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Bible Commentaries

Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary

1 Timothy 4

Verses 1-5


1 Timothy 4:1. Doctrines of devils.—The term “devils” seems to give the spirit of the apostle’s meaning more accurately than the more literal “demons” would.

1 Timothy 4:2. Having their conscience seared with a hot iron.—R.V. “branded in their own conscience.” As a runaway or offending slave was sometimes punished by having the brand of his infamy stamped on his brow, so these men carry about with them their own condemnation.

1 Timothy 4:3. Forbidding to marry.—It does not appear whether they forbade all to marry or only the aspirants to peculiar sanctity. To abstain from meats, which God created to be received.—The strongest condemnation of ascetic practices, St. Paul seems to think, is that they contravene the good purpose of God. With thanksgiving.—The true attitude towards the gifts of God. “It was a maxim even of the heathen that the good gifts of the gods were not to be refused” (Ellicott).

1 Timothy 4:5. For it is sanctified.—Not merely declared holy, but made holy.


False Doctrine

I. Leads to apostasy.—“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith” (1 Timothy 4:1). Signs of apostasy were already discernible in the operation of the Gnostic heresy. Apollonius Tyanæus, a notorious heretic, came to Ephesus in the lifetime of Timothy. The defection was within the Church; and the active cause of the apostasy was the false teaching of the heresiarchs. It is perilous for members of the Church to give heed to the seductive voice of error.

II. Is the suggestion of evil spirits.—“Giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils” (1 Timothy 4:1). The spawn of devilish malice—the reckless sport or cunning designs of inveterate wickedness. The throne of Satan was shaken by the introduction of the gospel, and the opposition of evil spirits was the more fierce and malignant. In warning the Thessalonians the apostle connects the mystery of iniquity which was working such mischief with the activity of some wicked demon acting under the instigation of Satan.

III. Is discoverable by unmistakable marks.

1. By the character of its teachers. “Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron” (1 Timothy 4:2). They are hypocritical liars, self-branded with crime: not only speaking lies to others, but having their own consciences seared. Professing to lead others to holiness, their own consciences all the while defiled. A bad conscience always has recourse to deception. They are branded with the consciousness of sins committed against their better knowledge and conscience, like so many scars burnt in by a branding-iron—an image taken from the branding of criminals. They are conscious of the brand within, yet with a hypocritical show of sanctity they strive to deceive others. Pollok called the hypocrite “the man that stole the livery of heaven to serve the devil in.”

2. By its enforcing a spurious outward sanctity. “Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats” (1 Timothy 4:3). Sensuality leads to false spiritualism. Their own inward impurity is reflected in their eyes in the world around them, and hence their asceticism. By a spurious spiritualism which made moral perfection consist in abstinence from outward thing they pretended to attain to a higher perfection. Those who do not keep from ambition, covetousness, hatred, and cruelty endeavour to obtain righteousness by abstaining from those things which God has left at large. Not long after the death of the apostle arose Encratites, Tatianists, Catharists, Montanus with his sect, and at length Manichæans, who had extreme aversion to marriage and the eating of flesh, and condemned them as profane things. Such is the disposition of the world, always dreaming that God ought to be worshipped in a carnal manner, as if God were carnal.

IV. Degrades the true use of the Divine gift of food.

1. All God’s gifts are good. “For every creature of God is good” (1 Timothy 4:4). A refutation by anticipation of the Gnostic opposition to creation, the seeds of which were now lurking latently in the Church. Judaism was the starting-point of the error as to meats: Oriental gnosis added new elements. The old Gnostic heresy is now almost, extinct, but it remains in the celibacy of the priesthood, and in Church fasts from animal meat, enjoined under the penalty of mortal sin. In and for itself no food is objectionable, yet on condition that it be used with thanksgiving to God. Creatures are not called good merely because they are the works of God, but because through His goodness they have been given to us.

2. God’s gifts are good to us only as we receive them in a devout and thankful spirit. “And nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving: for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer” (1 Timothy 4:4-5). Just as in the Lord’s Supper the thanksgiving prayer sanctifies the elements, separating them from their natural alien position in relation to the spiritual world, and transferring them to their true relation to the new life, so, in every use of the creature, thanksgiving prayer has the same effect, and ought always to be used. One of the most beautiful models of the primitive “Grace before meat,” consisting almost wholly of Scripture, was this: “Blessed be Thou, O Lord, who hast fed me from my youth, who givest food to all flesh. Fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that, having always what sufficeth, we may abound unto all good works in Christ Jesus our Lord, through whom be unto Thee honour, glory, and power, for ever and ever. Amen” (Calvin, Fausset).


1. False teachers, deceived themselves, deceive others.

2. Error in doctrine leads to sins in practice.

3. Prayer and thanksgiving are safeguards against false doctrine.


1 Timothy 4:2. A Seared Conscience.—Note the successive stages which lead to a seared conscience.

I. Dull conscience.—Not quick and active, but slothful; like a storm-bell ringing in the storm, when it should be as a storm-signal run up in a blue sky.

II. Uneasy conscience.—Multiplied sins, small and trifling as each may appear, will lead to this, just as accumulated snow-flakes bend the strongest bough.

III. Guilty conscience.—Accusing the sinner of his sin and folly. This may be either an awakened or a remorseful conscience.

IV. Hardened conscience.—The hardened need not be invulnerable; there may be a joint somewhere where the arrow of conviction may enter.

V. A seared conscience.—Cauterised. A nerve diseased or almost paralysed may possibly be healed; but when it has been subjected to the cauterising iron it is perished. What hope for a man whose conscience is cauterised?—E. Conder, D.D.

1 Timothy 4:4-5. The Gifts of God

I. Though good, may be abused.

II. Should be enjoyed in a thankful spirit.

III. Should be hallowed by prayer in harmony with the word of God.

Verses 6-7


1 Timothy 4:7. But refuse profane and old wives’ fables.—Have nothing whatever to do with those irreligious and pitiable myths. What some reputed as wisdom St. Paul calls grandmotherly mumblings. Exercise thyself rather unto godliness.—He who had Himself fought the good fight would not have his well-beloved Timothy a credulous weakling, but strong through the gymnastic exercise of faith.


The True Minister of Christ

I. Is faithful in instructing others.—“If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of Jesus Christ” (1 Timothy 4:6). Light is given to the minister that he may shed it upon others. All his studies are not simply for his own mental enjoyment—to the minister often a most seductive pleasure—but should be used in storing up a magazine of truth to be imparted to his people. Everything he reads should be turned into sermon. It is a poor book that does not yield something useful for the pulpit, and it is a waste of time to read anything that does not add to his homiletic store. All true preaching is a setting forth of Christ, and the deepest learning and most varied knowledge should be coveted for that end. A minister being one week-day evening in London, asked a friend where he could hear a good sermon. Two places were mentioned. “Well,” said he, “tell me the characters of the preachers, that I may choose.” “Mr. D——,” said his friend, “exhibits the orator, and is much admired for his pulpit eloquence.” “And what is the other?” “Why, I hardly know what to say of Mr. C——; he always throws himself into the background, and you see his Master only.” “That’s the man for me then; let us go and hear him.”

II. Finds his own spiritual nourishment in the truth he is commissioned to preach.—“Nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast attained” (1 Timothy 4:6). The minister not only needs themes for the pulpit, but also food for his own soul. His Bible studies are therefore not simply critical and homiletical, but devotional. To teach others he must be instructed himself; to influence others he must himself be powerfully moved by the truth. Success in preaching will largely depend upon his own personal growth in piety. Spurgeon one day sitting at a window in Cologne noticed a man with a yoke and two buckets coming and going to a pump in the square for water, and at once thought to himself: “Ah, you do not fetch water to your own house, I am persuaded: you are a water-carrier; you fetch water for lots of people, and that is why you come oftener than anybody else. Now there was a meaning in that to my soul—that inasmuch as I had not only to go to Christ for myself, but had been made a water-carrier to carry the water of everlasting life to others, I must come a great deal oftener than anybody else.”

III. Ignores the profitless theories of the enemies of the truth.—“But refuse profane and old wives’ fables” (1 Timothy 4:7). It would have been a waste of time to occupy the mind on the fables and foolish traditions of the Jewish deceivers; their folly and emptiness were apparent on the surface. The minister must be rigidly discriminative in his studies, and soon detects what is profitless and profane, leading away from piety and from the great vital themes of his ministry. Passing through the china works at Sèvres, we observed an artist drawing a picture on a vase. We watched him for some minutes: other visitors came and went, glancing at the work and passing remarks; but the man took not the slightest heed of any, but was wholly absorbed in his work. A suggestive lesson. After this fashion should we devote our heart and soul to the ministry we have received. This one thing I do. To imprint the image of Jesus on a human soul demands whole-hearted devotion on the part of the most gifted minister.

IV. Is ever striving after practical piety.—“And exercise thyself rather unto godliness” (1 Timothy 4:7). The fable-mongers enforced certain ascetic rules as to eating and drinking and the treatment of the body—practices both unnecessary and injurious. The apostle teaches a nobler discipline. As the gymnast trains his body to develop physical strength and alertness, so the minister should exercise all his mental and spiritual powers with a view of invigorating his own personal piety. Godliness is a moral state, and demands the most strenuous employment of moral energies and the constant use of moral agencies. Daily study and meditation must be directed to increase in personal godliness.


1. The minister of the gospel should be apt to teach. 2. Should avoid profitless controversies.

3. Should diligently cultivate personal religion.


1 Timothy 4:6. A Good Minister of Jesus Christ.

I. His goodness as a minister of Christ is disclosed in the faithfulness of his subordination to the authority of Christ.

II. In the persistency of his adherence to the doctrine of Christ.

III. In the steadfastness of his imitation of the example of Christ.

IV. In the devoutness of his dependence on the grace of Christ.Dr. Brock.

1 Timothy 4:7. Spiritual Growth.

I. Seasons of devout solitude are necessary to higher culture.

II. Spiritual communion with good men.

III. Close communion with Christ.

IV. Communion with and prayer to God.Homiletic Monthly.

Verses 8-11


1 Timothy 4:8. For bodily exercise profiteth little.—The meaning which seems simplest may here be the correct one, as many able scholars think—bodily exercise, development of the body’s powers, is profitable in some small way, and for a short time. Godliness is profitable unto all things.—“Thrift is blessing, if men steal it not”; but when the only godliness is the spirit of Shylock’s thrift (as in 1 Timothy 6:5), it is unblest enough.

1 Timothy 4:10. We both labour and suffer reproach.—R.V. “we labour and strive.” Though the changed reading of the R.V. is highly attested, Ellicott thinks it suspicious and prefers the A.V. Specially of those that believe.—He is the Saviour of all in that He would have all men to be saved—the Saviour showed the consequence of opposing that universal and gracious purpose (Matthew 23:38); but where the human will is one with the Divine, there is a specially effective salvation unto the uttermost.


Athletics and Religion.

I. Athletic exercise has some advantage.—“For bodily exercise profiteth little” (1 Timothy 4:8). The apostle is using terms employed in describing the gymnastic contests in the public games, and the training necessary for the athletes. Bodily exercise taken in moderation profiteth a little. It improves health, develops physique, strengthens us to labour for God and man. But athletics may be overdone. An abnormal development of muscle deteriorates the quality of the brain and impairs the general health. Plato says of the wrestlers of his day that they were a sluggish set and of dubious health, that they slept out their lives, and if they varied their regular diet in the least degree they became extensively and deeply diseased. The disciplining of the body by abstinence may also be some advantage in the suppression and control of the passions; but the advantage is limited. It is an attempt to reach the inward life by outward means, which is a reversal of the Christian method, which seeks to regulate the outward life from within.

II. Religion has every advantage.

1. It is best for the present life. “But godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is” (1 Timothy 4:8). It tends to health and longevity by teaching us the proper use of the body, and shows that true happiness and prosperity are secured by promoting the welfare of both body and soul.

2. It is best for the future life. “And of that which is to come” (1 Timothy 4:8). It ensures an eternity of blessedness. The condition of our bodily and mental powers attained by judicious exercise must have an important influence upon our spiritual state. The degree of moral excellence attained in this life will be the basis of development and enjoyment in the life to come.

III. Religion involves fatigue and shame, but it means salvation to the believing.—“For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God” (1 Timothy 4:10). Religion is not obtained without effort: we must “strive to enter in at the strait gate,” and we must labour to maintain our integrity, notwithstanding the opposition and reproach of the world; but trusting in the living God, we shall be able to endure and finally conquer.

1. This is an undoubted and universal fact. “This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation” (1 Timothy 4:9). It may seem to some that godly men suffer loss as to this life; but it is not so. The labour and reproach of the good man do not deprive him of the best blessings of the present life, which he enjoys in rich abundance, though with persecutions (Mark 10:30); and he has the assurance of yet greater blessings in the future life.

2. As the living God is willing to save all, He will certainly save those who believe in Him. “The living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe” (1 Timothy 4:10). If God is the Saviour of all men, even of those who do not believe in Him, and is their benefactor and preserver, much more, and in a most blessed sense, is He the Saviour of those who fully trust in Him. He is the Saviour of all men potentially, as He has provided and offers salvation to all; but to those who believe in Him He is their Saviour experimentally and really—they become conscious of their salvation by their faith in Him.

IV. The distinction between athletics and religion should be authoritatively insisted on.—“These things command and teach” (1 Timothy 4:11). In opposition to the false views of the Judaisers, Timothy must reiterate the truth concerning true godliness. “You can always show what a life of godliness really is,—that it is full of joyousness, and that its joys are neither fitful nor uncertain; that it is no foe to what is bright and beautiful, and is neither morose in itself nor apt to frown at light-heartedness in others; that it does not interfere with the most strenuous attention to business and the most capable despatch of it. Men refuse to listen to or to be moved by words; but they cannot help noticing and being influenced by facts which are all round them in their daily lives. So far as man can judge, the number of vicious, mean, and unworthy lives is far in excess of those which are pure and lofty. Each one of us can do something towards throwing the balance the other way. We can prove to all the world that godliness is not an unreality, that it enhances the brightness of all that is really beautiful in life, while it raises to a higher power all natural gifts and abilities” (Plummer).


1. Bodily athletics may be carried to injurious excess.

2. The noblest athletics are spiritual, and seek to promote genuine godliness.

3. Religion is best for both worlds.


1 Timothy 4:8. The Life that now is.


It is short.






Important.—It has a relation to that which is to come.—G. Brooks.

The Life which is to come.

I. Mention some of the proofs that there is a life to come.—Proofs from reason—analogy, common consent, the desire of immortality, conscience. Proofs from revelation.

II. Mention some of the characteristics of the life to come.

1. It will comprehend man’s whole nature.

2. It will be purely and entirely retributive.

3. It will be unchangeable and eternal.

III. Mention some of our duties in reference to the life to come.

1. We should habitually contemplate it.

2. We should diligently prepare for it.—G. Brooks.

The Profitableness of Godliness.

I. The nature of godliness.

1. It comprehends the fear of God.

2. The saving knowledge of God.

3. Supreme love to God.

4. Intercourse with God.

5. The practice of righteousness.

6. Implies a humble and supreme regard to the honour and glory of God in all things.

II. The advantages of godliness.

1. It is profitable for the present life.

(1) Consider its influence on a man’s external circumstances.
(2) Is calculated to promote a man’s worldly prosperity.
(3) It elevates and expands the mind.
(4) Gives real excellence and sterling worth to a man’s character.
(5) Has a tendency to prolong life.
(6) Profitable to individual happiness.
(7) To mankind in their social capacity and in all the diversified relations of life.
(8) Is profitable during every stage of life—in the morning, noon, and eventide of life.
2. Profitable for the life to come.

(1) If there were no positive certainty of a future life, godliness is profitable.
(2) It is certain there is another life.


1. We see the fallacy and impiety of those who say, “What is the Almighty that we should serve Him? and what profit shall we have if we pray unto Him?”

2. The inconsistency and folly of those who, while admitting the profit of godliness, make no practical efforts to realise its advantages.

3. We commend godliness on the principle of enlightened self-interest.—Dr. Robert Newton.

1 Timothy 4:10. Christ the Saviour of All Men.

I. As He is the embodiment of the truest and noblest manhood.

II. Therefore all men may be saved.

III. Therefore the gospel should be proclaimed to all.

IV. Men are truly saved only as they believe in Christ as the Saviour.

Verse 12


1 Timothy 4:12. Let no man despise thy youth.—It is not upon any official position that St. Paul would demand respect, but on the worth of personal character. It is a poor thing when a distinction has to be made between the man as man and as official.


The Power of a Good Example—

I. Commands respect in spite of youthfulness.—“Let no man despise thy youth.” Timothy was a mere youth—probably between twenty and twenty-five years of age—when Paul selected him as a missionary companion (Acts 16:1-3). Eleven years had elapsed since then to the time subsequent to Paul’s first imprisonment. He was therefore still comparatively young, especially considered in relation to the elderly presbyters he was authorised to appoint and ordain, a work that seemed more fitting to the sedateness and gravity of age, and especially in relation to the aged Paul, who was evidently anxious to prepare Timothy to be in some sort his successor. Youthfulness is no disability in doing good. It is possible so to act as to win the esteem of all classes. Youth has great influence, and therefore great responsibility. “Tell me what is the character of the young,” said an old statesman, “and I’ll tell you the character of the next generation.”

II. Is based on consistency of religious life.

1. In speech. “But be thou an example of the believers in word.” The tendency of youth is to exaggerate in speech, and the danger is that what begins in mere playfulness may degenerate into wanton misrepresentation. Speech is an index of character. During the war between Alexander the Great and Darius, king of Persia, a soldier in the army of the latter thought to ingratiate himself with Memnon, the Persian general, by uttering the fiercest invectives against Alexander. Memnon gently touched the fellow with his spear and said, “Friend, I pay you to fight against Alexander, not to revile him.”

2. In conduct. “In conversation.” The young minister should so behave in the Church, the family, and in intercourse with the world as to gain respect both for his office and his work.

3. In spirit. “In charity, in spirit, in faith.” Faith and love are the spring and sustenance of a becoming Christian spirit. The spirit that animates us will make itself evident in word and action.

4. In holiness. “In purity.” The minister should cultivate the deepest experiences of the spiritual life, and be holy in thought, in word, and in intention. Simplicity of holy motive should be followed out in consistency of holy action. The same Greek word signifies a fool and a child; and the Hebrew word for youth signifies blackness or darkness. Few Macarinses are to be found, who, for his gravity in youth, was surnamed “the old young man.”

III. Is a guide and inspiration to others.—“Be thou an example to the believers.” The young as well as the old may be an example for good, and so be an encouragement to young and old. It is a noble ambition to be not the first but the best among the good. A single example of valour and devotion is a stimulus to others. Whilst stationed in Scotland, Colonel Durnford happened to be between Berwick and Holy Island, where a small craft had stuck on the coast during a storm. Seeing the hesitation of the fishermen to go to the rescue, he jumped into a boat, calling out, “Will none of you come with me? If not, I shall go alone.” A volunteer crew at once joined him and succeeded in rescuing those in peril.


1. A good example is the product of genuine religion.

2. An example of youthful fidelity is an inspiration to many.

3. We should study not so much to be an example to others as to be good ourselves.

Verses 13-16


1 Timothy 4:13. Give attendance to reading.—Probably the apostle means to the public reading of the Old Testament Scriptures, though it would not be surprising if portions of our New Testament were so read at the late date when this epistle was written.

1 Timothy 4:14. Neglect not the gift.—In the second epistle this gift is represented as a living fire which must be cared for. With the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.—In 2 Timothy 1:6 the imposition of hands is regarded as instrumental to the reception of the charisma: here it is a concomitant merely.

1 Timothy 4:15. Meditate upon these things.—R.V. “Be diligent in.” The word for “neglect” in 1 Timothy 4:14 is the direct opposite of “meditate.” That thy profiting.—R.V. “thy progress,” like that of a boat whose oars beat the water and urge it forward.

1 Timothy 4:16. Take heed to thyself.—In 1 Timothy 4:13 the apostle had bidden Timothy give heed to the teaching: the “take heed” of this verse is perhaps slightly more emphatic. Thou shalt save both thyself, and them that hear thee.—It is possible that a man who plays an actor’s part may utter a word that shall reuse the conscience or touch the heart, but the messenger of the gospel must himself know the truths he proclaims to others.


Ministerial Responsibilities—

I. Involve the constant public reading and enforcement of the Holy Scriptures.—“Till I come give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine” (1 Timothy 4:13). The practice of reading the Scriptures in the Jewish synagogues was transferred to the Christian Church. The New Testament gospels and epistles, recognised as inspired productions by those who in the early Christian age had the gift of discerning spirits, were read in the churches along with the Old Testament books. This constant public reading of the Bible in the sanctuary has had a powerful influence in forming national character throughout Christendom. To read the word of God in public with due emphasis and efficiency is worthy of the most careful study. It should ever be regarded as an important part of public worship: it has often been made a blessing to the congregation. The Bible must also be diligently pondered by the minister for his own personal edification, and as the fountain of wisdom from which he must continually draw in instructing and exhorting his people. It is said of some of the mines of Cornwall that the deeper they are sunk the richer they prove; and though some lodes have been followed a thousand and even fifteen hundred feet, they have not come to an end. Such is the book of God. It is a mine of wealth which can never be exhausted. The deeper we sink into it the richer it becomes.

II. Require the frequent stirring up of any special spiritual endowment.—“Neglect not the gift that is in thee” (1 Timothy 4:14). The gift referred to was, in general, his spiritual qualification for the ministry. It is represented as a spark of the Spirit, likely to smoulder if neglected, and needing to be blown into flame by vigorous exercise The bestowment of the Spirit at his ordination was prophetic of the power that would be ever communicated to him in carrying on his work. The call to the ministry is also a qualification to discharge its duties.

III. Demand earnest and progressive study of Divine things.—“Meditate upon these things” (1 Timothy 4:15). Spiritual endowment is no plea for mental laziness. The study of the word of God requires and involves constant reading, elaborate research, and intense thought. All our intellectual abilities and resources are taxed to the uttermost.

IV. Impose continuous vigilance over both life and teaching in order to success.—“Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine” (1 Timothy 4:16). Personal piety must be sedulously cultivated. The people are quick to detect religious decadence and loss of spiritual power in the minister. The power of teaching depends upon a constantly vivid sense of the reality and solemnity of eternal verities. It is a fruitless moan of the husbandman, “Thou hast made me the keeper of the vineyards, but mine own vineyard I have not kept.”


1. The minister is responsible to God.

2. Responsibility involves watchfulness and constant effort.

3. Success, whether evident to us or not, is proportioned to fidelity.


1 Timothy 4:13-14. Ministerial Duties

I. Necessitate much reading and study.

II. Include frequent appeals to the feelings and will of the people in order to regulate the life.

III. Involve furnishing the understanding with substantial knowledge.

IV. Demand the exercise of the choicest spiritual gifts.

1 Timothy 4:15. Meditation.

I. Hindrances in forming the habit.

1. The tendency to relapse into indifference concerning spiritual things.

2. The absorbing demands of business.

3. Excessive attention and labours in the external prosperity of the Church.

II. The duty of meditation.

1. The subject-matter of meditation. “Those things” (1 Timothy 4:15 : compare 1 Timothy 4:13; 2 Timothy 3:15). The Holy Scriptures, in their direct bearing on religious life and experience.

2. The exercise of the duty

(1) Includes reading.
(2) Reflection.
(3) Prayer.
(4) Earnest exercise of all our powers.

III. Advantages of the duty.

1. Personal. “Thy profiting.”

2. Relative. “May appear in all things.”

1 Timothy 4:16. Ordination Sermon.

I. Ministers ought to take heed to their personal religion.

II. To their study.

III. To their preaching.

IV. To their parochial duties.E. D. Griffin.

The Comparative Influence of Character and Doctrine.

I. Life tends very greatly to modify a man’s own views of doctrine.

II. Affects his power of expressing or communicating truth to others.

III. Has in many respects an influence which direct teaching or doctrine cannot exert.

1. Actions are more intelligible than words.

2. The language of the life is more convincing than the language of the lip.

3. The teaching of the life is available in many cases in which the teaching of the lip cannot or ought not to be attempted.—J. Caird.

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 4". Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary. Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1892.