himself, than to remain in Christ’s bodily presence without His consent.

Let us pray for the spirit of "contentment with such things as we have." Let us be fearful of choosing for ourselves in this life without Christ’s consent, or moving in this world, when the pillar of cloud and fire is not moving before us. Let us ask the Lord to choose everything for us. Let our daily prayer be, "Give me what thou wilt. Place me where thou wilt. Only let me be Thy disciple and abide in Thee."

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Notes

v37.—[Besought him to depart.] It has been remarked by many commentators, that these Gadarenes are an exact type of the men of this world. They saw the miraculous deliverance of a fellow creature from Satan’s power, and took no interest in it. But they saw the loss of their swine with deep concern. In a word, they cared more for the loss of swine, than the saving of a soul. There are thousands like them. Tell them of the success of missionaries, and the conversion of souls at home or abroad, they hear it with indifference, if not with a sneer. But if you tell them of the loss of property, or a change in the value of money, they are all anxiety and excitement. Truly the generation of the Gadarenes is not yet extinct!

v38.—[Jesus sent him away.] Let us note here, that a literal following of Christ, and literal forsaking of relations, friends, and homes, are evidently not essential to salvation. It may be necessary for some persons, and at some times, and under some circumstances. But it is plain from the case before us, that it is not necessary for all. Gualter has some useful remarks on this subject, in his Homily on this passage.

v39.—[Return to thine own house and show, &c.] It is interesting and instructive to remark how differently our Lord addressed different people, and how different are the commands we find Him laying upon them according to their characters. The young ruler, in Mark 10:21, was commanded to "take up his cross and follow" Christ. The leper, mentioned in Mark 1:44, was strictly charged to "say nothing to any man." The man, who was called in Luke 9:59-60, was not allowed even to go home and bury his father. The man before us, on the contrary, was commanded to return home, and show every one what Christ had done for him!

Now how shall we account for this strange diversity? There is one simple answer. Our Lord dealt with every case according to what He saw it needed. He knew what was in every man’s heart. He prescribed to every man, like a wise physician, the very course of conduct which his state of soul required.

We should surely learn, from our Lord’s conduct, not to treat all cases of persons needing spiritual advice, in precisely the same way. All, of course, need the same great doctrines, repentance towards God, faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ, and thorough holiness to be pressed upon them. But all ought not to have one precise rule laid down for their particular coarse of action, and their particular line of duty. We must consider peculiarities of circumstances, characters, and cases, and advise accordingly. Counsel which may be very good for one man, may not be good for another. A parent’s path of duty is one thing, and a child’s is another. A master’s position is one, and a servant’s another. These things are not sufficiently considered. The wise variety of our Lord’s counsels, is a subject which deserves close study.

Verses 41-48

HOW much misery and trouble sin has brought into the world! The passage we have just read affords a melancholy proof of this. First we see a distressed father in bitter anxiety about a dying daughter. Then we see a suffering woman, who has been afflicted twelve years with an incurable disease. And these are things which sin has sown broad-cast over the whole earth! These are but patterns of what is going on continually on every side. These are evils which God did not create at the beginning, but man has brought upon himself by the fall. There would have been no sorrow and no sickness among Adam’s children, if there had been no sin.

Let us see in the case of the woman here described, a striking picture of the condition of many souls. We are told that she had been afflicted with a wearing disease for "twelve years," and that she "had spent all her living upon physicians," and that she could not be "healed of any." The state of many a sinner’s heart is placed before us in this description as in a [looking-] glass. Perhaps it describes ourselves.

There are men and women in most congregations who have felt their sins deeply, and been sore afflicted by the thought that they are not forgiven and not fit to die. They have desired relief and peace of conscience, but have not known where to find them. They have tried many false remedies, and found themselves "nothing bettered, but rather worse." They have gone the round of all the forms of religion, and wearied themselves with every imaginable man-made device for obtaining spiritual health. But all has been in vain. Peace of conscience seems as far off as ever. The wound within appears a fretting, intractable sore, which nothing can heal. They are still wretched, still unhappy, still thoroughly discontented with their own state. In short, like the woman of whom we read to-day, they are ready to say, "There is no hope for me. I shall never be saved."

Let all such take comfort in the miracle which we are now considering. Let them know that "there is balm in Gilead," which can cure them, if they will only seek it. There is one door at which they have never knocked, in all their efforts to obtain relief. There is one Physician to whom they have not applied, who never fails to heal. Let them consider the conduct of the woman before us in her necessity. When all other means had failed, she went to Jesus for help. Let them go and do likewise.

Let us see, secondly, in the conduct of the woman before us, a striking picture of the first beginnings of saving faith and its effect. We are told that she "came behind" our Lord, and "touched the border of His garment, and immediately her issue of blood stanched." The act appeared a most simple one, and utterly inadequate to produce any great result. But the effect of that act was most marvelous! In an instant the poor sufferer was healed. The relief that many physicians had failed to give in "twelve years," was obtained in one moment. It was but one touch, and she was well!

It is hard to conceive a more lively image of the experience of many souls than the history of this woman’s cure. Hundreds could testify that, like her, they long sought spiritual help from physicians of no value, and wearied their souls by using remedies which brought no cure. At last, like her, they heard of One who healed laboring consciences, and forgave sinners, "without money and without price," if men would only come to Him by faith. The terms sounded too good to be credible. The tidings sounded too good to be true. But, like the woman before us, they resolved to try. They came to Christ by faith, with all their sins, and to their amazement at once found relief. And now they feel more comfort and hope than they ever felt before. The burden seems rolled off their backs. The weight seems taken off their minds. Light seems breaking in on their hearts. They begin to "rejoice in hope of the glory of God." (Romans 5:2.) And all, they would tell us, is owing to one simple thing. They came to Jesus just as they were. They touched Him by faith, and were healed.

Forever let it be graven on our hearts that faith in Christ is the grand secret of peace with God. Without it we shall never find inward rest, whatever we may do in religion. Without it we may go to services daily and receive the Lord’s Supper every week,—we may give our goods to the poor, and our bodies to be burned,—we may fast and wear sackcloth, and live the lives of hermits,—all this we may do, and be miserable after all. One true believing touch of Christ is worth all these things put together. The pride of human nature may not like it! But it is true! Thousands will rise up at the last day and testify that they never felt comfort of soul till they came to Christ by faith, and were content to cease from their own works, and be saved wholly and entirely by His grace.

Let us see, lastly, in this passage, how much our Lord desires that those who have received benefit from Him should confess Him before men. We are told that He did not allow this woman, whose case we have been reading, to retire from the crowd unheeded. He enquired "who had touched Him." He enquired again, until the woman came forward and "declared" her case before all the people. And then came the gracious words, "Daughter, be of good comfort. Thy faith hath made thee whole."

Confession of Christ is a matter of great importance. Let this never be forgotten by true Christians. The work that we can do for our blessed Master is little and poor. Our best endeavors to glorify Him are weak and full of imperfections. Our prayers and praises are sadly defective. Our knowledge and love are miserably small. But do we feel within that Christ has healed our souls? Then can we not confess Christ before men? Can we not plainly tell others that Christ has done everything for us,—that we were dying of a deadly disease, and were cured,—that we were lost, and are now found,—that we were blind, and now see? Let us do this boldly, and not be afraid. Let us not be ashamed to let all men know what Jesus has done for our souls. Our Master loves to see us doing so. He likes His people not to be ashamed of His name. It is a solemn saying of Paul, "If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in thy heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." (Romans 10:9.) It is a still more solemn saying of Christ Himself, "Whosoever shall be ashamed of me and my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed." (Luke 9:26.)

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Notes

v41.—[And behold.] Chemnitius remarks, that all the three Gospel writers who record the miracle of the raising of Jairus’ daughter begin their account with this expression, "Behold!" It seems intended to call our attention partly to the greatness of the miracle, and partly to the singular goodness of God in raising up friends to the Gospel even in the synagogues.

Let it be noted that Jairus lived at Capernaum, and that the Gospels mention no less than three persons of rank and influence in Capernaum, for whom our Lord wrought special miracles. One is the nobleman whose son was healed. (John 4:46.) Another is the centurion whose servant was healed. (Luk 7:2.) The third is Jairus, the ruler of the synagogue.

v42.—[She lay a dying.] The Greek word so translated would be rendered more literally, "she was dying—at the point of death."

[The people thronged him.] Let us mark the pious observation of Quesnel on this circumstance: "Abundance of Christians, as it were, press upon Christ, in hearing His word, receiving the sacraments, and performing the outward part of religion; but few touch Him by a lively faith, a true Christian life, the prayer of charity, and the meditation, love, and imitation of his mysteries. The numerous assemblies and multitudes of people who fill the churches, and make the crowd at sermons, and yet cease not to go on in their usual course, in following the world and their own passions, throng and press Christ, but do not touch Him."

v43.—[A woman having an issue of blood.] In order to realize this woman’s case, and the greatness of the miracle here recorded, we should read Leviticus 15:19. We shall then see that her disease rendered her ceremonially unclean. Bearing this in mind, we shall understand her desire to avoid publicity and observation. At the same time, let us note the high position which our Lord occupies in working this cure. He works it as our great High Priest. He bestows health and ceremonial cleanness, and yet in doing so contracts no uncleanness himself.

v44.—[Border of His garment.] Parkhurst, in his lexicon, says that this was "a tassel, or tuft of the garment, which the Jews in general, and our blessed Lord in particular, wore in obedience to the Mosaic law (Numbers 15:38), and which the Scribes and Pharisees affected to wear remarkably large, as badges of extraordinary piety, and of uncommon obedience to the divine commandment."

v45.—[Who touched me?] This expression would be translated more literally, "Who is the person that touched me?"

[Master.] Let it be noted that the word so translated is only used by Luke in the New Testament, and is only applied to Christ. It signifies literally, "one who is set over anything to take care of it." It is a title of respect, and an acknowledgment of authority.

v46.—[Virtue.] The word so translated is more frequently rendered "power," "might," or "strength." The whole expression of the verse is a very peculiar one.

v48.—[Hath made whole.] The word so rendered might have been equally well translated "hath saved." There is, probably, an intentional use of a word of deep double meaning.

Verses 49-56

THE verses we have now read, contain one of the three great instances which the Holy Ghost has thought fit to record of our Lord restoring a dead person to life. The other two instances are those of Lazarus and the widow’s son at Nain. There seems no reason to doubt that our Lord raised others beside these three. But these three cases are specially described as patterns of His almighty power. One was a young girl, who had just breathed her last. One was a young man, who was being carried to his burial. One was a man, who had already lain four days in the grave. In all three cases alike we see life at once restored at Christ’s command.

Let us notice, in the verses before us, how universal is the dominion which death holds over the sons of men. We see him coming to a rich man’s house, and tearing from him the desire of his eyes with a stroke. "There cometh one from the ruler of the synagogue’s house, saying to him, Thy daughter is dead." Such tidings as these are the bitterest cups which we have to drink in this world. Nothing cuts so deeply into man’s heart as to part with beloved ones, and lay them in the grave. Few griefs are so crushing and heavy as the grief of a parent over an only child.

Death is indeed a cruel enemy! He makes no distinction in his attacks. He comes to the rich man’s hall, as well as to the poor man’s cottage. He does not spare the young, the strong, and the beautiful, any more than the old, the infirm, and the grey-haired. Not all the gold of Australia, nor all the skill of doctors, can keep the hand of death from our bodies, in the day of his power. When the appointed hour comes, and God permits him to smite, our worldly schemes must be broken off, and our darlings must be taken away and buried out of our sight.

These thoughts are melancholy, and few like to hear of them. The subject of death is one that men blink, and refuse to look at. "All men think all men mortal but themselves." But why should we treat this great reality in this way? Why should we not rather look the subject of death in the face, in order that when our turn comes we may be prepared to die? Death will come to our houses, whether we like it or not. Death will take each of us away, despite our dislike to hearing about it. Surely it is the part of a wise man to get ready for this great change. Why should we not be ready? There is one who can deliver us from the fear of death. (Hebrews 2:15.) Christ has overcome death, and "brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel." (2 Timothy 1:10.) He that believeth on Him hath everlasting life, and though he were dead yet shall he live. (John 6:47; John 11:25.) Let us believe in the Lord Jesus, and then death will lose his sting. We shall then be able to say with Paul, "For me to die is gain." (Philippians 1:21.)

Let us notice, secondly, in the verses before us, that faith in Christ’s love and power is the best remedy in time of trouble. We are told that when Jesus heard the tidings, that the ruler’s daughter was dead, He said to him, "Fear not, believe only, and she shall be made whole."—These words, no doubt, were spoken with immediate reference to the miracle our Lord was going to perform. But we need not doubt that they were also meant for the perpetual benefit of the Church of Christ. They were meant to reveal to us the grand secret of comfort in the hour of need. That secret is to exercise faith, to fall back on the thought of Christ’s loving heart and mighty hand,—in one word, to believe.

Let a petition for more faith form a part of all our daily prayers. As ever we would have peace, and calmness, and quietness of spirit, let us often say, "Lord, increase our faith." A hundred painful things may happen to us every week in this evil world, of which our poor weak minds cannot see the reason. Without faith we shall be constantly disquieted and cast down. Nothing will make us cheerful and tranquil but an abiding sense of Christ’s love, Christ’s wisdom, Christ’s care over us, and Christ’s providential management of all our affairs. Faith will not sink under the weight of evil tidings. (Psalms 112:7.) Faith can sit still and wait for better times. Faith can see light even in the darkest hour, and a needs-be for the heaviest trial. Faith can find room to build Ebenezers under any circumstances, and can sing songs in the night in any condition. "He that believeth shall not make haste." "Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on thee." (Isaiah 28:16; Isaiah 26:3.) Once more let the lesson be graven on our minds. If we would travel comfortably through this world, we must "believe."

Let us notice, finally, in these verses, the almighty power which our Lord Jesus Christ possesses even over death. We are told that He came to the house of Jairus and turned the mourning into joy. He took by the hand the breathless body of the ruler’s daughter, "and called saying, damsel, arise." At once by that all-powerful voice life was restored. "Her spirit came again, and she arose straightway."

Let us take comfort in the thought that there is a limit to death’s power. The king of terrors is very strong. How many generations he has mowed down and swept into the dust! How many of the wise and strong, and fair, he has swallowed down and snatched away in their prime! How many victories he has won, and how often he has written "vanity of vanities," on the pride of man! Patriarchs, and kings, and prophets, and apostles, have all in turn been obliged to yield to him. They have all died. But thanks be unto God, there is one stronger than death. There is one who has said, "O death, I will be thy plagues: O grave, I will be thy destruction"! (Hosea 13:14.) That One is the Friend of sinners, Christ Jesus the Lord. He proved His power frequently when He came to the earth the first time, in the house of Jairus, by the tomb of Bethany, in the gate of Nain. He will prove to all the world when He comes again. "The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death." (1 Corinthians 15:26.) "The earth shall cast out the dead." (Isaiah 26:19.)

Let us leave the passage with the consoling thought, that the things which happened in Jairus’ house are a type of good things to come. The hour cometh and will soon be here, when the voice of Christ shall call all His people from their graves, and gather them together to part no more. Believing husbands shall once more see believing wives. Believing parents shall once more see believing children. Christ shall unite the whole family in the great home in heaven, and all tears shall be wiped from all eyes.

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Notes

v49.—[Thy daughter is dead.] Chemnitius remarks, that, with one exception (Mark 1:30), we never read in the Gospels of children coming to Christ on behalf of their parents, though we frequently read of parents applying on behalf of their children. He makes the deep observation, that "love is more prone to descend than to ascend."

[The Master.] Let it be noted that the Greek word so translated is not the same as that used in Luke 8:45. It here signifies "the Teacher."

v51.—[Peter, and James, and John.] These three apostles, it should be remembered, were three times singled out from the rest of the twelve, and allowed to be our Lord’s companions on special occasions. They were with him on the Mount of Transfiguration, and in the Garden of Gethsemane, and on the occasion of this miracle. None of the apostles had such a clear revelation of our Lord’s divinity, our Lord’s humanity, and our Lord’s power and compassion towards the sorrowful and sinful.

v52.—[She is not dead, but sleepeth.] Much has been said about the difficulty of this expression, but without any just cause. The strength of it has led some to assert, that the daughter of Jairus was not really and literally dead, but only in a trance. Such an assertion contradicts the context, while there is really no difficulty in the expression, that does not admit of explanation.

Burkitt says, that our Lord’s meaning was this:—"She is dead to you, but asleep to me; not so dead as to be beyond my power to raise her to life."

Alford says—"The words are most probably used with reference to the speedy awakening which was to follow."

Jones, of Nayland, says—"As we have but imperfect notions of the relation and difference between life and death, our Saviour, when he was about to raise a maid to life, said to those who were present, ’the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth.’ He did not say, She is dead, and I will raise her to life; but, she is asleep, whence it was to be inferred that she would awake. They who were not skilled in the language of signs and figures laughed him to scorn, as if he had spoken in ignorance what was expressed with consummate truth and wisdom. The substitution of sleep for death has the force and value of a whole sermon in a single word."

v54.—[He put them all out.] When we read this expression, we should remember the words in the preceding verse, "They laughed Him to scorn." It seems a rule in Christ’s dealings with men not to force evidence upon them, but rather to withhold from scorners and scoffers those proofs of His own mission which He affords to others. And as it was when He was upon earth, so it is now. The scoffing spirit is the spirit which is often left to itself.

v55.—[Her spirit came again.] This is one of those texts which show plainly the separate existence of spirits, and their independence of the body. Matthew Henry remarks—"This proves that our souls exist and act in a state of separation from the body, and therefore are immortal, that death does not extinguish the candle of the Lord, but takes it out of a dark lantern." It is not, as Grotius observes, the temperament of the body, or anything that dies with it; but something that subsists by itself, which, after death, is somewhere else than where the body is. Where the soul of the child was in the interval we are not told. It was in the hand of the Father of spirits, to whom all souls at death return."

[To give her meat.] This would be proof positive that her body was really alive again, and that her parents saw no vision, but real material flesh and blood. It is the same evidence of resurrection which our Lord gave His disciples after His own rising from the dead: "Have ye here any meat? And he did eat before them." (Luke 24:41-43.)

v56.—[Tell no man.] Let us note here, as in many places, how little our Lord desired publicity. To do great works and say nothing about them—to work powerfully, and yet noiselessly and quietly is to walk in Christ’s steps. The shallowest streams and emptiest vessels make most noise.

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Bibliographical Information
Ryle, J. C. "Commentary on Luke 8". "Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ryl/luke-8.html.