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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Romans 9

Introduction

1Paul is sorry for the Jews.
7All of Abraham not of the promise.
18God's sovereignty.
25The calling of the Gentiles and rejecting of the Jews, foretold.
32The cause of the Jews' stumbling.

Verse 1

I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,
I say
1:9; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 11:31; 12:19; Galatians 1:20; Philippians 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:5; 1 Timothy 2:7; 5:21
my conscience
2:15; 8:16; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 John 3:19-21
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 15:11 - it grieved; Job 16:19 - my witness; Psalm 119:53 - horror; Psalm 139:21 - and am not; Isaiah 15:5 - My heart; Jeremiah 8:21 - the hurt; Jeremiah 17:16 - neither; Lamentations 1:16 - I weep; Lamentations 3:48 - General; Matthew 18:31 - they; Matthew 21:41 - and will let out; Luke 6:21 - ye that weep; John 1:11 - came; John 1:13 - nor of the will of man; Acts 24:16 - General; Acts 26:29 - that not; Romans 10:1 - my heart's; 2 Corinthians 11:10 - the truth; 2 Corinthians 12:6 - I will; 1 Thessalonians 2:8 - affectionately; 2 Timothy 1:3 - with; 1 Peter 3:16 - a good

Verse 2

That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart.
10:1; 1 Samuel 15:35; Psalms 119:136; Isaiah 66:10; Jeremiah 9:1; 13:17; Lamentations 1:12; Lamentations 3:48,49,51; Ezekiel 9:4; Luke 19:41-44; Philippians 3:18; Revelation 11:3
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 8:11 - wept; 2 Kings 22:19 - wept; Ezra 10:1 - weeping; Esther 8:6 - For how; Esther 10:3 - seeking; Psalm 13:2 - sorrow; Psalm 31:10 - my life; Jeremiah 4:19 - My bowels; Ezekiel 19:14 - This is; Daniel 7:15 - was grieved; Daniel 10:2 - I Daniel; John 11:35 - General; John 13:21 - he was; 2 Corinthians 2:4 - out; 2 Corinthians 6:10 - sorrowful; 2 Corinthians 12:21 - that I; Philippians 2:26 - full; 1 Peter 1:6 - ye are

Verse 3

For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh:
I could
Exodus 32:32
were
Deuteronomy 21:23; Joshua 6:17,18; 1 Samuel 14:24,44; Galatians 1:8; 3:10,13
accursed
or, separated. my kinsmen.
11:1; Genesis 29:14; Esther 8:6; Acts 7:23-26; 13:26
Reciprocal: Genesis 44:33 - I pray thee; Exodus 32:30 - an atonement; Leviticus 27:28 - no devoted; Judges 17:2 - cursedst; 1 Samuel 15:35 - Samuel mourned; 2 Kings 22:19 - wept; 1 Chronicles 21:17 - let thine; Esther 10:3 - seeking; Psalm 119:136 - General; Isaiah 61:9 - their seed; Jeremiah 4:19 - My bowels; Daniel 7:15 - was grieved; Zechariah 11:10 - Beauty; Matthew 26:74 - began; Luke 19:41 - and wept; John 11:35 - General; John 13:21 - he was; Acts 2:36 - all; Acts 22:5 - the brethren; Acts 23:21 - an oath; Romans 7:1 - brethren; Romans 8:3 - in the; Romans 11:14 - my; 1 Corinthians 10:18 - Israel; 1 Corinthians 16:22 - Anathema; 2 Corinthians 2:4 - out; Galatians 4:15 - if; Hebrews 12:9 - fathers

Verse 4

Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises;
are Israelites
6; Genesis 32:28; Exodus 19:3-6; Deuteronomy 7:6; Psalms 73:1; Isaiah 41:8; 46:3; John 1:47
the adoption
Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 14:1; Jeremiah 31:9,20; Hosea 11:1
and the glory
Numbers 7:89; 1 Samuel 4:21,22; 1 Kings 8:11; Psalms 63:2; 78:61; 90:16; Isaiah 60:19
covenants
or, testaments.
Genesis 15:18; 17:2,7,10; Exodus 24:7,8; 34:27; Deuteronomy 29:1; 31:16; Nehemiah 13:29; Psalms 89:3,34; Jeremiah 31:33; 33:20-25; Acts 3:25; Hebrews 8:6-10
the giving
3:2; Nehemiah 9:13,14; Psalms 147:19; Ezekiel 20:11,12; John 1:17
the service
Exodus 12:25; Isaiah 5:2; Matthew 21:33; Hebrews 9:3,10
promises
Luke 1:54,55,69-75; Acts 2:39; 3:25,26; 13:32,33; Ephesians 2:12; Hebrews 6:13-17
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 17:22 - thy people; Ezra 4:3 - Ye have nothing; Psalm 105:6 - ye seed; Isaiah 1:2 - I have; Isaiah 22:1 - of vision; Isaiah 45:11 - concerning my sons; Isaiah 61:9 - their seed; Isaiah 63:19 - are thine; Matthew 8:12 - the children; Matthew 15:26 - It is not; Mark 12:1 - and set; Luke 7:9 - not in; Luke 15:31 - General; John 4:22 - for; Acts 3:12 - Ye men; Acts 7:38 - lively; Acts 10:11 - and a; Acts 13:46 - It was; Acts 22:5 - the brethren; Romans 2:17 - thou art; Romans 2:23 - that makest; Romans 15:8 - Jesus; Galatians 4:5 - that we; Hebrews 7:6 - had; 2 Peter 1:4 - are given

Verse 5

Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
are the fathers
11:28; Deuteronomy 10:15
of whom
1:3; Genesis 12:3; 49:10; Isaiah 7:14; 11:1; Matthew 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38; 2 Timothy 2:8; Revelation 22:16
who is
10:12; Psalms 45:6; 103:19; Isaiah 9:6,7; Jeremiah 23:5,6; Micah 5:2; John 1:1-3; John 10:30; Acts 20:28; Philippians 2:6-11; Colossians 1:16; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 1:8-13; 1 John 5:20
blessed
1:25; Psalms 72:19; 2 Corinthians 11:31; 1 Timothy 6:15
Amen
Deuteronomy 27:15-26; 1 Kings 1:36; 1 Chronicles 16:36; Psalms 41:13; 89:52; 106:48; Jeremiah 28:6; Matthew 6:13; 28:20; 1 Corinthians 14:16; Revelation 1:18; 5:14; 22:20
Reciprocal: Genesis 9:26 - Blessed; Genesis 17:21 - my; Deuteronomy 4:37 - because; Ezra 4:3 - Ye have nothing; Song of Solomon 5:10 - the chiefest; Isaiah 1:2 - I have; Isaiah 6:13 - so the holy; Isaiah 22:1 - of vision; Zechariah 12:8 - the house; Matthew 1:23 - God; Matthew 9:27 - Thou; Matthew 22:45 - how; Mark 12:1 - and set; Mark 12:37 - and whence; Luke 1:42 - blessed is; Luke 7:9 - not in; Luke 20:44 - how; John 1:11 - came; John 1:14 - the Word; John 3:31 - is above; John 4:22 - we worship; John 6:42 - Is not; John 8:53 - thou greater; John 10:36 - I am; Acts 3:22 - of your; Acts 3:25 - the covenant; Acts 13:46 - It was; Romans 15:8 - Jesus; Galatians 4:4 - made; Ephesians 2:12 - the covenants; Hebrews 12:9 - fathers; Revelation 5:13 - blessing

Verse 6

Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel:
as though
3:3; 11:1,2; Numbers 23:19; Isaiah 55:11; Matthew 24:35; John 10:35; 2 Timothy 2:13; Hebrews 6:17,18
they are not
2:28,29; 4:12-16; John 1:47; Galatians 6:16
Reciprocal: Genesis 17:19 - Sarah; Genesis 17:21 - my; Psalm 59:5 - the heathen; Psalm 73:1 - to such; Psalm 77:8 - doth; Isaiah 45:4 - Jacob; Isaiah 45:25 - the seed; Isaiah 48:1 - which are; Ezekiel 39:28 - and have; Micah 2:7 - named; Luke 1:33 - the; Romans 4:11 - father; Romans 9:4 - are Israelites; 1 John 2:19 - they might; Revelation 2:9 - which

Verse 7

Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.
because
Luke 3:8; 16:24,25,30; John 8:37-39; Philippians 3:3
In Isaac
Genesis 21:12; Hebrews 11:18
Reciprocal: Genesis 6:2 - the sons; Genesis 15:5 - tell; Genesis 17:7 - and to; Genesis 21:3 - General; Genesis 25:5 - General; Genesis 48:17 - displeased him; Psalm 73:1 - to such; Isaiah 43:6 - bring; Isaiah 65:23 - for; Ezekiel 33:24 - but we; Matthew 1:2 - Abraham; Matthew 3:9 - We; John 1:13 - not; John 8:39 - If; Romans 4:12 - to them; Galatians 3:7 - they; Galatians 3:29 - Abraham's; Galatians 4:23 - born; 1 Peter 3:6 - daughters

Verse 8

That is, They which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God: but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
They which
4:11-16; Galatians 4:22-31
are counted
Genesis 31:15; Psalms 22:30; 87:6; John 1:13; Galatians 3:26-29; 4:28; 1 John 3:1,2
Reciprocal: Genesis 6:2 - the sons; Genesis 12:7 - Unto thy; Genesis 15:5 - tell; Genesis 17:7 - And I; Genesis 18:10 - Sarah; Genesis 21:12 - in Isaac; Genesis 48:17 - displeased him; Deuteronomy 14:1 - the children; Isaiah 43:6 - bring; Isaiah 48:1 - which are; Isaiah 65:23 - for; Matthew 3:9 - We; Luke 16:24 - Father; Romans 4:16 - the father; Galatians 3:7 - they; Galatians 3:29 - Abraham's; Galatians 4:23 - born; Ephesians 2:12 - the covenants

Verse 9

For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son.
At this time
Genesis 17:21; 18:10,14; 21:2
Sarah
Hebrews 11:11,12,17
Reciprocal: Genesis 17:7 - And I; Genesis 17:16 - And I; Acts 7:8 - and Isaac; Galatians 4:28 - General

Verse 10

And not only this; but when Rebecca also had conceived by one, even by our father Isaac;
not only
5:3,11; Luke 16:26
but when
Genesis 25:21-23
Rebekah
Reciprocal: Genesis 22:23 - Rebekah; Genesis 25:23 - the elder; Genesis 27:37 - I have; 1 Chronicles 1:34 - The sons of Isaac; Psalm 44:3 - because; Ezekiel 16:8 - thy time; Malachi 1:2 - yet I; Malachi 2:10 - all; Matthew 1:2 - Isaac begat; John 1:13 - nor of the will of the

Verse 11

(For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.
the children
4:17; Psalms 51:5; Ephesians 2:3
that the
8:28-30; Isaiah 14:24,26,27; 23:9; 46:10,11; Jeremiah 51:29; Ephesians 1:9-11; Ephesians 3:11; 2 Timothy 1:9
according
11:5,7; Ephesians 1:4,5; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 2 Peter 1:10
not of works
11:6; Ephesians 2:9; Titus 3:5
but of
8:28; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:13,14; 1 Peter 5:10; Revelation 17:14
Reciprocal: Genesis 27:23 - he blessed; Genesis 48:17 - displeased him; Deuteronomy 1:39 - which in; Deuteronomy 7:7 - The Lord; Deuteronomy 33:3 - he loved; Isaiah 8:4 - before; Hosea 12:3 - took; Matthew 24:22 - for; John 15:16 - have not; Romans 3:27 - of works; Romans 9:16 - General; Romans 9:21 - the potter; Philippians 2:13 - good; Colossians 3:12 - as; 1 Thessalonians 5:9 - not; 2 Timothy 2:19 - standeth

Verse 12

(For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 12 It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.
The elder
or, The greater.
Genesis 25:22,23; 2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 22:47
younger
or, lesser.
Reciprocal: Genesis 27:23 - he blessed; Genesis 27:29 - be lord

Verse 13

As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.
Jacob
Malachi 1:2,3
hated
Genesis 29:31,33; Deuteronomy 21:15; Proverbs 13:24; Matthew 10:37; Luke 14:26; John 12:25
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 10:15 - General; Deuteronomy 23:5 - because the; 1 Samuel 12:22 - it hath; Jeremiah 31:3 - I have; Jeremiah 49:10 - I have made; Romans 3:5 - what shall

Verse 14

What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid.
shall
3:1,5
Is there unrighteousness
2:5; 3:5,6; Genesis 18:25; Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Chronicles 19:7; Job 8:3; 34:10-12,18,19; Job 35:2; Psalms 92:15; 145:17; Jeremiah 12:1; Revelation 15:3,4; 16:7
Reciprocal: Joshua 22:29 - God forbid; Job 34:17 - wilt; Job 36:3 - ascribe; Job 36:23 - Thou; Psalm 18:25 - thou wilt; Psalm 119:137 - General; Matthew 20:13 - I do; Romans 2:2 - judgment; Romans 3:4 - God forbid; Romans 9:30 - shall

Verse 15

For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.
I will have
16,18,19; Exodus 33:19; 34:6,7; Isaiah 27:11; Micah 7:18
Reciprocal: Genesis 19:16 - the Lord; Nehemiah 9:17 - gracious; Psalm 31:16 - save; Psalm 101:1 - I will sing; Ecclesiastes 7:13 - who; Isaiah 30:18 - therefore; Lamentations 3:37 - saith; Ezekiel 16:6 - Live; Matthew 20:13 - I do; Matthew 20:15 - it; Luke 4:25 - many; Acts 9:6 - Arise; Acts 11:17 - as God; Ephesians 2:4 - his; 2 Timothy 1:18 - mercy; Hebrews 10:28 - without; James 1:18 - his own

Verse 16

So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
11; Genesis 27:1-4,9-14; Psalms 110:3; Isaiah 65:1; Matthew 11:25,26; Luke 10:21; John 1:12,13; 3:8; 1 Corinthians 1:26-31; Ephesians 2:4,5; Philippians 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:13,14; Titus 3:3-5; James 1:18; 1 Peter 2:9,10
Reciprocal: Genesis 19:16 - the Lord; Genesis 45:8 - it was not; Exodus 11:9 - Pharaoh; Acts 11:17 - as God; Acts 16:14 - whose; Romans 9:15 - I will have; Romans 9:18 - hath; 1 Corinthians 4:7 - who; Ephesians 2:9 - General; Titus 3:5 - by works

Verse 17

For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.
For
11:4; Galatians 3:8,22; 4:30
Even
Exodus 9:16
I raised
1 Samuel 2:7,8; Esther 4:14; Isaiah 10:5,6; 45:1-3; Jeremiah 27:6,7; Daniel 4:22; Daniel 5:18-21
that
Exodus 10:1,2; 14:17,18; 15:14,15; 18:10,11; Joshua 2:9,10; 9:9; 1 Samuel 4:8; Psalms 83:17,18; Proverbs 16:4; Isaiah 37:20
that my
John 17:26
Reciprocal: Exodus 14:4 - I will be; Deuteronomy 2:30 - for the Lord; Nehemiah 9:10 - didst; Psalm 105:25 - He turned; Psalm 106:8 - that he; Isaiah 63:12 - to make; John 17:11 - thine; Romans 4:3 - what; Romans 9:22 - willing; 1 Timothy 5:18 - the scripture; James 2:23 - the scripture; James 4:5 - the scripture

Verse 18

Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.
hath
15,16; 5:20,21; Ephesians 1:6
will he
1:24-28; 11:7,8; Exodus 4:21; 7:13; Deuteronomy 2:30; Joshua 11:20; Isaiah 63:17; Matthew 13:14,15; Acts 28:26-28; 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12
Reciprocal: Genesis 19:16 - the Lord; Exodus 9:7 - the heart; Exodus 10:20 - General; Deuteronomy 7:7 - The Lord; Job 9:12 - What; Psalm 69:27 - Add; Psalm 86:2 - holy; Isaiah 43:13 - I will work; Hosea 2:4 - I will not; Matthew 11:26 - for; John 12:40 - hardened; Acts 19:9 - divers; Romans 3:5 - Is God; Romans 9:21 - the potter; 1 Corinthians 12:11 - as

Verse 19

Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?
Thou
3:8; 1 Corinthians 15:12,35; James 1:13
Why doth
3:5-7; Genesis 50:20; 2 Chronicles 20:6; Job 9:12-15,19; 23:13,14; Psalms 76:10; Isaiah 10:6,7; 46:10,11; Daniel 4:35; Mark 14:21; Acts 2:23; 4:27,28
Reciprocal: Job 33:12 - thou; Job 40:2 - he that reproveth; Psalm 115:3 - he hath; Ecclesiastes 6:10 - neither; Ecclesiastes 7:13 - who; Isaiah 29:16 - as the potter's; Isaiah 43:13 - I will work; Ezekiel 16:63 - and never; Romans 3:7 - why yet; Romans 9:15 - I will have

Verse 20

Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? 21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
O man
2:1; Micah 6:8; 1 Corinthians 7:16; James 2:20
who art
Job 33:13; 36:23; 38:2,3; 40:2,5,8; 42:2-6; Matthew 20:15
repliest
or, answerest again.
Job 16:3; Titus 2:9; 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Timothy 6:5
Shall
Isaiah 29:16; 45:9-11
Reciprocal: Genesis 2:7 - dust; 2 Samuel 16:10 - Who shall; Job 1:22 - charged God foolishly; Job 4:17 - Shall mortal; Job 9:3 - he will contend; Job 9:32 - not a man; Job 16:21 - plead; Job 34:23 - that he; Job 34:33 - Should; Psalm 78:19 - Yea; Psalm 106:37 - devils; Ecclesiastes 6:10 - neither; Ecclesiastes 8:4 - What; Isaiah 10:15 - the ax; Isaiah 64:8 - are the clay; Jeremiah 18:4 - made of clay was marred in; Ezekiel 16:63 - and never; Ezekiel 18:2 - mean; Ezekiel 18:25 - way; Daniel 4:35 - What; Zephaniah 1:7 - thy; Zechariah 2:13 - Be; Malachi 3:13 - What; Matthew 20:13 - I do; Matthew 25:24 - I knew; Luke 4:25 - many; Luke 12:14 - Man; Acts 11:17 - what; Romans 3:7 - why yet; Romans 14:4 - Who; James 1:13 - no man; James 4:12 - who

Verse 21

Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? 21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
the potter
11,18; Proverbs 16:4; Isaiah 64:8; Jeremiah 18:3-6
one vessel
22,23; Jeremiah 22:28; Hosea 8:8; Acts 9:15; 2 Timothy 2:20,21
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 7:7 - The Lord; Job 10:9 - into dust again; Psalm 31:12 - a broken vessel; Isaiah 10:15 - the ax; Isaiah 29:16 - as the potter's; Isaiah 45:9 - Shall the clay; Jeremiah 48:38 - broken; Lamentations 4:2 - how; Daniel 12:2 - everlasting contempt; John 15:16 - have not; Romans 2:10 - glory; 1 Thessalonians 4:4 - his

Verse 22

What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
willing
17; 1:18; 2:4,5; Exodus 9:16; Psalms 90:11; Proverbs 16:4; Revelation 6:16,17
endured
Numbers 14:11,18; Psalms 50:21,22; Ecclesiastes 8:11,12; Lamentations 3:22; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:3,9; 2 Peter 3:8,9,15; Jude 1:4; Revelation 6:9-11
the vessels
The Apostle, by employing the appellation of the vessels of wrath, carries on the similitude of the potter, by which he had illustrated the sovereignty of God.
21; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Timothy 2:20
fitted
or, made up.
Genesis 15:16; Matthew 23:31-33; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; 1 Peter 2:8; Jude 1:4
Reciprocal: Exodus 11:10 - the Lord; Exodus 14:4 - I will be; Exodus 34:7 - that will by no means clear the guilty; Joshua 11:20 - it was; 2 Chronicles 25:16 - determined; Job 31:3 - destruction; Psalm 31:12 - a broken vessel; Psalm 88:11 - in destruction; Psalm 101:1 - I will sing; Proverbs 14:32 - driven; Isaiah 22:24 - vessels of small; Isaiah 30:18 - wait; Jeremiah 44:22 - could; Jeremiah 48:38 - broken; Hosea 8:8 - a vessel; Matthew 7:13 - that; Matthew 25:41 - prepared; John 3:7 - Ye; Romans 2:8 - indignation; Romans 11:22 - therefore; Ephesians 2:3 - children; Revelation 2:21 - space

Verse 23

And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,
might
2:4; 5:20,21; Ephesians 1:6-8,18; 2:4,7,10; 3:8,16; Colossians 1:27; 2 Thessalonians 1:10-12
he had afore
1 Chronicles 29:18; Luke 1:17; Ephesians 2:3-5; Colossians 1:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:13,14; 2 Timothy 2:21; Titus 3:3-7; 1 Peter 1:2-5
Reciprocal: Exodus 14:4 - I will be; Exodus 33:19 - I will be; Exodus 34:7 - that will by no means clear the guilty; Joshua 11:20 - it was; 1 Kings 6:7 - built of stone; Ezra 1:11 - the vessels; Esther 1:4 - the riches; Psalm 31:16 - save; Psalm 86:2 - holy; Psalm 101:1 - I will sing; Ecclesiastes 3:18 - that God; Isaiah 22:24 - vessels of small; Isaiah 43:7 - for my; Zechariah 14:16 - that every; Matthew 25:41 - prepared; John 10:16 - other; Acts 11:17 - as God; Romans 2:7 - glory; Romans 2:10 - glory; Romans 4:9 - Cometh; Romans 8:28 - the called; Romans 8:30 - Moreover; Romans 9:21 - one vessel; Romans 10:12 - rich; Romans 11:2 - which he foreknew; Romans 11:7 - but the election; Romans 11:12 - the world; Romans 11:22 - therefore; Romans 11:33 - riches; Romans 12:1 - by the; Romans 15:8 - truth; Ephesians 1:4 - as; Ephesians 1:7 - to; Philippians 3:14 - the high; Philippians 4:19 - according; 1 Thessalonians 2:12 - who; 2 Thessalonians 1:11 - calling; 1 Timothy 6:12 - whereunto; 2 Timothy 2:10 - with; Hebrews 2:10 - glory

Verse 24

Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?
whom
8:28-30; 1 Corinthians 1:9; Hebrews 3:1; 1 Peter 5:10; Revelation 19:9
not of the Jews
3:29,30; 4:11,12; 10:12; 11:11-13; 15:8-16; Genesis 49:10; Psalms 22:27; Acts 13:47,48; 15:14; 21:17-20; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 2:11-13; 3:6-8; Colossians 3:11
Reciprocal: Psalm 86:2 - holy; Isaiah 19:25 - Blessed; Isaiah 65:1 - I am sought; Joel 2:32 - and in; Zechariah 14:16 - that every; John 10:16 - other; Acts 2:39 - as many; Acts 11:17 - as God; Acts 15:9 - put; Romans 1:6 - the called; Romans 2:9 - of the Jew; Romans 4:9 - Cometh; Romans 8:30 - Moreover; 1 Corinthians 1:24 - called; Galatians 1:15 - and; Ephesians 1:4 - as; Ephesians 1:6 - praise; Philippians 3:14 - the high; 1 Thessalonians 2:12 - who; 1 Thessalonians 5:24 - calleth; 2 Thessalonians 1:11 - calling; 1 Timothy 6:12 - whereunto; 2 Timothy 1:9 - called; Hebrews 9:15 - they which; 1 Peter 1:2 - the foreknowledge; 1 Peter 1:15 - as; 1 Peter 2:9 - who; 2 Peter 1:3 - called

Verse 25

As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.
in Osee
Hosea 1:1,2
Hosea
I will call.
Hosea 2:23; 1 Peter 2:10
beloved
1:7; Ezekiel 16:8; John 16:27
Reciprocal: Numbers 13:16 - Oshea; Deuteronomy 32:21 - I will; 2 Samuel 7:24 - art become; 2 Samuel 22:44 - a people; 1 Chronicles 17:22 - thy people; Isaiah 19:25 - Blessed; Isaiah 43:6 - bring; Isaiah 54:3 - thou shalt; Isaiah 62:4 - shalt no; Hosea 1:10 - and it; John 11:52 - the children; Acts 18:6 - from; Ephesians 4:10 - fill; 1 Thessalonians 1:4 - your election; Hebrews 2:10 - many; Hebrews 8:10 - they shall; 1 John 3:1 - that

Verse 26

And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.
And it
Hosea 1:9,10
there shall
8:16; Isaiah 43:6; John 11:52; 2 Corinthians 6:18; Galatians 3:26; 1 John 3:1-3
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 14:1 - the children; 2 Samuel 7:24 - art become; 1 Chronicles 17:22 - thy people; Isaiah 54:3 - thou shalt; Isaiah 65:15 - his servants; Daniel 6:26 - for; Hosea 2:23 - and I will say; Acts 18:6 - from; Romans 4:17 - calleth; 2 Corinthians 6:16 - I will be; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 - the living; 1 Timothy 3:15 - the living; Hebrews 2:10 - many; Hebrews 8:10 - they shall; Hebrews 12:22 - of the; 1 Peter 2:10 - were

Verse 27

Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved:
Esaias
Isaiah 1:1
Isaiah
though.
Isaiah 10:20-23
a remnant
11:4-6; Ezra 9:8,14; Isaiah 1:9; 10:20,21; 11:11; 24:13; Jeremiah 5:10; Ezekiel 6:8; Micah 5:3-8
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 7:7 - ye were; Deuteronomy 28:62 - few in number; 1 Samuel 13:5 - as the sand; 2 Kings 19:4 - lift up; 2 Kings 19:31 - For; Isaiah 7:3 - Shearjashub; Isaiah 10:22 - though thy; Isaiah 17:6 - General; Isaiah 24:6 - and few; Isaiah 37:4 - for the; Isaiah 37:31 - take; Isaiah 41:14 - men; Isaiah 48:19 - seed; Isaiah 65:8 - General; Jeremiah 3:14 - one of a city; Jeremiah 4:27 - yet; Jeremiah 30:11 - though; Jeremiah 31:7 - remnant; Jeremiah 44:14 - for none; Ezekiel 12:16 - a few men; Ezekiel 20:38 - I will purge; Hosea 1:10 - the number; Joel 2:32 - and in; Amos 5:3 - The city; Habakkuk 1:9 - they shall gather; Zechariah 13:8 - but; Zechariah 14:2 - shall not; Matthew 7:14 - and few; Acts 2:47 - the Lord; Romans 11:5 - at this present; Hebrews 11:12 - as the sand; Revelation 7:4 - an

Verse 28

For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.
work
or, account. and cut.
Isaiah 28:22; 30:12-14; Daniel 9:26,27; Matthew 24:21
in righteousness
Psalms 9:8; 65:5; Isaiah 5:16; Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11
Reciprocal: Isaiah 10:22 - the consumption; Isaiah 28:17 - Judgment; Hosea 1:10 - the number; Micah 5:3 - then

Verse 29

And as Esaias said before, Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.
Except
Isaiah 1:9; 6:13; Lamentations 3:22
Sabaoth
James 5:4
we had been
Genesis 19:24,25; Isaiah 13:19; Jeremiah 49:18; 50:40; Lamentations 4:6; Amos 4:11; Zephaniah 2:6
Sodom, Gomorrah
2 Peter 2:6; Jude 1:7
Reciprocal: Luke 10:13 - for

Verse 30

What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.
shall
14; 3:5
the Gentiles
1:18-32; 4:11; 10:20; Isaiah 65:1,2; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11; Ephesians 2:12; 4:17-19; 1 Peter 4:3
followed
31; Proverbs 15:9; 21:21; Isaiah 51:1; 1 Timothy 6:11
even the righteousness
1:17; 3:22; 4:9,11,13,22; 5:1; 10:10; Galatians 3:8; 5:5; Philippians 3:9; Hebrews 11:7
Reciprocal: Psalm 98:2 - righteousness; Isaiah 28:20 - the bed; Ezekiel 3:6 - of a strange speech and of an hard language; Micah 5:7 - tarrieth; Matthew 5:20 - exceed; Matthew 19:30 - General; Matthew 20:12 - borne; Matthew 20:16 - the last; Matthew 21:31 - the publicans; Mark 10:31 - General; Mark 12:9 - and will; John 6:29 - This; Acts 11:18 - hath; Acts 18:6 - from; Romans 10:3 - God's righteousness; 1 Corinthians 14:1 - Follow; Galatians 2:17 - while; Galatians 3:12 - the law; Galatians 4:21 - ye that; Colossians 3:11 - there; Titus 3:5 - by works

Verse 31

But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness.
followed
30-32; 10:2-4; Galatians 3:21; Philippians 3:6
hath
3:20; 4:14,15; 11:7; Galatians 3:10,11; 5:3,4; James 2:10,11
Reciprocal: Psalm 69:27 - let them; Proverbs 14:6 - scorner; Isaiah 55:2 - do ye; Amos 8:12 - shall run; Malachi 3:2 - who may abide; Luke 13:24 - for; Luke 18:9 - which; John 6:29 - This; Acts 13:39 - from which; Romans 10:3 - to establish; Romans 10:6 - righteousness; Galatians 5:2 - that; Philippians 3:9 - not; Colossians 3:11 - there

Verse 32

Wherefore? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone;
Because
4:16; 10:3; Matthew 19:16-20; John 6:27-29; Acts 16:30-34; 1 John 5:9-12
they stumbled
11:11; Matthew 13:57; Luke 2:34; 7:23; 1 Corinthians 1:23
Reciprocal: Psalm 119:116 - and let me; Proverbs 4:12 - thou shalt; Proverbs 14:6 - scorner; Isaiah 8:14 - a stone; Ezekiel 3:20 - and I lay; Hosea 14:9 - but; Matthew 7:14 - and few; Matthew 11:6 - whosoever; Luke 18:9 - which; Romans 2:17 - restest; Romans 3:20 - Therefore; Romans 3:27 - of works; Romans 4:4 - General; Romans 10:2 - but not; Romans 11:7 - Israel; Romans 14:13 - put; Galatians 3:6 - as; Galatians 5:2 - that; Galatians 5:4 - is; Galatians 5:11 - the offence; Philippians 3:6 - touching; Philippians 3:9 - not; 1 Peter 2:6 - Behold; 1 Peter 2:8 - a stone; 1 John 2:10 - occasion of stumbling; Revelation 2:14 - a stumblingblock

Verse 33

As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.
Behold
Psalms 118:22; Isaiah 8:14,15; 28:16; Matthew 21:42,44; 1 Peter 2:7,8
and whosoever
5:5; 10:11; Psalms 25:2,3,20; Isaiah 45:17; 54:4; Joel 2:26,27; Philippians 1:20; 2 Timothy 1:12; 1 John 2:28
ashamed
or, confounded.
1 Peter 2:6 Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 5:7 - Zion; 1 Chronicles 11:5 - the castle; Job 6:20 - confounded; Psalm 2:12 - Blessed; Psalm 22:5 - and were; Psalm 71:1 - do I; Proverbs 4:12 - thou shalt; Isaiah 49:23 - for they; Jeremiah 6:21 - I will; Ezekiel 3:20 - and I lay; Hosea 14:9 - but; Zephaniah 3:11 - shalt thou; Zechariah 3:9 - the stone; Matthew 5:30 - offend; Matthew 11:6 - whosoever; Mark 12:10 - The stone; Luke 7:23 - General; Romans 4:11 - father; Romans 14:13 - put; 1 Corinthians 1:23 - unto the Jews; Galatians 3:6 - as; Galatians 5:11 - the offence; 2 Timothy 1:8 - ashamed; 1 John 2:10 - occasion of stumbling; Revelation 14:1 - mount

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Romans 9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/romans-9.html.