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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Psalms 40

Introduction

1The benefit of confidence in God.
6Obedience is the best sacrifice.
11The sense of David's evils inflames his prayer.

Verse 1

I waited patiently for the LORD; and he inclined unto me, and heard my cry.
A. M. 2970. B.C. 1034. (Title.) This psalm is supposed to have been composed by David about the same time, and on the same occasion, as the two preceding; with this difference, that here he magnifies God for have obtained the mercy which he sought there. It also contains a remarkable prophecy of the incarnation and sacrifice of Jesus Christ
I waited
Heb. In waiting I waited.
27:13,14; 37:7; James 5:7-11
inclined
116:2; 130:2; Daniel 9:18
Reciprocal: Genesis 8:10 - stayed; Genesis 19:19 - and thou; Genesis 49:18 - General; 1 Samuel 30:6 - David; Job 14:14 - all the days; Job 33:30 - To bring; Job 36:16 - a broad; Psalm 4:1 - thou; Psalm 6:9 - hath heard; Psalm 18:16 - drew; Psalm 25:3 - wait; Psalm 30:3 - brought; Psalm 52:9 - wait; Psalm 62:1 - my soul; Psalm 69:14 - Deliver; Psalm 69:30 - I will; Psalm 71:20 - which; Psalm 86:17 - thou; Psalm 116:1 - because; Psalm 118:5 - called; Psalm 123:2 - so our eyes; Psalm 130:5 - I wait; Song of Solomon 2:12 - time; Isaiah 8:17 - I will; Isaiah 30:18 - blessed; Isaiah 40:31 - they that; Isaiah 50:10 - let; Lamentations 3:25 - good; Lamentations 3:55 - General; Micah 7:7 - wait; Matthew 5:4 - General; Luke 21:19 - General; Luke 22:44 - being; John 16:20 - your; Acts 7:10 - delivered; Acts 9:11 - for; Romans 12:12 - patient; 2 Thessalonians 3:5 - and into; Hebrews 5:7 - and; Hebrews 10:36 - ye have; James 1:4 - let; James 5:8 - ye also

Verse 2

He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings.
brought
18:16,17; 71:20; 86:13; 116:3; 142:6,7; 143:3; Isaiah 24:22; Jonah 2:5,6; Zechariah 9:11; Acts 2:24,27-31
horrible pit
Heb. pit of noise.
Matthew 13:50
the miry
69:2,14,15; Jeremiah 38:6-12; Lamentations 3:53-55
set
27:5; 61:2; Matthew 7:24,25
established
17:5; 18:36; 37:23; 119:133
Reciprocal: Genesis 37:24 - the pit; 1 Samuel 30:6 - David; Job 14:14 - all the days; Job 33:24 - Deliver; Job 33:30 - To bring; Psalm 6:9 - hath heard; Psalm 7:9 - but; Psalm 18:19 - brought; Psalm 26:12 - My; Psalm 30:3 - brought; Psalm 30:7 - made; Psalm 37:24 - Though; Psalm 37:31 - steps; Psalm 66:12 - but thou; Psalm 88:6 - lowest; Psalm 130:1 - Out of; Proverbs 4:26 - let all thy ways be established; Proverbs 13:12 - when; Isaiah 38:17 - in love to my soul delivered it from the pit; Lamentations 3:55 - General; Acts 9:11 - for

Verse 3

And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God: many shall see it, and fear, and shall trust in the LORD.
And he
33:3; 144:9; Revelation 5:9,10; 14:3
praise
103:1-5; Isaiah 12:1-4
many
34:1-6; 35:27; 52:6; 64:9,10; 142:7; Hosea 3:5; Acts 2:31-41; 4:4
Reciprocal: Psalm 32:6 - For this; Psalm 32:7 - songs; Psalm 37:31 - law; Psalm 66:12 - but thou; Psalm 68:11 - Lord; Psalm 130:7 - Let Israel; Proverbs 13:12 - when; Ecclesiastes 7:14 - the day; Isaiah 42:10 - Sing; Jeremiah 33:9 - fear; Matthew 26:29 - until

Verse 4

Blessed is that man that maketh the LORD his trust, and respecteth not the proud, nor such as turn aside to lies.
Blessed
2:12; 34:8; 84:11,12; 118:8,9; Jeremiah 17:7,8; Romans 15:12,13
respecteth
15:4; 101:3-7; 119:21
as turn
125:5; Isaiah 44:18-20; Jeremiah 10:14,15; Jonah 2:8; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 12:20 - turn not; 1 Kings 22:43 - he turned; Psalm 31:20 - from; Psalm 32:1 - Blessed; Psalm 32:10 - but; Psalm 78:7 - set; Jeremiah 48:7 - because

Verse 5

Many, O LORD my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast done, and thy thoughts which are to us-ward: they cannot be reckoned up in order unto thee: if I would declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbered.
Many
136:4; Exodus 11:8; 15:11; Job 5:9; 9:10; 26:14
thoughts
71:15; 92:5; 139:6,17,18; Isaiah 55:8,9; Jeremiah 29:11
they cannot, etc
or, none can order them unto thee.
Job 37:19,20
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 7:23 - great things; Job 6:3 - my words are swallowed up; Job 42:3 - things; Psalm 40:17 - I am poor; Psalm 89:6 - For who; Psalm 104:24 - how; Psalm 106:2 - utter; Psalm 107:8 - his wonderful; Psalm 118:17 - declare; Psalm 147:5 - his understanding is infinite; Ecclesiastes 8:17 - that a man; Ecclesiastes 11:5 - even; Isaiah 12:4 - declare; Isaiah 25:1 - thou hast; Isaiah 28:29 - cometh; Isaiah 30:33 - the breath; Ezekiel 1:16 - a wheel; Luke 1:3 - in; John 21:25 - there; Acts 2:11 - wonderful; Romans 11:33 - how; 1 Corinthians 13:9 - General

Verse 6

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required.
Sacrifice
50:8; 51:16; 1 Samuel 15:22; Isaiah 1:11; 66:3; Jeremiah 7:21-23; Hosea 6:6; Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7; Hebrews 10:5-12
mine ears
Exodus 21:6; Job 33:16; Isaiah 50:4,5
opened
Heb. digged.
Reciprocal: Genesis 22:13 - behind; Leviticus 4:31 - a sweet; Leviticus 14:25 - General; Numbers 28:11 - in the beginnings; Numbers 29:17 - General; Deuteronomy 15:16 - General; 1 Samuel 20:2 - show it me; 2 Samuel 7:27 - revealed; Job 36:10 - openeth; Proverbs 8:31 - and my; Isaiah 1:12 - required; Isaiah 30:33 - the breath; Isaiah 40:16 - nor; Isaiah 48:8 - thine ear; Jeremiah 6:20 - To what; Jeremiah 7:22 - nor; Matthew 5:17 - but; Luke 19:28 - he went; Luke 24:44 - in the psalms; John 10:18 - This; Acts 26:6 - the promise; Romans 15:3 - Christ; Philippians 2:8 - and became; Hebrews 9:9 - that could

Verse 7

Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me,
Lo
Hebrews 10:7-9
in the
Genesis 3:15; Luke 24:27,44; John 5:39; Acts 10:43; 1 Corinthians 15:3,4; 1 Peter 1:10,11; Revelation 19:10
Reciprocal: Leviticus 4:31 - a sweet; Ezra 6:1 - rolls; Jeremiah 36:2 - a roll; Zechariah 2:10 - lo; Matthew 3:15 - for; Mark 1:2 - written; John 5:30 - because; John 6:27 - for him; John 6:38 - not; Hebrews 9:9 - that could; Hebrews 9:11 - Christ

Verse 8

I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart.
I delight
112:1; 119:16,24,47,92; Job 23:12; Jeremiah 15:16; John 4:34; Romans 7:22; Romans 8:29
yea
37:30,31; Proverbs 3:1; Jeremiah 31:33; 2 Corinthians 3:3
within my heart
Heb. in the midst of my bowels.
Reciprocal: Exodus 40:20 - the testimony; Leviticus 1:3 - his own; Numbers 28:11 - in the beginnings; Deuteronomy 6:6 - shall be; Deuteronomy 15:16 - General; Psalm 1:2 - But his; Psalm 19:8 - rejoicing; Psalm 84:5 - in whose; Psalm 119:11 - Thy word; Psalm 119:70 - but I; Psalm 119:167 - and I love; Proverbs 4:21 - in the; Proverbs 21:15 - joy; Isaiah 42:21 - he will; Isaiah 51:7 - in whose; Jeremiah 6:10 - delight; Matthew 3:15 - for; Matthew 6:10 - Thy will; Mark 14:36 - nevertheless; Luke 2:49 - my; Luke 6:45 - good man; Luke 12:50 - and; Luke 22:42 - not; John 5:30 - because; John 6:38 - not; John 7:10 - then; John 9:31 - and doeth; John 14:31 - that the; Romans 3:31 - yea; Galatians 1:4 - according; 1 Thessalonians 4:3 - this; Hebrews 1:9 - loved

Verse 9

I have preached righteousness in the great congregation: lo, I have not refrained my lips, O LORD, thou knowest.
preached
22:22,25; 35:18; 71:15-18; Mark 16:15,16; Luke 4:16-22; Hebrews 2:12
not
119:13,171,172
thou knowest
139:2; John 21:17
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 6:7 - shalt talk; 1 Kings 8:65 - a great; Job 6:10 - have not concealed; Job 7:11 - I will not; Psalm 89:1 - with; Psalm 107:32 - in the congregation; Psalm 111:1 - assembly; Psalm 145:5 - will speak; Ecclesiastes 1:1 - the Preacher; Ecclesiastes 10:12 - words; Isaiah 48:6 - and will; Isaiah 58:1 - spare; Matthew 13:54 - he taught; Mark 2:2 - and he; Mark 4:22 - General; John 6:59 - in the; John 7:26 - he speaketh; John 18:20 - I spake; Acts 20:20 - I kept; Romans 1:16 - I am; Philippians 2:16 - Holding; Colossians 4:6 - your; 2 Timothy 4:2 - Preach

Verse 10

I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart; I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salvation: I have not concealed thy lovingkindness and thy truth from the great congregation.
not hid
Ezekiel 2:7; 3:17,18; Acts 20:20,21,26,27; Romans 10:9,10; 1 Thessalonians 1:8; Revelation 22:17
righteousness
Romans 1:16,17; 3:22-26; 10:3; Philippians 3:9
faithfulness
Acts 13:32,33; Romans 15:8,9
salvation
Isaiah 49:6; Luke 2:30-32; 3:6; 1 Timothy 1:15
lovingkindness
25:10; 34:6; Micah 7:20; John 1:17; 3:16,17
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 6:7 - shalt talk; Joshua 1:8 - book; 1 Kings 8:65 - a great; 1 Chronicles 16:9 - talk ye; 1 Chronicles 16:23 - show forth; Job 6:10 - have not concealed; Psalm 22:22 - in the; Psalm 22:25 - My praise; Psalm 35:18 - give; Psalm 48:9 - lovingkindness; Psalm 69:13 - in the; Psalm 71:15 - My mouth; Psalm 89:1 - with; Psalm 89:16 - righteousness; Psalm 96:2 - show; Psalm 107:32 - in the congregation; Psalm 111:1 - assembly; Psalm 118:17 - declare; Psalm 119:13 - I declared; Psalm 119:172 - tongue; Psalm 145:5 - will speak; Ecclesiastes 10:12 - words; Isaiah 48:6 - and will; Isaiah 58:1 - spare; Jeremiah 42:4 - I will keep; Matthew 13:54 - he taught; Mark 4:22 - General; John 6:59 - in the; John 7:26 - he speaketh; Romans 3:25 - to declare; Colossians 4:6 - your; 1 Thessalonians 5:24 - Faithful; Hebrews 2:12 - in

Verse 11

Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, O LORD: let thy lovingkindness and thy truth continually preserve me.
Withhold
From this verse to the end, we have quite a new subject; for the former contains a thanksgiving, and this contains a supplication. It is nearly the same as the seventieth, and probably formed a distinct Psalm.
69:13,16
let thy
23:6; 43:3; 57:3; 61:7; 85:10; Hebrews 5:7
Reciprocal: Psalm 25:6 - thy tender mercies; Psalm 51:1 - tender

Verse 12

For innumerable evils have compassed me about: mine iniquities have taken hold upon me, so that I am not able to look up; they are more than the hairs of mine head: therefore my heart faileth me.
innumerable
22:11-19; Hebrews 4:15
mine
38:4; Isaiah 53:6; Luke 18:13,14; 1 Peter 3:18
they are
19:12; 69:4
heart
73:26; Genesis 42:28; Luke 21:26
faileth
Heb. forsaketh.
Reciprocal: Job 9:3 - he cannot; Job 22:5 - thine; Job 30:16 - have taken hold; Psalm 51:3 - my sin; Psalm 65:3 - prevail; Psalm 71:15 - I know; Psalm 109:26 - Help; Psalm 116:4 - O Lord; Psalm 139:18 - they are more; Psalm 143:7 - my spirit; Matthew 18:24 - ten thousand; Romans 7:9 - but; Romans 7:21 - evil

Verse 13

Be pleased, O LORD, to deliver me: O LORD, make haste to help me.
Be
25:17,18; Matthew 26:36-44
make
38:22; 70:1-5
Reciprocal: Psalm 22:19 - O my; Psalm 69:17 - hear me speedily; Psalm 102:2 - in the day; Psalm 116:4 - O Lord; Psalm 141:1 - make haste; Psalm 143:7 - Hear me

Verse 14

Let them be ashamed and confounded together that seek after my soul to destroy it; let them be driven backward and put to shame that wish me evil.
Let them be ashamed
The verbs in the preceding verse, in which the psalmist simply prays for deliverance, are in the imperative; but here, and in the following verses, they are in the future tense, and naturally express the language of lively faith and hope, rather than that of wishing the destruction foreseen and predicted.
31:17,18; 35:4,26; 70:2,3; 71:13; Isaiah 41:11; 45:24
that
Matthew 21:38-41
driven
9:3; John 18:6; Acts 9:4-6; 12:23,24
Reciprocal: Psalm 6:10 - Let all; Psalm 25:3 - let; Psalm 44:7 - put them; Psalm 53:5 - thou hast; Psalm 63:9 - seek; Psalm 83:17 - General; Psalm 109:20 - Let this; Jeremiah 14:3 - they were; Jeremiah 17:18 - confounded; Jeremiah 20:11 - everlasting; Ezekiel 39:2 - I will; Luke 13:17 - all his; John 8:9 - went out; 1 Peter 2:6 - shall

Verse 15

Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame that say unto me, Aha, aha.
desolate
69:24,25; 70:3; 73:19; 109:6-20; Luke 19:43,44; 21:23,24
say
35:21,25; 70:3,4
Reciprocal: Genesis 9:22 - told; Psalm 6:10 - Let all; Psalm 25:3 - let; Psalm 31:17 - wicked; Psalm 34:21 - they; Psalm 35:4 - confounded; Psalm 35:26 - ashamed; Psalm 71:13 - Let them be; Psalm 83:17 - General; Psalm 109:20 - Let this; Ezekiel 26:2 - Aha

Verse 16

Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in thee: let such as love thy salvation say continually, The LORD be magnified.
all
22:26; 35:27; 68:3; 105:3; Isaiah 65:13,14
love
119:81,111,123,166,167; Matthew 13:45,46; Philippians 3:7-9
say
35:27; Luke 1:46,47; Acts 19:17
Reciprocal: Psalm 5:11 - But; Psalm 34:3 - magnify; Psalm 70:4 - General

Verse 17

But I am poor and needy; yet the Lord thinketh upon me: thou art my help and my deliverer; make no tarrying, O my God.
I am poor
5; 34:6; 69:33; 70:5; Isaiah 41:17; Matthew 8:20; 2 Corinthians 8:9; James 2:5
the Lord
1 Peter 2:23; 5:7
help
54:4; Isaiah 50:7-9; Hebrews 13:6
make
143:7,8; Revelation 22:20 Reciprocal: Nehemiah 5:19 - Think; Psalm 18:27 - save; Psalm 22:19 - O my; Psalm 31:2 - deliver; Psalm 38:22 - Make; Psalm 69:29 - I am poor; Psalm 86:1 - for I am; Psalm 101:2 - O when; Psalm 109:22 - For I; Psalm 119:141 - small; John 4:49 - come

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Psalms 40". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/psalms-40.html.