THE TRESPASS OFFERING—continued (Leviticus 6:1-7). The next seven verses, which in the Hebrew arrangement form the conclusion of the previous chapter, enumerate cases of fraud and wrong, for which a trespass offering is required. They are moral, not ceremonial offenses. Reparation and the payment of a fine are demanded before the offering is made.
And the Lord spake. The six following verses contain a separate communication from the Lord to Moses, but in continuance of the subject which began at Le Leviticus 5:14.
This verse would be better translated as follows:—If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and falsely deny to his neighbour something that was delivered to him to keep, or something that he had received in pawn, or something that he had taken away by violence, or hath got something by oppression from his neighbour. Cf. the injunction in Le Leviticus 19:11 : "Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one to another." Exodus 22:7-13 contains earlier legislation on the subject of things taken in trust.
Or have found that which was lost. Cf. Deuteronomy 22:2, Deuteronomy 22:3, "Thou shalt bring it unto thine own house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again. In like manner shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost thing of thy brother's, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise." And sweareth falsely. By previous legislation it had been appointed that, in case of a doubt arising as to what had become of property delivered to another to keep, there should be "an oath of the Lord between them both, that" the latter "hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good" (Exodus 22:11). This opened the way to false swearing where men were dishonest. Sinning therein. Wrong to man is sin against God in every ease, but a special sin against God is committed when an appeal has been made to him by oath, and the oath has been false.
As before, the profit gained by fraud or violence is to be given up, and with it a fine is to be paid, amounting to one-fifth of the value of the thing appropriated.
In the day of his trespass offering is a better rendering than that of the margin, "in the day of his being found guilty," or" in the day of his trespass." The reparation is to take place, and immediately afterwards the offering is accepted.
is in an especial manner a sin against God, because in an oath an appeal is directly made to God, and if the thing sworn to is false, God is called to witness to a thing as true which the swearer knows to be false. It is also in an especial manner a sin against society, as mutual truth-telling is the very bond of social trust. When the moral and religious tone of a nation stands high, "an oath for confirmation is the end of all strife" (Hebrews 6:16), and on the other hand, when either a disbelief in God's providence or a casuistical theology saps the confidence placed in promises confirmed by oaths, society is perilously near its dissolution (see Bishop Sanderson's 'Obligation of Oaths'). The sanctity of an oath is guarded by a special commandment in the Decalogue.
Repentance, confession, satisfaction, absolution,
follow each other in order. Without repentance confession is vain; without confession satisfaction is impracticable; without satisfaction there is no absolution. In the present case, the sense of absolution was conveyed to the soul of the sinner by the acceptance of his offering for trespass, after which he ceased to be, what he was before, virtually excommunicate from God's people. The greater moral offenses were punished either by death (Exodus 21:12-17; Exodus 31:15; Exodus 32:27; Le Exodus 20:9-16; Exodus 24:1-18 :23; Numbers 25:5; Deuteronomy 13:9; Deuteronomy 19:11; Joshua 7:25), or by formal excommunication, when the offenders were cut off from the people of the Lord, though their lives were spared (Leviticus 7:20, Leviticus 7:21; Genesis 17:14). But there was, and there is, an excommunication, not formally pronounced, when a man feels that his sin has separated between him and his God. In these cases the sin offering or the trespass offering restored to communion, but they might not be offered, that is, absolution might not be effected by them, unless preceded by repentance and confession, and, where the nature of the case admitted of it, by satisfaction for the wrong done.
HOMILIES BY J.A. MACDONALD
This paragraph ought to have been included in the preceding chapter, as it is the conclusion of the subject there considered. The last paragraphs treated of sacrilege, or trespass in the holy things of God; this has reference to trespass between man and man. We have here—
I. AN ENUMERATION OF WRONGS. These may be distributed into two classes, viz.:
1. In matters of fraud. These may be
2. In matters of violence. Such as
II. AGGRAVATIONS OF THE WRONGS. These are:
1. When lies are told to cover them.
2. When oaths are taken to give countenance to the lies.
III. THE LAW OF REPARATION.
1. He shall make up the wrong to the person injured.
2. He shall then "bring his trespass offering unto the Lord."
HOMILIES BY W. CLARKSON
Human ownership and dishonesty.
From the Divine directions here given as to the trespass offering, in the case of wrong between man and man, we gather—
I. THAT GOD ALLOWS US TO CONSIDER HIS GIFTS AS BELONGING TO OURSELVES. By inheritance or by labour we acquire property; a man has a right to say, concerning an object thus legally acquired, "This is mine." The possession of property is carefully guarded by the declarations of God's Word; "the commandments of the Lord" make the violation of this right a very serious sin (see text). It is well, however, to remember that human ownership is never absolute; it is subject to:
1. God's prior and supreme claim (Psalms 24:1; 1 Chronicles 29:11; Haggai 2:8).
2. Our duty, in holding it, to keep in view the general good; e.g; large landowner has no right to let ground lie waste, and be covered with seed-sowing weeds.
3. Our liability, at any hour, to lay it down at God's will.
II. THAT MEN FIND VARIOUS WAYS OF DISREGARDING THIS RIGHT. Many forms of dishonesty prevail in every land; it is an inevitable excrescence of sin. Five special cases are here provided against:
1. Breach of trust, or failure to return anything borrowed; lying in "that which was delivered him to keep" (Leviticus 6:2).
2. Unfairness in partnership or cooperation; "in fellowship."
3. Violent appropriation or hardship (oppression),—"a thing taken away by violence" (Leviticus 6:2).
4. Fraud in trading,—"hath deceived his neighbour" (Leviticus 6:2).
5. Illegal retention of something accidentally acquired,—"have found that which was lost," etc. (Leviticus 6:3).
III. THAT DISHONESTY IN ANY FORM IS A SERIOUS SIN AGAINST GOD, as well as a wrong done to our neighbour. By committing any one of these offenses a soul is said to "sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord" (Leviticus 6:2); "he sins therein" (Leviticus 6:3); "he hath sinned, and is guilty." Evidently the taking from our neighbour "that which is his' is a high misdemeanour in the sight of God. Two of the "ten commandments" (Exodus 20:1-26) are directed against it: "Thou shalt not steal;" "Thou shalt not covet," etc. Theft, dishonesty, is a treble sin: it is a wrong to our fellow; it is an injury to ourselves (spiritual demoralization); it is an offense against God.
IV. THAT IT CALLS FOR RESTITUTION AS WELL AS SACRIFICE.
1. We must, indeed, bring our sacrifice to God. The Jew was to bring his "ram without blemish" (Leviticus 6:6), and an atonement was to be made before the Lord, and his trespass was forgiven him (Leviticus 6:7). We must bring the sacrifice of a contrite spirit, and plead the One Sacrifice for all sin, and we shall be forgiven.
2. But we are also bound to make restitution where that is possible. The Jew was to "restore it in the principal, and … add the fifth part more thereto" (Leviticus 6:5); he was to more than make up for the injury he had done. And
Sin a germ as well as a fruit.
It is contemplated by the Supreme Legislator, that if a man once cherish a dishonest thought, he will probably go beyond fraud to falsehood ("and lieth"), and, when necessary, from falsehood to perjury ("and sweareth falsely"). This is true to life. Sin is not only the consequence of the evil that came before it, but it is the cause of more sin which is to follow; it is not only the child but the parent of wrong. Learn that—
I. NO MAN WHO SINS CAN TELL HOW FAR HIS SIN WILL TAKE HIM. Hazael, Gehazi, Ahab, Judas, etc.; "facilis descensus Averni."
II. IT IS IN THE NATURE OF SIN TO TEMPT TO FURTHER SIN. The instances with which we are familiar are not remarkable exceptions; they are illustrations of a principle at work everywhere and always. "There's not a crime but takes its change out still in crime, when once rung on the counter of this world;" dishonesty naturally, if not necessarily, leads to lying, and lying to perjury. One sin is the germ of another, and is sure to bear fruit.
III. IT IS A PART OF THE PENALTY OF SIN THAT IT SHOULD DO SO. We sometimes think that sin carries no penalty; so it seemed to the Psalmist (Psalms 73:1-28), but he was wrong, as he owned (Leviticus 6:15). It not only ends disastrously ("then understood I their end"), but it results in certain, immediate, spiritual injury. On the day in which the forbidden fruit is eaten, we do die,—in the soul.
IV. THIS FACT OF THE DIFFUSIVENESS OF SIN HELPS TO EXPLAIN THE EXCEEDING EVIL OF IT IN THE SIGHT OF GOD. It may well be accounted "an evil and bitter thing," a thing which he "hates," which he "abhors," etc.
These considerations furnish
HOMILIES BY S.R. ALDRIDGE
Dishonesty atoned for.
The rebukes tacitly administered by the Law in cases of unjust dealing are neither effete nor unnecessary in modern days. The practices here reprehended still survive, commercial immorality is even yet a fruitful topic of remark. Temptations to dishonesty abound, and are as potent as of yore, for the springs of evil in the human breast remain unaltered, pouring forth their dark and bitter waters. And whilst it is not by works that the children of God expect to be justified, yet may their good works glorify God; and to guard against the deeds of injustice to which men are prone is to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour. Happy the congregation of Christians none of whose members has ever been convicted of the transgressions mentioned in these verses!
I. THE SIN DESCRIBED.
1. Its main feature is the unlawful possession of another's property, through wrongful acquisition or detention. Force or deceit has been employed in procuring or retaining the goods. This sin may be committed in little things or great, and by communities as well as individuals.
2. Its source is avarice. The eye beholds, the heart covets, the will consents, and the hand grasps, as in the history of Achan, who robbed God (Joshua 7:21). There is thus the evil cooperation of the senses and faculties, sin in inward thought and outward act. The temporary gratification of the flesh is preferred to the durable contentment of the spirit; self is brought into hideous prominence, as if it could never be coincident with the interest of others and of God. It is classed with sins of ignorance because, though wittingly done, the covetous desire seems to blind the moral sight, and man acts as if under the constraint of a foreign power. Beware of greed! it is insidious in its approaches, and awful in its effects.
3. It is aggravated by falsehood. One sin drags another in its wake; avarice prepares the way for lying, even demands it that its designs may be achieved. What has been taken by force is often defended by perjury. The pillars of wickedness are unstable; they need each other's support, for they cannot stand alone in their own native strength. A covetous heart calls for a deceitful tongue.
II. THE REPARATION. Real happiness does not accompany sin; it is a thorny rose, a cup with nauseous elements, a nightmare sleep. Though no human eye detect the wrong, the sinner is guilty, and knows that One above will not recognize the right of might and violence, nor allow his name to be used with impunity as a shield to vice. Remorse tortures the transgressor, until he is driven to confess his crime and to make amends for it. The Law mercifully appoints a salve for the bleeding conscience.
1. Full restitution to the rightful owner. The property stolen or retained, together with an added fifth, is returned as compensation for the injury suffered. Sin is shown to be unprofitable, and no length of possession is allowed to supply a reason for inequitable retention. Lapse of time must never be supposed to bar recovery of rights. Are there no persons in our assemblies to whom this law is applicable?
2. Acknowledgment of an offense committed against God. It was "a trespass against the Lord" (Leviticus 6:2), and in several respects. His commandments were broken, notably the second, third, eighth, and tenth (Exodus 20:1-26). An atonement is required, the sacrifice of a ram, the fat parts of which are burnt on the altar, and the rest eaten by the priests. The two branches of the moral law are closely connected. To violate the one is to dishonour the other. Experience attests their contiguity. Those who best regard the interests of their neighbours are the men that are jealous for the honour of God. Forget not to impress upon children the importance of asking, not only their parents' pardon, but the forgiveness of their heavenly Father when they have acted dishonestly or unkindly. Frequently the newspapers record the receipt by the Chancellor of the Exchequer of money sent because of unpaid taxes. Do the senders always remember that they have sinned against God as well as man; and implore forgiveness in the name of Jesus Christ?—S.R.A.
HOMILIES BY R.A. REDFORD
Trespasses done wittingly.
These were acts of lying, fraud, deceit, violence, or any social wrong involving conscious trespass on the rights of our neighbour.
I. SOCIAL MORALITY RESTS UPON RELIGION. Offenses against neighbours, offenses against God. No true support of society apart from faith. Follies of the modern skeptical school. Enthusiasm of humanity, atheism, development of morality out of a physical basis,—mere dreams of the intellect. Facts of history show that corrupt religion is corrupt morals; that an atheistic society is mere organized selfishness.
II. THE TRUE HEALING PRINCIPLE OF SOCIETY. The preservation of individual rights in the spirit of a common allegiance to God. We are all brethren. If one offend, let his offense be both readily acknowledged and atoned for, and readily forgiven. So long as we simply pay back, we do not heal the hurt; we must more than pay back. His restitution was of the principal and the fifth part more thereto. Such a regulation was founded on the Divine love, as the essence of the Divine Law. We must remedy wrongs in the spirit of benevolence.
II. AS TYPICAL OF THE CROSS OF CHRIST, THE DIVINE FULNESS OF REDEMPTION is set forth. The offenses of men are more than made up for. Their redeemed state is an advance upon their state of innocence. The new Law is better than the old. Christ in us is not only the crucifixion of sin and the world, but "the hope of glory." The believer will find in the blood of the atonement both a cleansing away of guilt, and a washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost.—R.
The following section (Leviticus 6:8 - Leviticus 7:38) is a supplement to chapter 1-6:7, containing the regulations addressed to the priests relating to the ritual of the several sacrifices. Leviticus 6:8-13 of Leviticus 6:1-30 contain the further ritual of the burnt sacrifice; Leviticus 6:14-23, that of the meat offering; Leviticus 6:24-30, that of the sin offerings; Leviticus 6:1-6 of Leviticus 7:1-38, that of the trespass offering; Leviticus 7:11-36, that of the peace offering; Leviticus 7:7-10 declare the portion of the priests in all the offerings; Leviticus 7:37, Leviticus 7:38 conclude the section.
(See note on Le Leviticus 1:3.) The further ritual of the burnt offering is exhibited in the particular instance of the lamb sacrificed every evening (Exodus 29:33). In other cases the ritual was to be the same. Instead of It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, the reading should be, It, the burnt offering (viz. the evening sacrifice), shall burn upon the hearth upon the altar all night unto the morning. The priest is to wear his priestly dress already appointed (Exodus 28:40)—which was a white linen garment, covering the whole person like a close-fitting English surplice, fastened by a sash—while he is actually officiating at the altar; and thus vested, he is to remove from the altar the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering, or rather, as it would be better translated, the ashes to which the fire hath reduced the burnt offering, and put them beside the altar, that is, on the ash-heap to the east of the altar. On leaving the court of the tabernacle, he is to change his dress, and to carry the ashes of the sacrifice without the camp unto a clean place. The priest is also instructed to lay fresh wood on the altar fire every morning, in preparation for the morning sacrifice of the lamb (Exodus 29:38). The fat of the peace offerings, that is, the parts of the peace offerings that were burnt on the altar, were laid on the burnt offering. The altar fire was never to go out, because the daily sacrifices constantly burning on the altar symbolized the unceasing worship of God by Israel, and the gracious acceptance of Israel by God. The ever-burning sacrifice was the token of the people being in communion with God.
The further ritual of the meat offering (see note on Leviticus 2:1). The greater part of it is to be given to the priests, and they and the males of their families are to eat it without adding leaven to it. With unleavened bread shall it be eaten (Leviticus 6:16) should rather be rendered, Unleavened shall it be eaten. Not only is it most holy itself, but every one (or rather everything) that toucheth the offerings shall be holy. The touch of the offering conveys the character of holiness to the thing touched, which must, therefore, itself be treated as holy.
The meat offering of the high priest at his institution. This was to be not of uncooked flour, but in the form of a pancake, made out of one-tenth of an ephah of flour. It, of course, accompanied the burnt offering appointed for the occasion. Half of it was burnt in the morning, that is, at the morning sacrifice, and half thereof at night, that is, the other half at the evening sacrifice, none being reserved for consumption by the priests. This meat offering, having first been offered at the consecration of Aaron, was afterwards to be offered at the consecration of each succeeding high priest, the expression Aaron and his sons meaning here the successive high priests. The statement that the offering is to be perpetual, has led to the belief that it was made every day by the high priest, from the time of his consecration onwards, and there is thought to be an allusion to this sacrifice in Ecclus. 45:14; but the more probable opinion is that it was only made on the day of consecration, that is, on the first day that he was qualified to act as high priest.
Further ritual of the sin offering (see note on Leviticus 4:2). The flesh of the sin offerings is to be eaten by the priests and the males of their families in the holy place, that is, within the precincts of the sanctuary, with the exception of the sin offerings of the high priest and of the congregation, whereof … the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place, which was to be burnt in the fire without the camp. The holiness of the offering is manifested:
1. By the command that no drop of the blood which might have been accidentally spilt upon the offerer's dress should be taken out of the tabernacle court.
2. By the order to break or scour the pot in which it was boiled for the priests' eating.
The priests' ritual.
Hitherto the command had been, "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them" (Leviticus 1:2; Leviticus 4:2); Command Aaron and his sons;" the reason being that the injunctions which follow are specially addressed to the future priesthood.
I. PRECISION OF THE POSITIVE RULES AND REGULATIONS GIVEN TO THE AARONIC PRIESTHOOD. Nothing is left to the individual's origination, all is ruled for him—every act that he performs, and each word that he speaks; and any failure in the ritual vitiates the whole ceremony.
II. CONTRAST IN THIS RESPECT WITH THE RITUAL OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. In the New Testament there are no such minute ritual regulations as in the Book of Leviticus. Search through the Gospels, and we find the principles of worship established. Search the Epistles, and we find order and uniformity in religious ministrations commanded, but no such specifications of manual acts as those given in the earlier dispensation.
III. THE REASON OF THE DIFFERENCE. It is a higher and a nobler state to be allowed freely to apply a principle than to be bound down to a certain course by a definite and unchanging rule. The former is the conditions of sons, the latter of servants. "The servant knoweth not what his lord doeth." The Jew was in this position. He did not know what it was that he was representing and rehearsing in type. He must, therefore, be hedged about with rules, lest, in his darkness and ignorance, he should go astray and mar the lesson that he had unwittingly to teach. But "henceforth," says our Lord, "I call you not servants, for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth, but I have called you friends." Accordingly, just as in matters of morals the principles contained in the Sermon on the Mount are given to Christians instead of bare negative or positive rules of conduct; so in matters of worship, certain principles are laid down as to the nature of true worship and how it is to be offered (John 4:21-24), and a few general rules commending uniformity and order in public worship (1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 11:16; 1 Corinthians 14:33, 1 Corinthians 14:40), and declaring its ends to be the edification of the people (1 Corinthians 14:26); and then the work of composing its Liturgy and common prayers is delivered to the Church without any other restraint than that of embodying in them settled forms of administration of the two sacraments of Baptism (Matthew 28:19) and of the Lord's Supper, using the Lord's Prayer (Luke 11:2), and of" asking" in the name of Jesus Christ (John 16:24). Therefore, "it is not necessary "in the Christian Church, as it was in the Jewish Church, that "ceremonies be in all places one, and utterly like: for at all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the diversities of countries, times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against God's Word Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish, ceremonies or rites of the Church ordained only by man's authority, so that all things be done to edifying" (Art. 34).
IV. A PRECOMPOSED LITURGY IS NOT DISPLEASING TO GOD. However much the liberty of the Christian Church may in this respect be superior to Jewish bondage, yet it is evident from the Levitical laws and regulations that a prearranged and formal method of approaching God is in accordance with his will, as recorded in his holy Word.
HOMILIES BY R.M. EDGAR
Quench not the Spirit.
Cf. Ephesians 4:30; I Thessalonians Ephesians 5:19. We have here sundry sacrificial laws enabling us the better to understand the details of the preceding sacrifices; but the cardinal idea in them all, as we shall now see, is that which heads this homily, "Quench not the Spirit." And—
I. THE FIRE OF THE BURNT OFFERING WAS TO BE CAREFULLY PRESERVED, SO THAT IT SHOULD NEVER GO OUT. This necessitated a regular removal of the ashes to the clean place selected for their reception without the camp. These ashes represented what would not ascend in the fire, and were a fitting symbol of the dross and corruption which attaches to all human services. Everything which would prevent the fire from burning was to be removed. Now, we have already seen that the fire of the altar symbolizes the Holy Spirit. It is what came from God in the first instance, and what renders the sacrifice acceptable. Hence the lesson about the perpetuation of the altar-fire is to remove everything which would hinder or would quench the free action of the Spirit within us. The purer we try to be, the freer will the movements of the Holy Ghost be within us. On the other hand, negligence in life must interrupt the spiritual action. Let us diligently use every means, like the priest laying on the wood and clearing away the ashes from the altar, and the Holy Spirit as a fire within us will make us ardent and enthusiastic in the Divine life.
II. NEW OBEDIENCE OUGHT TO BE AS HOLY IN OUR EYES AS ATONEMENT. This principle is symbolized for us in the details about the meat offering (Ephesians 5:14-18). For the priests are not only to burn carefully the due proportion upon the altar, but also to prepare the remainder for themselves without leaven, and to regard it as a "holy of holies" ( קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים), like the sin offering and the trespass offering. If, then, we saw reason to regard the meat offering as emphasizing the idea of consecrated life-work, this direction to the priests about regarding the meat offering as just as holy as the sin offering or trespass offering, embodies the idea that "new obedience" should be as holy in our eyes as "atonement." Now, there is no principle more likely to please the Holy Spirit, to foster his indwelling, and to maintain his reign. The whole Christian life is elevated in tone when this ideal is comprehended. The perfection of our Saviour's atonement and righteousness is to be the model of our lives.
III. A CLASS IS NEEDFUL WHOSE SELF-DENYING LIVES ARE ABOVE SUSPICION. This seems taught by the arrangement that the meat offering of the priests must be wholly burnt (Ephesians 5:19-23). The life-work is to be all consecrated, all a dedicated thing. Never are the officers of God to be "off duty," "out of season" as well as "in season" should they serve God.
Now, the self-denial of a class of men, if realized, goes far to secure the continuance and blessing of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of self-denial—this is the most important evidence of his work—and the demonstration of this to men is a concomitant of his abiding.
It need hardly be observed—it is so evident—that Jesus, our Great High Priest, realized self-denial in all its fullness. He could say, as none other can, "My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work" (John 4:34). Every portion of our Lord's life-work was laid upon the altar, permeated with the oil of the Spirit, and enveloped in the incense of prayer. It is for priestly believers to follow in his steps.
IV. THE CONSECRATING POWER OF THE ATONING SACRIFICE SHOULD BE KEPT CONSTANTLY IN VIEW. In the remaining verses (Ephesians 5:24-30), we have brought before us the intense holiness of the sin offering. It is to be regarded as a "holy of holies" ( קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים). In ordinary cases the priest, is. to. eat. that which, remains, after God's share has been offered on the altar, to sustain him in his atoning duties, and to sustain also his sense of consecration. In the more important cases, such as are referred to in Le Ephesians 4:1-21, the remainder of the animal was to be carried out to the clean place outside the camp, and burned there in the place of the ashes. Moreover, every person and thing which touched the flesh was thereby consecrated, So intensely holy was the atoning sacrifice, that it pervaded with its sanctifying power everything in contact with it.
That this is typical is clear. A similar but much more real consecration attaches to the atoning sacrifice of Christ. And this great truth must be kept in view if we would preserve the Spirit within us. To separate consecration from the atoning work of Jesus must ever be grieving to the Spirit, whose chief mission is to take of the things of Christ and show them unto men (John 16:14, John 16:15). We have thus discovered in these miscellaneous laws what course we should follow, if the Spirit is not to be quenched within us but is to abide. We must diligently use the appointed means, we must have the highest possible ideal of a consecrated life, and we must give all honour to the atoning sacrifice of Jesus. In such circumstances we shall retain, in large and abiding measure, the Holy Spirit within us.—R.M.E.
HOMILIES BY S.R. ALDRIDGE
The ever-burning fire.
The special directions for the benefit of the priests are fittingly separated from the instructions common to all the people. In front of the tabernacle stood the altar of burnt offering, and on this a fire was kept constantly burning, in obedience to the injunction of the text. For a description of the altar, see Exodus 27:1-8. Let us advance in thought, and behold the flames and curling smoke, and hear the lessons the fire preaches.
I. Consider it as THE FULFILMENT OF AN ORDINANCE. From his relationship to God, man is bound to obey him, and this same relationship causes that the majority of God's utterances to man are in the nature of commands, such commands, however, containing virtual promises. And those are most honoured who have most commands. The priests occupied the highest posts in the estimation of the people, simply because they were entirely devoted to the behests of the Almighty. To lay sticks in order upon the altar and set fire to them, was in itself a humble occupation, but the fact that it was performed for the glory of God elevated its character in the eyes of all. Menial duties are ennobled when discharged as unto the Lord. The fire was an emblem of worship, of praise, and supplication, ascending to the Most High from his faithful people. That it was perpetual indicated God's desire to be worshipped, not with fitful enthusiasm, but with steady regularity. There were times when the fuel was renewed, just as men may have their seasons of devotion at morning and at night, on the Lord's day and on a certain week-day, but there must be always a flame of service to testify to the obedience and affection of the people. The fire was kept alight by successive generations in their turn. To no one age is it exclusively given to sound the praises and do the will of the Eternal. When one servant falls asleep, having done the will of God, his younger comrade must step into his place and continue the work. Even the materials so soon to be consumed must be deposited upon the altar in an orderly manner. It is said by the rabbins that care was taken in selecting the sticks, no rotten ones being allowed. Whatever is done for God must be done to the best of our ability.
II. Consider it as THE ENJOYMENT OF A PRIVILEGE. Once the fire was consecrated by the approach thereto of the glorious fire from God's presence instantly consuming the sacrifice (Leviticus 9:24). The flames became henceforth a token of God's acceptance of the offerings of his servants, and his consequent reconciliation and favour. If any Israelite doubted the reality of Jehovah's existence or his willingness to bless the nation, a glance at the fire was sufficient to dismiss all doubt, and to inspire his breast with a consciousness of blessing.
The perpetual fire symbolized God's unchangeable protection of his people. Through the hours of daylight and through the watches of the night the flames ascended on high; they knew no cessation; they spoke of him who "never slumbers nor sleeps," upon whose brightness no darkening shadow ever rests. This altar-fire consumed the various offerings presented. It kindled other fires—from it the burning coals for the golden altar of incense were taken; it was the fire-foundation on which the sacrifices were laid, and by which they were consecrated. It is the loving sacrifice of Christ that generates holy lives in his followers. By his ascension the fire of the Holy Spirit descended upon the Church, kindling sparks of hallowed emotion, and making the thoughts and words and acts of Christians an ever-brightening blaze of sacred service.—S.R.A.
The holiness of the sin offering.
This offering was to expiate offenses committed directly against God, and which involved, therefore, the deeper wrong. A peculiar sacredness attached to the sacrifice. Only the priests might partake of it, for it was "most holy." As all Christians are made "priests unto God," it is permitted them to feed upon him who died to save them from sin. They live by faith in the Son of God. Union with their Divine Lord consecrates them, imperishable principles sustain them.
I. WHAT IS OFFERED UNTO GOD ACQUIRES THEREBY A SACRED CHARACTER. It is set apart, belongs to him henceforth. He accepts the gift, and his holiness is imparted to all his possessions. His people are holy, and so are his house and his statutes. Christ, having dedicated himself to the Father, could declare "I sanctify myself." It is no light matter for a man to take upon himself allegiance to a holy God, to "vow to be his, yea, his alone." God himself must sanctify us wholly, that body, soul, and spirit may be preserved blameless. Some article of furniture that is owned by a celebrated monarch is invested with importance by that fact, and numbers view it with eager interest. The servant wearing his famous master's livery is regarded with attention. Surely, then, those are worth our notice who are consecrated to the service of the King of kings, vessels meet for his use.
II. HOLINESS TENDS TO COMMUNICATE ITSELF TO ALL THAT IS BROUGHT INTO CONTACT WITH IT. Whoever touches the sin offering shall be holy. Like leaven, the sacredness spreads. The prospect of the world's improvement lies in the hope of its permeation by Christian principle. By touching the Saviour, the sick were healed, and by placing the hand of faith now upon Christ's bleeding body, the sinner is sanctified in the sight of God. That holiness extends is recognized in the apostle's declaration, that "the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife." Continual contact with sacred rites and offerings renewed the holiness of the priests. So let us seek to draw near unto our God by the Living Way, having our hearts sprinkled and bodies washed.
III. In spite of this consecrating power, WHAT IS HOLY MUST NOT BE THOUGHTLESSLY PLACED IN PROPINQUITY WITH WHAT IS DEFILING. Let blood from the offering stain the garment, and it must be cleansed "in the holy place," not carried without into the region of things common and unclean. If the flesh was boiled in an earthen vessel, the fat might penetrate through the porous surface, so that no after rinsing or scouring would remove it, as in the case of copper ("brazen") vessels. The earthen pot must consequently be broken, to prevent all risk of any portion of a sin offering being contaminated by touching subsequent food. Learn from this not to profane what is dedicated to God. Our Lord's words to Mary after his resurrection are significant: "Touch me not." The precept of Paul was, "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?" We must not cast pearls before swine. Let us not commingle sordid motives and methods with the worship of the sanctuary. Jests founded upon the Word of God are to be shunned. Previous prayer will not sanction worldly entertainments and amusements. In many directions the regulations of Leviticus may be remembered with advantage to-day.—S.R.A.
HOMILIES BY J.A. MACDONALD
The law of the burnt offering.
With this paragraph the Jews begin the twenty-fifth section of the Law; and, as a new subject is here introduced, this ought to have been the commencement of the chapter. In some of the best editions of the Hebrew Bible, the paragraph preceding this is properly made the sequel of the fifth chapter, and the sixth commences with this. The burnt offering was treated of before, viz. in the first chapter, with more particular reference to ceremonies relating to those who brought it; here it is considered in relation to the priests who offered it. We have now to consider—
I. THE LAW OF THE BURNT OFFERING AS TO THE SACRIFICE. And we observe:
1. That the offering was ever upon the altar.
2. That the fire was kept ever burning.
II. THE LAW OF THE BURNT OFFERING AS TO THE PRIEST.
1. "Aaron and his sons" together are addressed. Leviticus 6:9.
2. They attended the altar in their holy garments.
3. He changed his garments to carry the ashes outside.
The law of the meat offering.
As the law of the burnt offering, laid down in the preceding paragraph, viz. in relation to the service of the priest, was before mentioned, more particularly in respect to the offerer, so is the law of the meat, or more properly the bread, offering, here introduced for a similar reason, after being formerly mentioned likewise (see Leviticus 2:1-16). The subject is presented in two aspects, and we have to consider—
I. THE LAW OF THE BREAD OFFERING OF THE PEOPLE, In this case:
1. A memorial of it was burnt upon the altar.
(a) It was a thank offering, and gratitude from his intelligent offspring is ever pleasing to his goodness (Psalms 27:6; Psalms 1:1-6 :23; Romans 12:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:18).
(b) It was placed on the altar of burnt offerings, and mingled among the sacrifices offered, to make atonement for sin, and so, coming up as it were "through Jesus Christ" in whom the Father is ever well pleased, it becomes "acceptable" (1 Peter 2:5).
2. The remainder was eaten by Aaron and his sons.
II. THE LAW OF THE BREAD OFFERING OF THE PRIESTS. In this case:
1. The whole was offered upon the altar.
2. None of it was to be eaten by the priests.
The law of the sin offering.
This law comprehends a variety of particulars, which may be ranged under two heads—
I. As IT RESPECTS THE BLEEDING. The particulars under this head are:
1. The place: "Where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed."
2. The presence: "Before the Lord" (Leviticus 6:25).
3. The reason: "It is most holy" (Leviticus 6:25). What?
II. As IT RESPECTS THE EATING.
1. It was to be eaten by the priest. "The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it."
2. It was to be eaten in the holy place (Leviticus 6:26).
3. But certain sin offerings must not be eaten.
HOMILIES BY W. CLARKSON
Three principles of piety.
We gather from this clause—
I. THAT HOLINESS BECOMES THE HOUSE OF GOD. It seems generally agreed that the linen garments, in which the priests were to be robed when engaged in sacrificial acts (Leviticus 6:10), signified the purity of heart which should characterize the worshipper of God (see Exodus 28:42; Ezekiel 44:19). Certainly it is only the "pure in heart" who can hope to "see God," either by faith here or in beatific vision hereafter (see Psalms 93:5).
II. THAT THERE IS NO DRUDGERY IN THE SERVICE OF GOD. Very homely and humble details of sacred work were to be done by the officiating priest. He was to be very careful as to the clothes he wore, changing them at regulated times (Leviticus 6:10, Leviticus 6:11); he was to "take up the ashes … and put them beside the altar" (Leviticus 6:10), and to "carry forth the ashes without the camp," etc. (Leviticus 6:11). These acts were mean enough in themselves. Elsewhere they would have been accounted menial, but in so sacred a service as the direct worship of Jehovah they acquired sanctity, and even dignity. They were solemn ceremonies, reverently performed. The slightest engagement in the worship of God deserves to be esteemed sacred (Psalms 84:10). Any humble deed done or simple word spoken,
rises to high rank in the esteem of Heaven. The cheerful, loving service of a Divine Redeemer does not contain one act of drudgery; it is all upon the high level of holy, happy, elevating service.
III. THAT THERE MUST BE CONSTANCY IN OUR CONSECRATION TO GOD. "The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out" (Leviticus 6:13). As soon as the victim was slain and his shed blood was sprinkled on the altar, there was forgiveness and acceptance, and the burning of the whole animal by the heaven-kindled fire indicated the accepted consecration of the offerer. When, therefore, the priest was instructed to keep the fire perpetually burning on the altar, it signified God's readiness to receive the perpetual devotion of the Israelites themselves to him and to his service. To us the most instructive lesson it conveys is that we must keep steadily and unfailingly burning the fire of consecration in our hearts;—that must "never go out."
1. The passions of youth must not be permitted to extinguish it.
2. Nor the toils and anxieties of our prime.
3. Nor the mysterious and perplexing troubles that, like whelming billows (Psalms 42:7), go over us.
4. Nor the distressing doubts which the enemies of the faith raise within us.
5. Nor the comforts and indulgences of prosperous periods in our life. It must be diligently and devoutly fed by
Fellowship with the Father.
In these renewed directions (see Leviticus 2:1-16) concerning the meat offering, we have the striking expression, "I have given it unto them for their portion of my offerings" (Leviticus 6:17). So that this sacrifice, beside furnishing an opportunity to the people of acknowledging their indebtedness to God as the generous Giver of all blessings, provided an opportunity to the priests of fellowship with God, He shared these "his offerings" with his ministers, and they ate with him "in the holy place" (Leviticus 6:16), within the precincts of his house. "And truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ" (1 John 1:3). In Divine and human fellowship under the gospel, there is—
I. FEASTING TOGETHER. The truest Christian counterpart of the sacred service described in the text is found in the Lord's Supper, There we, who arc all "priests unto God" (Revelation 1:6; 1 Peter 2:5, 1 Peter 2:9), meet at the table of the Lord (1 Corinthians 10:21), and eat and drink in his presence, rejoicing in his redeeming love, renewing before him our vows.
II. SPEAKING ONE TO ANOTHER.
1. God to man in
2. Man to God in
III. REJOICING IN ONE ANOTHER.
1. God in man (Deuteronomy 32:9; Psalms 35:27; Psalms 147:11; Habakkuk 3:18; Ephesians 5:27; Revelation 21:2).
2. Man in God (Psalms 16:5; Psalms 89:16; Psalms 149:2; Philippians 3:3; Philippians 4:4).
IV. WORKING TOGETHER. We are "workers together with him" (2 Corinthians 6:1); "labourers together with God" (1 Corinthians 3:9). While God is working in us and through us, he is also working with us; united with us in working out the reconciliation and regeneration of the world.—C.
When any victim had been presented in sacrifice to God, and had been slain, its blood (the "blood of atonement"), and also its flesh, became "most holy" (Leviticus 6:29). And whatsoever was touched by the one or the other received, in virtue of such contact, a communicated sanctity (Leviticus 6:27, Leviticus 6:28). The lesson here conveyed is that whatsoever comes into close association with a holy one or a holy thing does thereby acquire a measure of sacredness, and should be treated accordingly by us. This imparted sanctity gives back again to that which acts upon it some additional importance; it reflects that which it receives on the object from which it comes. We have abundant illustration of this truth; sanctity is communicated—
I. FROM THE GOD-MAN TO HUMAN NATURE. Man is far more to Got and to the spiritual universe now that the "Word was made flesh," that "himself" was "partaker of flesh and blood." In Jesus Christ the Divine touched the human, and henceforth the human is holy.
II. FROM THE LIFE AND DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST TO THE LIFE AND DEATH OF MEN. Poverty, shame, sorrow, tears, the grave,—are not these other than they were, sacred things, since he "had not where to lay his head;" since the crown of thorns rested on that sacred head; since the Man of sorrows bore his burden; since "Jesus wept;" since they "laid him in a sepulcher"?
III. FROM THE SERVICE TO THE SANCTUARY. "This is none other than the house of God."
IV. FROM THE FUNCTION TO THE MINISTER. "Esteem them very highly in love for their work's sake."
V. FROM THE SPIRIT TO THE BODY. The exceeding preciousness of the human spirit imparts a sanctity to the body which is its residence and organ.
VI. FROM THE TRUTH TO THE WORD. We must deal reverently with the words in which the eternal truth of God is uttered.—C.
Ministerial function, and obligation.
This instruction is supplementary to that given in Exodus 29:1-46. We may gather from it—
I. THAT ENTRANCE ON SACRED WORK SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED WITH SPECIAL SOLEMNITIES. The commencement of any ministry may well be attended with such observances as shall impress upon the mind the sanctity and. weight of the obligations which are incurred.
It. THAT THE ACCEPTANCE OF SACRED OBLIGATIONS SHOULD BE REGARDED AS A TIME FOR THANKFULNESS AS WELL AS SERIOUSNESS OF SPIRIT. The priest was to bring a "meat offering"—fine flour and oil (Exodus 29:20, Exodus 29:21)—the token of gratitude for God's bountiful provision. There are, in truth, few things for which we have such reason to be thankful to God as for his providential guidance to that post for which we are fitted, at which we can usefully expend our powers; more particularly if this be one in close connection with his service.
III. THAT THOSE WHO HOLD SACRED OFFICES ARE, WITH ALL THE PEOPLE OF GOD, STEWARDS OF THEIR SECULAR POSSESSIONS. The priest, as well as the layman in Israel, was to bring his meat offering. He, too, was indebted to the Divine Sovereign for all temporal blessings, and should make suitable acknowledgment of his debt. Those who now serve in sacred things, in the gospel of the Saviour, are men who receive and hold secular as well as spiritual treasures, and they, too, have their obligations, which they must not disregard.
IV. THAT WHAT WE GIVE TO GOD AND HIS CAUSE SHOULD BE GIVEN ABSOLUTELY, WITHOUT THOUGHT OF RETURN. The people gave their offerings, part being burnt and the rest being the portion of the priests; but every "meat offering for the priest was to be wholly burnt: it was not to be eaten" (Exodus 29:23). The priests were not to take back again for their own use that which they had presented to God. What they offered was to be given wholly, utterly, with no thought of receiving it again. When we give to our brother, we do best when we are "hoping for nothing again" (Luke 6:35). When we give to God, either in worship or in contribution to his cause and kingdom, we do best when we are filled with a sense of his immeasurable goodness to us, and with a desire to do something to his praise. We should feel that
HOMILIES BY R.A. REDFORD
Instructions on the offerings for the priests.
Leviticus 6:13, "The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out."
I. THE PERPETUITY OF RELIGIOUS OBLIGATION.
1. As springing out of the relation between man and God, as underlying the whole of human existence. "In him we live, and move, and have our being."
2. The all-embracing love of God. The fire came originally from him, and must be kept up to betoken his ceaseless care of his creatures.
3. The positive expression of religious feeling can never be dispensed with, should be maintained in uninterrupted order.
II. The maintenance of worship is A DUTY WHICH IS DEVOLVED UPON CONSECRATED PERSONS, and their official position, in an especial manner. Vain to expect that the tire will not go out, unless appointed persons attend to it. Mere individualism is abuse of liberty, and ends in irreligious disorder and extinction of the fire of God's house.
Priestcraft is no argument against a special ministry in the Church. All must help to maintain the fire, but some must take the command as addressed to them in a special manner. They must separate themselves to the work, both by appropriate manner of life and recognition of special duties. Religion is not only in temples, but if the fire goes out there, it will go out everywhere.—R.
"All the males of the sons of Aaron shall eat of it," with unleavened bread, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation. "It is most holy, as is the sin offering, and as the trespass offering." "Every one that toucheth them shall be holy."
I. THE MINISTRY OF RELIGION SHOULD BE FULFILLED IN THE SPIRIT OF THANKFUL DEVOTION.
1. The best of the Church should be consecrated to its highest positions.
2. Their service should be rendered as a delight.
3. Their religious earnestness and cheerfulness should be cultivated by fellowship and brotherhood.
4. They should be closely united with the people, not separated from them by spiritual pride and a misanthropic asceticism.
II. HOLINESS THE IMPERATIVE REQUIREMENT OF GOD'S MINISTERS. Not mere ceremonial holiness.
1. Holiness of character and life.
2. Holiness in the service of the sanctuary—purity of worship, singleness of heart, orderliness and decency, with simplicity and manifest sincerity.
III. THE SANCTIFYING INFLUENCE OF A TRUE AND PURE WORSHIP EXTENDS THROUGH SOCIETY. Every one holy by contact with the holy.
1. The persuasive effect of a real and well-sustained religious service. The common mistake is to suppose that morality leads of itself to religion or may be substituted for it.
2. The true order of life is set before us here in the Law of Moses: the nearer to God, the holier; the more closely connected with the worship of God, the more separated from and defended against the impurities of the world.
3. The reaction of the holy life on the sanctuary. The revival of religion must be a reciprocal action of the Church on the ministry, and of the ministry on the Church.—R.
The high priest's offering in the day when he is anointed—a perpetual meat offering; offered not during the days of the anointing, but when it was completed, and it was wholly burnt. Fine flour baked as an oil-cake; not a bleeding sacrifice, therefore, but only a thank offering, to denote that expiation was always made, and the high priest offered the fruits of sanctification. This may be viewed—
I. Is ITS TYPICAL APPLICATION TO THE LORD JESUS CHRIST.
1. His entire consecration to his mediatorial office.
2. His personal perfection as needing no expiation, offering only the fine flour of his unspotted humanity, mingled with the oil of the Spirit of God, and with the fire of actual human experience applied to it.
3. His acceptance by the Father on our behalf; "wholly burnt."
II. IN ITS LESSER APPLICATION TO THE MINISTRY OF THE SANCTUARY.
1. The true ordination not a mere human rite, but a Divine acceptance of personal consecration. "I have chosen you," said Jesus, "and ordained you."
2. The minister of God should offer his fine flour, his highest gifts—his intellect, culture, sifted knowledge, prepared thought, tie should put nothing which he himself has not toiled to make worthy on the altar.
3. With all we present, the oil of grace must be mingled, and it must be prepared by actual fire of experience. No man can teach and minister spiritual blessings to others who is not himself practically acquainted with the truth.
4. "Every meat offering for the priest shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten." No ministry can be divinely blessed which is not fulfilled in the spirit of single-hearted, self-consuming devotion. We must hate our life for Christ's sake, and take up his cross, if we are to follow him.—R.
Special regulations as to the sin offering.
Peculiar sanctity of the flesh and blood of the sin offering, pointing to the atonement. In all cases, whether the sin offering of the people, or of the priest, or of the great day of atonement, the same holiness of the victim and of the blood is insisted upon. Here there is—
I. THE NECESSITY OF ATONEMENT.
1. As prescribed by God, coming forth from his infinite holiness.
2. As connected with mediation, not in atonement dependent upon the chance merit of man, but the gracious promise of God's free and sovereign mercy.
3. As set forth in the flesh and blood of the victim, clearly indicating a substitutionary merit.
II. THE TYPICAL FULFILMENT OF THE SIN OFFERING IN JESUS CHRIST, at once the High Priest and the Victim.
1. Most holy in his person and his blood.
2. Connected with the burnt offering, as presented in the same place. The cross was a whole offering in the fire of suffering, in the consuming righteousness of the Divine Law.
3. Imparting the holiness to him who shall touch it. Healing virtue from Christ; sanctification from the cross.
4. The very vessels are sanctified. So the Spirit of Christ cleanses the world. The diffusion of the Christian doctrine and life lifts up all that belongs to human existence into a higher sphere.—R.
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Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on Leviticus 6". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Easter