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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Chronicles 12

Introduction

Overview

1 Chronicles 12:1, The companies that came to David at Ziklag; 1 Chronicles 12:23, The armies that came to him at Hebron.

Verse 1

these are: 1 Samuel 27:2, 1 Samuel 27:6, 2 Samuel 1:1, 2 Samuel 4:10

while he yet: etc. Heb. being yet shut up, Sometimes, in the East, when a successful prince endeavoured to extirpate the preceding royal family, some of them escaped the slaughter, and secured themselves in an impregnable fortress, or in a place of great secrecy; while others have been known to seek an asylum in a foreign county, from when they have occasioned, from time to time, great anxiety and great difficulties to the usurper of the crown. The expression shut up, so often applied to the extermination of eastern royal families - Deuteronomy 32:32. 1 Kings 14:10, 1 Kings 21:21. 2 Kings 9:8, 2 Kings 14:26, strictly speaking, refers to the two first of these cases; but the term may be used in a more extensive sense, for those who, by retiring into deserts, or foreign countries, preserve themselves from being slain by the men who usurp the dominions of their ancestors. Thus the term is here applied to David, though he did not shut himself up, strictly speaking, in Ziklag. It is described as a town in the country, and was probably an unwalled town; and it is certain that he did not confine himself to it, but, on the contrary, was continually making excursions from thence.

Saul: 1 Chronicles 8:33, 1 Chronicles 9:39

the mighty: 1 Chronicles 11:10, 1 Chronicles 11:19, 1 Chronicles 11:24, 1 Chronicles 11:25

Reciprocal: Genesis 49:8 - thy hand Joshua 15:31 - Ziklag 1 Samuel 30:26 - to his friends 2 Samuel 2:3 - his men 1 Chronicles 4:30 - Ziklag

Verse 2

could use: Judges 3:15, Judges 20:16

in hurling: 1 Samuel 17:49

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 20:10 - in Joab's 1 Chronicles 8:40 - archers 1 Chronicles 12:16 - the children 1 Chronicles 12:29 - kindred

Verse 3

Shemaah: or, Hasmaah

Gibeathite: 1 Samuel 11:4, 2 Samuel 21:6

Azmaveth: 1 Chronicles 11:33

the Antothite: 1 Chronicles 11:28

Verse 4

Gibeonite: Joshua 9:3, Joshua 9:17-23

a mighty man: 1 Chronicles 11:15

Gederathite: Joshua 15:36

Verse 7

Gedor: 1 Chronicles 4:18, 1 Chronicles 4:39, Joshua 15:58

Verse 8

into the hold: 1 Chronicles 12:16, 1 Chronicles 11:16, 1 Samuel 23:14, 1 Samuel 23:29, 1 Samuel 24:22

of war: Heb. of the host

handle: 2 Chronicles 25:5, Jeremiah 46:9

whose faces: 1 Chronicles 11:22, 2 Samuel 1:23, 2 Samuel 17:10, 2 Samuel 23:20, Proverbs 28:1

as swift as the roes upon the mountains: Heb. as the roes upon the mountains to make haste, 2 Samuel 2:18, Proverbs 6:5, Song of Solomon 8:14

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:20 - Blessed Ezekiel 1:10 - the face of a lion Ezekiel 38:4 - handling Revelation 9:17 - as the

Verse 11

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 2:35 - Attai

Verse 14

one of the least was over an hundred, and the greatest over a thousand: or, one that was least could resist an hundred, the greatest a thousand. Leviticus 26:8, Deuteronomy 32:30

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 13:1 - consulted

Verse 15

it had overflown: Heb. it had filled over, Joshua 3:15, Joshua 4:18, Jeremiah 12:5, Jeremiah 49:19

Reciprocal: Exodus 26:28 - reach

Verse 16

the children: 1 Chronicles 12:2

the hold: 1 Chronicles 12:8

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 22:4 - in the hold 2 Samuel 23:14 - an hold Psalms 68:27 - little

Verse 17

to meet them: Heb. before them

If ye be come: 1 Samuel 16:4, 2 Samuel 3:20-25, 1 Kings 2:13, 2 Kings 9:22, Psalms 12:1, Psalms 12:2

heart: 1 Samuel 18:1, 1 Samuel 18:3, 2 Kings 10:15, Psalms 86:11, 2 Corinthians 13:11, Philippians 1:27

knit: Heb. one, Jeremiah 32:39, Acts 4:32, 1 Corinthians 1:10

wrong: or, violence

God: Genesis 31:42, Genesis 31:53, 1 Samuel 24:11-17, 1 Samuel 26:23, 1 Samuel 26:24, Psalms 7:6, 1 Peter 2:23

rebuke it: Zechariah 3:2, Jude 1:9

Reciprocal: Joshua 5:13 - Art thou for us 1 Samuel 20:8 - why shouldest 1 Chronicles 12:38 - all the rest Matthew 5:9 - are Matthew 12:30 - that is Acts 5:30 - God Acts 22:14 - The God

Verse 18

the spirit: Judges 6:34, Judges 13:25, Isaiah 59:17

came upon Amasai: Heb. clothed Amasai, 1 Chronicles 2:17, 2 Samuel 17:25, 2 Samuel 19:13, 2 Samuel 20:4-8, Amasa, Thine are we. 2 Kings 10:5, and on they side, Ruth 1:16, 2 Samuel 15:21, 2 Kings 9:32, Matthew 12:30

peace: Galatians 6:16, Ephesians 6:23, Ephesians 6:24

thy God: 1 Samuel 25:28, 1 Samuel 25:29, 2 Samuel 5:2, Zechariah 8:23, John 6:67, John 6:68

captains of the band: 1 Samuel 8:12, 1 Samuel 22:7, 1 Kings 9:22

Reciprocal: Genesis 43:23 - Peace Joshua 5:13 - Art thou for us Judges 11:29 - the spirit Judges 19:20 - Peace be 1 Samuel 16:4 - Comest 1 Samuel 25:6 - Peace be both 1 Kings 2:13 - Comest 2 Kings 10:15 - Is thine heart right 1 Chronicles 12:38 - all the rest 2 Chronicles 24:20 - came upon 2 Chronicles 26:7 - God helped Psalms 54:4 - General Psalms 118:7 - taketh Psalms 122:7 - Peace Isaiah 41:10 - for I am thy God Daniel 4:1 - Peace 1 Corinthians 16:16 - helpeth 2 Corinthians 1:2 - General 2 Corinthians 8:5 - unto

Verse 19

when he came: 1 Samuel 29:2-4

to the jeopardy of our heads: Heb. on our heads

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 29:4 - Make this fellow 2 Kings 7:4 - let us fall 2 Chronicles 15:9 - they fell Psalms 60:7 - Gilead

Verse 20

As he went: These captains of Manasseh seem to have met David as he was returning from the army of the Philistines to Ziklag. It is probable that they did not bring their companies with them; yet they both assured him of future assistance, and very seasonably helped him against the Amalekites who had spoiled Ziklag. 1 Samuel 29:11

captains: Exodus 18:21, Deuteronomy 1:15, Deuteronomy 33:17

Reciprocal: Genesis 40:17 - bakemeats 1 Samuel 27:6 - Ziklag 1 Chronicles 12:21 - mighty men 1 Chronicles 13:1 - consulted

Verse 21

against the band: or, with a band, 1 Samuel 30:1-17

mighty men: 1 Chronicles 12:20, 1 Chronicles 5:24, 1 Chronicles 11:10, 1 Chronicles 11:21, 1 Chronicles 11:22

Verse 22

day by day: 2 Samuel 2:2-4, 2 Samuel 3:1, Job 17:9

like the host of God: That is, says the Targumist, a very numerous army, like the army of the angel of God. Genesis 32:2, Joshua 5:14, Psalms 148:2

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:7 - let his hands 2 Chronicles 14:13 - his host

Verse 23

am 2956, bc 1048, An, Ex, Is, 433

the numbers: 1 Chronicles 11:1-3, 2 Samuel 2:3, 2 Samuel 2:4, 2 Samuel 5:1-3

bands: or, captains, or men, Heb. heads

came to David: Some learned men understand this as relating to the time when David was make king over Judah, on his first coming to Hebron, but it seems wholly to refer to his being made king over all Israel, after the death of Ishbosheth; for there was no such union or assembly of the several tribes on the former occasion, as is here described.

to turn: 1 Chronicles 10:14

according: 1 Chronicles 11:10, 1 Samuel 16:1, 1 Samuel 16:3, 1 Samuel 16:12, 1 Samuel 16:13, 2 Samuel 3:18, Psalms 2:6, Psalms 89:19, Psalms 89:20

Reciprocal: Genesis 35:22 - Now the sons Exodus 1:1 - General Deuteronomy 17:15 - whom Joshua 10:36 - Hebron 2 Samuel 3:9 - as the Lord 2 Samuel 15:10 - Hebron

Verse 24

armed: or, prepared

Verse 25

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 9:15 - Mattaniah 1 Chronicles 9:16 - Obadiah

Verse 26

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 15:4 - the children of Aaron

Verse 27

the leader: 1 Chronicles 9:20, 2 Kings 11:4, 2 Kings 11:9, 2 Kings 25:18

Aaronites: 1 Chronicles 6:49-57, 1 Chronicles 27:17

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 24:3 - Zadok

Verse 28

Zadok: 1 Chronicles 6:8, 1 Chronicles 6:53, 2 Samuel 8:17, 1 Kings 1:8, 1 Kings 2:35, Ezekiel 44:15

Reciprocal: Joshua 10:36 - Hebron 1 Chronicles 6:48 - appointed 1 Chronicles 15:11 - Zadok 1 Chronicles 16:39 - Zadok 1 Chronicles 24:3 - Zadok 1 Chronicles 25:1 - the captains 1 Chronicles 26:6 - mighty men of valour 1 Chronicles 27:17 - of the Aaronites 2 Chronicles 26:17 - valiant men

Verse 29

kindred: Heb. brethren, 1 Chronicles 12:2, Genesis 31:23

the greatest part of them: Heb. a multitude of them, 2 Samuel 2:8, 2 Samuel 2:9

Reciprocal: Joshua 17:11 - Manasseh 2 Samuel 3:19 - Benjamin Psalms 68:27 - little

Verse 30

famous: Heb. men of names, Genesis 6:4

Reciprocal: Numbers 16:2 - famous

Verse 31

the half tribe: Joshua 17:1-18

Reciprocal: Leviticus 24:16 - blasphemeth Numbers 32:33 - half the 1 Chronicles 16:41 - expressed

Verse 32

understanding of the times: That is, as the following words indicate, intelligent men, who understood the signs of the times, well versed in political affairs, and knew what was proper to be done in all the exigencies of human life; and who now perceived that it was both the duty and political interest of Israel to advance David to the throne. Genesis 49:14, Esther 1:13, Isaiah 22:12-14, Isaiah 33:6, Micah 6:9, Matthew 16:3, Luke 12:56, Luke 12:57

to know: Proverbs 14:8, Ephesians 5:17

all their: Proverbs 24:5, Ecclesiastes 7:19, Ecclesiastes 9:18

Reciprocal: Genesis 30:18 - and she Genesis 46:13 - Issachar Judges 5:15 - the princes 1 Chronicles 7:4 - General 1 Chronicles 13:1 - consulted Ezra 8:16 - men of understanding Ecclesiastes 8:5 - a wise Ecclesiastes 10:10 - wisdom

Verse 33

expert in war: or, rangers of battle, or ranged in battle, keep rank. or, set the battle in array. they were not of double heart. Heb. they were without a heart and a heart. That is, they were all sincerely affected towards David, though so numerous. Psalms 12:2, John 1:47

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 12:36 - expert in war 1 Chronicles 12:38 - with a perfect heart Hebrews 10:22 - a true

Verse 34

Reciprocal: Genesis 46:24 - Naphtali

Verse 35

Reciprocal: Genesis 46:23 - Dan Genesis 49:17 - shall be Deuteronomy 33:22 - General 1 Chronicles 9:15 - Zichri

Verse 36

expert in war: or, keeping their rank, 1 Chronicles 12:33, Joel 2:7

Verse 37

the other side: 1 Chronicles 5:1-10, Numbers 32:33-42, Deuteronomy 3:12-16, Joshua 13:7-32, Joshua 14:3, Joshua 22:1-10

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:20 - Blessed 1 Chronicles 5:18 - Reuben 1 Chronicles 26:32 - Reubenites Psalms 60:7 - Gilead

Verse 38

with a perfect heart: The meaning of this expression may be inferred from that of a double heart in 1 Chronicles 12:33. If a double heart be expressive of insincerity or duplicity, a perfect heart, which seems to be put in opposition to it, must signify a sincere, faithful, and entire attachment. 1 Kings 8:61, 1 Kings 11:4, 2 Kings 20:3, Psalms 101:2

all the rest: 1 Chronicles 12:17, 1 Chronicles 12:18, Genesis 49:8-10, 2 Chronicles 30:12, Psalms 110:3, Ezekiel 11:19

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:20 - Blessed 1 Samuel 11:14 - renew 2 Samuel 3:12 - my hand 2 Samuel 15:10 - Hebron 1 Kings 1:40 - rejoiced 1 Kings 4:1 - over all Israel 1 Chronicles 11:10 - to make 1 Chronicles 18:14 - David 2 Chronicles 10:1 - all Psalms 141:6 - they shall hear Proverbs 18:24 - that hath

Verse 39

eating and drinking: Genesis 26:30, Genesis 31:54, 2 Samuel 6:19, 2 Samuel 19:42

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 11:14 - renew 1 Kings 4:20 - eating

Verse 40

brought: The Septuagint reads וצוסןם בץפיןע, "brought (to) them" which is probably correct; the Hebrew lahem, "to them" might be easily mistaken for lechem, "bread." The passage will then read, "bought them on asses, on camels, and on mules, and on oxen, meat, meal, cakes of figs," etc., which renders the introduction of and unnecessary. From the mention of oil, figs, and raisins, Mr. Harmer thinks that this assembly was held in autumn. 2 Samuel 16:1, 2 Samuel 17:27-29

meat, meal: or, victual of meal

cakes of figs: 1 Samuel 25:18

there was joy: 1 Kings 1:40, 2 Kings 11:20, Proverbs 11:10, Proverbs 29:2, Jeremiah 23:5, Jeremiah 23:6, Luke 19:37-38, Revelation 19:5-7

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 11:14 - all the people 2 Chronicles 23:13 - all the people

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 12". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/1-chronicles-12.html.