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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

1 Timothy 4

Verse 1

Now [δε] . Better but, since there is a contrast with the preceding confession of the norm of faith.

Expressly [ρητως] . N. T. o. o LXX In express words.

In the latter times [εν υστεροις καιροις] . The phrase only here. For kairov particular sesson or junture, see on Matthew 12:1; Acts 1:7. Not the same as ejn ejscataiv in the last days, 2 Timothy 3:1, which denotes the peliod closing the present aeon, and immediately preceding the parousia; while this signifies merely a time that is future to the writer. There is not the intense sense of the nearness of Christ 's coming which characterises Paul. The writer does not think of his present as "the latter days."

Some [τινες] . Not, as ch. 1 3, the heretical teachers, but those whom they mislead.

Shall depart from the faith [αποστησονται της πιστεως] . The phrase only here. The verb in Paul only 2 Corinthians 12:8. Quite frequent in Luke and Acts. The kindred noun tasia (Acts 21:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:3) is almost literally transcribed in our apostasy.

Seducing [πλανοις] . Primarily, wandering, roving. O planov a vagabond, hence deceiver or seducer. See 2 John 1:7, and comp. oJ planwn the deceiver, used of Satan, Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:10; to pneuma thv planhv the spirit of error, 1 John 4:6. Once in Paul, 2 Corinthians 6:8, and in LXX, Job 19:4; Jeremiah 23:32. Evil spirits animating the false teachers are meant.

Doctrines of devils [διδασκαλιαις δαιμονιων] . Better, teachings of demons. Comp. James 3:15. Didaskalia teaching often in Pastorals. A few times in Paul. See on 1 Timothy 1:10. Daimonion demon only here in Pastorals. Very frequent in Luke : in Paul only 1 Corinthians 10:20, 1 Corinthians 10:21. Teachings proceeding from or inspired by demons. The working of these evil spirits is here specially concerned with striking at the true teaching which underlies godliness. It is impossible to say what particular form of false teaching is alluded to.

Verse 2

Speaking lies in hypocrisy [εν υποκρισει ψευδολογων] . Wrong. Rend., through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies. Upokrisiv hypocrisy once in Paul, Galatians 2:13, see note. See also on Matthew 23:13. The phrase ejn uJpokrisei only here. Yeudologov speaking lies, N. T. o. o LXX Rare in Class.

Having their conscience seared with a hot iron [εν υποκρισει ψευδολογων] Better, branded in their own conscience. With a hot iron is superfluous. The verb N. T. o. o LXX, o Class. The metaphor is from the practice of branding slaves or criminals, the latter on the brow. These deceivers are not acting under delusion, but deliberately, and against their conscience. They wear the form of godliness, and contradict their profession by their crooked conduct (2 Timothy 3:5). The brand is not on their brow, but on their conscience. Comp. Titus 1:15; Titus 3:11.

Verse 3

Forbidding to marry and commanding to abstain from meats [κωλυοντων γαμειν, απεχεσθαι βρωματων] . Kwluein, properly to hinder or check. Apecesqai to hold one's self off. In Paul, 1 Thessalonians 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:22; Philippians 1:15. Commanding is not expressed, but is implied in forbidding.; "Bidding not to marry and (bidding) to abstain from meats." The ascetic tendencies indicated by these prohibitions developed earlier than these Epistles among the Essenes, an aseetic Jewish brotherhood on the shores of the Dead Sea, who repudiated marriage except as a necessity for preserving the race, and allowed it only under protest and under stringent regulations. They also abstained strictly from wine and animal food. This sect was in existence in the lifetime of our Lord. strong traces of its influence appear in the heresy assailed in Paul 's Epistle to the Colossians. The Christian body received large accessions from it after the destruction of Jerusalem (70 A. D.). The prohibitions above named were imposed by the later Gnosticism of the second century. Hath created [εκτισεν] . A common Pauline word. Only here in the Pastorals.

To be received [εις μεταλημψιν] . Lit. for participation. N. T.. o LXX lt occurs in Plato and Aristotle.

Of them which believe and know the truth [τοις πιστοις και επεγνωκοσι την αληθειαν] . The dative depends on created for participation, and should be rendered; "for them which believe," etc., marking those for whom the food was created. The A. V. misses this by the rendering to be received of (by). Pistoiv and ejpegknwkosi do not denote two classes, but one. Those who believe are described as those who have full knowledge of the truth.

Verse 4

Creature [κτισμα] . Not in Paul. See James 1:18; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 8:9. A created thing. For ktisiv creation or creature, frequent in Paul, see on Romans 8:19; 2 Corinthians 5:17; Colossians 1:15. Ktisma in LXX, Wisd. 9 2; 13 5; 14 11; Sir. 38 34; 3 Macc. 5 11.

Refused [αποβλητον] . Lit. thrown away. N. T. o. In ecclesiastical writings, excommunicated. On the whole verse, comp. Acts 10:15; Romans 11:15; 1 Corinthians 10:25, 1 Corinthians 10:26, 1 Corinthians 10:30, 1 Corinthians 10:31.

Verse 5

It is sanctified [αγιαζεται] . Not declared holy, but made holy. The declaration confirms the last clause of ver. 4. Thanksgiving to God has a sanctifying effect. The food in itself has no moral quality (Romans 14:14), but acquires a holy quality by its consecration to God; by being acknowledged as God 's gift, and partaken of as nourishing the life for God 's service. Comp. Paul 's treatment of the unbelieving husband and the believing wife, 1 Corinthians 7:14.

By the word of God [δια λογου θεου] . That is, by the word of God as used in the prayer. Scripture is not called "the Word of God." The Word of God includes much more than Scripture : but Scripture contains the Word of God, and the thanksgiving at table was in the words of Scripture. See Psalms 145:15, Psalms 145:16. The custom of grace at meat appears 1 Samuel 9:13. Christ blessed the loaves and fishes (Matthew 14:19; Matthew 14:36) : Paul on the ship gave thanks for the meal which the seamen ate (Acts 27:35). Enteuxewv prayer, see on ch. 1 Timothy 2:1.

Verse 6

If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things [ταυτα υποτιθεμενος τοις αδελφοις] . The verb only here and Romans 16:4. Lit. to put under; so almost without exception in LXX See, for instance, Genesis 28:18; Genesis 47:29; Exodus 17:12. So Romans 16:4. Hence, metaphorically, to suggest, which is, literally, to carry or lay under. Tauta these things are those mentioned vv. 4, 5. In the Pastorals it is only here that aJudelfoi brethren means the members of the church to whose superintendent the letter is addressed. In 2 Timothy 4:21, they are the Christians of the church from which the letter comes; in 1 Timothy 6:2, Christians in general; and in 1 Timothy 5:1, without any ecclesiastical sense.

Minister of Jesus Christ [διακονος χριστου ιησου] . Rendering Christ himself a service by setting himself against ascetic errors. For diakonov minister see on ch. 1 Timothy 3:8. Here in the general sense of servant, without any official meaning. Paul 's more usual phrase is servant of God : servant [διακονος] of Christ twice, and diakonov Ihsou Cristou not at all. Paul uses doulov bond - servant with Jesus Christ. See 2 Corinthians 11:23; Colossians 1:7; and comp. Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1.

Nourished up [εντρεφομενος] . Better, nourishing thyself. N. T. o. o LXX The participle indicates the means by which Timothy may become a good minister. Comp. Hebrews 5:12-14.

In the words of faith. The words in which the faith - the contents of belief - finds expression. Comp. ch. 1 Timothy 6:3; 2 Timothy 1:13. The phrase only here. Paul has to rJhma thv pistewv the word of the faith, Romans 10:8.

Whereunto thou hast attained [η παρηκολουθηκας] . Wrong. Rend., which thou hast closely followed. Comp. 2 Timothy 3:10. The verb means, primarily, to follow beside, to attend closely. In this literal sense not in N. T. To attend to or follow up, as a disease. So Plato, Rep. 406 B, parakolouqwn tw noshmati qanasimw perpetually tending a mortal disease. To follow up a history or a succession of incidents, as Luke 1:3. o P. The writer means that Timothy, as a disciple, has closely attended to his course of Christian instruction.

Verse 7

Shun [παραιτου] . Comp. Leviticus 5:11; 2 Timothy 2:23; Titus 3:10. o P. The primary meaning is to ask as a favor (Mark 14:6; Hebrews 12:19). Mostly in this sense in LXX, as 1 Samuel 20:6, 1 Samuel 20:28. To deprecate; to prevent the consequences of an act by protesting against and disavowing it, as 3 Macc. 6 27. To beg off, get excused, as Luke 14:18, Luke 14:19; Luke 4:0 Macc. 11 2. To decline, refuse, avoid, as here, Acts 25:11; Hebrews 12:25.

Profane. See on ch. 1 Timothy 1:9, and comp. ch. 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 2:16; Hebrews 12:16.

Old wives ' [γραωδεις] . N. T. o. o LXX From grauv an old woman, and eidov form.

Fables [μυθους] . See on ch. 1 Timothy 1:4, and comp. 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16.

Exercise [γυμναζε] . o P. Only here in Pastorals. Hebrews 5:14; Hebrews 12:11; 2 Peter 2:14. From gumnov naked. In Class. Of training naked in gymnastic exercises; also, metaphorically, of training for or practicing an art or profession.

Verse 8

Bodily exercise [η σωματικη γυμνασια] . With gumnasia comp. gumnaze, ver. 7. N. T. o. Swmatikov bodily only here and Luke 3:22. o LXX The adverb swmatikwv bodily - wise, Colossians 2:9. The words are to be taken in their literal sense as referring to physical training in the palaestra - boxing, racing, etc. Comp. 1 Corinthians 9:24-27. Some, however, find in them an allusion to current ascetic practices; against which is the statement that such exercise is profitable, though only for a little.

Profiteth little [προς ολιγον εστιν ωφελιμος] . Lit. is profitable for a little. The phrase prov ojligon only here and James 5:14. In the latter passage it means for a little while. Comp. Hebrews 12:10, prov ojligav hJmerav for a few days. According to some, this is the meaning here; but against this is the antithesis prov panta unto all things. The meaning is rather, the use of the athlete's training extends to only a few things. Wfelimov useful or profitable, only in Pastorals. Comp. 2 Timothy 3:16; Titus 3:8. o LXX

Godliness [ευσεβεια] . See on ch. 1 Timothy 2:2, and Introduction, 6

Having promise [επαγγελιαν εχουσα] . The exact phrase only here. Comp. 2 Corinthians 7:1; Hebrews 7:6. The participle is explanatory, since it has promise. For ejpaggelia promise see on Acts 1:4.

The life that now is [ζωης της νυν] . According to the strict Greek idiom, life the now. This idiom and the following, thv melloushv N. T. o. The phrase oJ nun aijwn the present aeon, 1 Timothy 6:17; 2 Timothy 4:10; Titus 2:12. O aijwn ou=tov this aeon, a few times in the Gospels, often in Paul, nowhere else. We have oJ aijwn oJ mellwn the aeon which is to be, and oJ aijwn oJ ejrcomenov or ejpercomenov the aeon which is coming on, in the Gospels, once in Paul (Ephesians 2:7), and in Hebrews once, mellwn aijwn without the article. En tw kairw toutw in this time, of the present as contrasted with the future life, Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30. O nun kairov the now time, in the same relation, Romans 8:18. For zwh life see on John 1:4. The force of the genitive with ejpaggelia promise may be expressed by for. Godliness involves a promise for this life and for the next; but for this life as it reflects the heavenly life, is shaped and controlled by it, and bears its impress. Godliness has promise for the present life because it has promise for the life which is to come. Only the life which is in Christ Jesus (2 Timothy 1:1) is life indeed, 1 Timothy 6:19. Comp. 1 Peter 3:10; 1 Corinthians 3:21-23.

Verse 10

Therefore [εις τουτο] . More correctly, to this end; or with a view to this.

We labor and strive [κοπιωμεν και αγωνιζομεθα] . Both Pauline words. See on Colossians 1:29, where the two are found together as here. Also on kopou labor, 1 Thessalonians 1:3, and kopiwntav, and laboring 1 Thessalonians 5:12. Comp. ch. 1 Timothy 5:17, and 2 Timothy 2:6. Both words denote strenuous and painful effort. 111 The kai; has an ascensive force :

"we labor, yea struggle."

We trust in [ηλπικαμεν επι] . Better, have set our hope on. The verb with ejpi in Pastorals, in Paul, Romans 14:12, a citation, and in 1 Peter 1:13.

Verse 12

Youth [νεοτητος] . o P. See Luke 18:21.Acts 26:4. See Introductions 7 Timothy was probably from 38 to 40 years old at this time.

In word [εν λογω] . Including teaching and verbal intercourse of every kind.

Conversation [αναστροφη] . Comp. Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22; James 3:13. A favorite word with Peter. See on 1 Peter 1:15.

In spirit. Omit.

Purity [αγνια] . Only here and ch. 5 2. Agnov pure, 1 Timothy 5:22; Titus 2:5. In Paul, 2 Corinthians 8:11; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Philippians 4:8. Also in James, Peter, and 1 John. Agnothv purity, 2 Corinthians 6:6; 2 Corinthians 11:3. o LXX, o Class. Agnov always with a moral sense; not limited to sins of the flesh, but covering purity in motives as well as in acts. In 1 John 3:3, of Christ. In 2 Corinthians 11:2, of virgin purity. In James 3:17, as a characteristic of heavenly wisdom. Agnwv purely (Philippians 1:17) -, of preaching the gospel with unmixed motives. The verb aJgnizein to purify, which in LXX is used only of ceremonial purification, has that meaning in four of the seven instances in N. T. (John 11:55; Acts 21:24, Acts 21:26; Acts 24:18). In the others (James 4:8; 1 Peter 1:22; 1 John 3:3) it is used of purifying the heart and soul.

Verse 13

To reading [αναγνωσει] . Three times in N. T. See Acts 13:15; 2 Corinthians 3:14. The verb ajnaginwskein usually of public reading. See on Luke 4:16. So in LXX In post - classical Greek, sometimes of reading aloud with comments. See Epictetus, Diss. 3, 23, 20. Dr. Hatch says : "It is probable that this practice of reading with comments... may account for the coordination of 'reading' with 'exhortation' and 'teaching' in 1 Timothy 4:13."

Exhortation [τη παρακλησει] . Often in Paul. See on consolation, Luke 6:24, comfort, Acts 9:31, and comforter, John 14:16.

Verse 14

Neglect [αμελει] . Rare in N. T. Only Matthew 22:5; Hebrews 2:3; Hebrews 8:9.

The gift that is in thee [του εν σοι χαρισματος] . Comp. 2 Timothy 1:6. Carisma gift is a distinctively Pauline word, being found only three times outside of Paul 's Epistles, and o LXX, o Class. See on Romans 1:11. That is in thee, comp. thv ejn soi pistewv the faith that is in thee, 2 Timothy 1:5. The meaning is the special inward endowment which qualified Timothy for exhortation and teaching, and which was directly imparted by the Holy Spirit. 112 By prophecy [δια προφητειας] . See on 1 Timothy 1:18. Profhteiav genitive, not accusative. The meaning is by the medium of prophecy. The reference is to prophetic intimation given to Paul concerning the selection of Timothy for the ministerial office. These prophecies were given by the Holy Spirit who bestowed the " gift ", so that the gift itself and the prophecy concurred in attesting the candidate for ordination.

With the laying on of the hands [μετα επιθεσεως των χειρων] . Meta implies that the prophetic intimations were in some way repeated or emphasised in connection with the ceremony of ordination. We note the association of prophecy with ordination in the setting apart of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:9, Acts 13:3); so that the case of Timothy has an analogue in that of Paul himself. 113 Epiqesiv laying on, emposition, also Acts 8:18; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 6:2, in each case with of hands. "The custom," says Lange, "is as old as the race." The Biblical custom rests on the conception of the hand as the organ of mediation and transference. The priest laid his hand on the head of the bullock or goat (Leviticus 1:4) to show that the guilt of the people was transferred. The hand was laid on the head of a son, to indicate the transmission of the hereditary blessing (Genesis 48:14); upon one appointed to a position of authority, as Joshua (Numbers 27:18-23); upon the sick or dead in token of miraculous power to heal or to restore to life (2 Kings 4:34). So Christ (Mark 6:5; Luke 4:40). In the primitive Christian church the laying on of hands signified the imparting of the Holy Spirit to the newly - baptized (Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6; comp. Hebrews 6:2). Hands were laid Upon the seven (Acts 6:6). But the form of consecration in ordination varied. No one mode has been universal in the church, and no authoritative written formula exists. In the Alexandrian and Abyssinian churches it was by breathing : in the Eastern church generally, by lifting up the hands in benediction : in the Armenian church, by touching the dead hand of the predecessor : in the early Celtic church, by the transmission of relics or pastoral staff : in the Latin church, by touching the head.

Of the presbytery [του πρεσβυτεριου] . The word is found in Luke 22:66, where it denotes the body of representative elders of the people in the Sanhedrim, as distinguished from the two other constituents of that body - the chief priests and scribes. Similarly Acts 22:5. Here of the college or fraternity of Christian elders in the place where Timothy was ordained. The word is frequent in the Epistles of Ignatius. 114 According to this, Timothy was not ordained by a Bishop. Bishop and Presbyter are not identical. In 2 Timothy 1:6 we read, "by the laying on of my hands." The inconsistency is usually explained by saying that Paul was associated with the Presbyters in the laying on of hands.

Verse 15

Meditate [μελετα] . Only here and Acts 4:25 (citation). Often in Class. and LXX Most translators reject the A. V. meditate, and substitute be diligent in, or practice, or take care for. Meditate, however, is legitimate, although in Class. the word commonly appears in one of the other senses. The connection between the different meanings is apparent. Exercise or practice applied to the mind becomes thinking or meditation. In LXX it represents seven Hebrew equivalents, and signifies to meditate, talk of, murmur, deligfit one's self in, attend to. Often to meditate, Joshua 1:8; Psalms 1:9; Psalms 2:1; Psalms 37:12; Psalms 72:6; Sir. 6 7. Meditation is a talking within the mind, and issues in speech; hence to speak, as Psalms 34:28; Psalms 36:30; Isa 69:3. Similally, logov signifies both reason and discourse. In Lat. meditari, "to reflect," is also "to exercise in," " to practice, " as Virgil, Ecclesiastes 1:2. In the Vulg. meditabor is the translation of murmur or mourn iu Isaiah 38:14. The Hebrews hanah means to murmur, whisper; hence the inner whispering of the heart; hence to think, meditate, consider, as Psalms 63:7; Psalms 78:13.

Give thyself wholly to them [εν τουτοις ισθι] . Lit. be in these things. The phrase N. T. o. The only parallel in LXX is Proverbs 23:17. The meaning is that he is to throw himself wholly into his ministry. Comp. "totus in illis," Horace, James 1:9, James 1:2.

Profiting [προκοπη] . Better, advance or progress. Only here and Philippians 1:12. The verb prokoptein in 2 Timothy 2:16; 2 Timothy 3:9, 2 Timothy 3:13. In LXX, see Sir. Leviticus 17:0; Leviticus 2:0 Macc. 8 8. The figure in the word is uncertain, but is supposed to be that of pioneers cutting [κοπτω] a way before [προ] an army, and so furthering its advance. The opposite is ejgkoptein to cut into, throw obstacles in the way, and so hinder. See Galatians 5:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; 1 Peter 3:7.

Verse 16

Take heed [επεχε] . Only here in Pastorals, and once in Paul, Philippians 2:16. Quite frequent in LXX Lit. hold upon, fasten thy attention on, as Luke 14:7; Acts 3:5; Acts 19:22. In LXX, in the sense of apply, as Job 18:2; Job 30:26; or forbear, refrain, as 1 Kings 22:6, 1 Kings 22:15. In Philippians 2:16, to hold out or present, a sense which is found only in Class. Unto thyself and unto the doctrine [σεαυτω και τη διδασκαλια] . Better, to thyself and to thy teaching. The order is significant. Personality goes before teaching.

Continue in them [επιμενε αυτοις] . See on Romans 6:1. In LXX only Exodus 12:39. Autoiv is neuter, referring to these things, ver. 15. A. V. in them is indefinite and ambiguous. Better, continue in these things.

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The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.