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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
2 Peter 2

 

 

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Verse 1

But there arose (εγενοντο δεegenonto de). Second aorist middle indicative of γινομαιginomai (cf. γινεταιginetai in 2 Peter 1:20).

False prophets also (και πσευδοπροπηταιkai pseudoprophētai). In contrast with the true prophets just pictured in 2 Peter 1:20. Late compound in lxx and Philo, common in N.T. (Matthew 7:15). Allusion to the O.T. times like Balaam and others (Jeremiah 6:13; Jeremiah 28:9; Ezekiel 13:9).

False teachers (πσευδοδιδασκαλοιpseudodidaskaloi). Late and rare compound (πσευδησ διδασκαλοςpseudēsεσονταιdidaskalos) here alone in N.T. Peter pictures them as in the future here (εισινesontai shall be) and again as already present (επλανητησανeisin are, 2 Peter 2:17), or in the past (παρεισαχουσινeplanēthēsan they went astray, 2 Peter 2:15).

Shall privily bring in (παρεισαγωpareisaxousin). Future active of παρεισαγωpareisagō late double compound εισαγωpareisagō to bring in (παραeisagō), by the side (παρεισακτουςpara), as if secretly, here alone in N.T., but see αιρεσεις απωλειαςpareisaktous in Galatians 2:4 (verbal adjective of this same verb).

Destructive heresies (αιρεσιςhaireseis apōleias). Descriptive genitive, “heresies of destruction” (marked by destruction) as in Luke 16:8. αιρεωHairesis (from αρνουμενοιhaireō) is simply a choosing, a school, a sect like that of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), of the Pharisees (Acts 15:5), and of Christians as Paul admitted (Acts 24:5). These “tenets” (Galatians 5:20) led to destruction.

Denying (αρνεομαιarnoumenoi). Present middle participle of και τον δεσποτηνarneomai This the Gnostics did, the very thing that Peter did, alas (Matthew 26:70) even after Christ‘s words (Matthew 10:33).

Even the Master (τον αγορασαντα αυτουςkai ton despotēn). Old word for absolute master, here of Christ as in Judges 1:4, and also of God (Acts 4:24). Without the evil sense in our “despot.”

That bought them (αγοραζωton agorasanta autous). First aorist active articular participle of λυτροωagorazō same idea with ταχινην απωλειανlutroō in 1 Peter 1:18. These were professing Christians, at any rate, these heretics.

Swift destruction (ταχινηνtachinēn apōleian). See 2 Peter 1:14 for απωλειανtachinēn and note repetition of επαγοντεςapōleian This is always the tragedy of such false prophets, the fate that they bring on (epagontes) themselves.


Verse 2

Lascivious doings (ασελγειαιςaselgeiais). Associative instrumental ease after εχακολουτησουσινexakolouthēsousin (future active, for which verb see 2 Peter 1:16). See 1 Peter 4:3 for this word.

By reason of whom (δι ουςdi' hous). “Because of whom” (accusative case of relative, referring to πολλοιpolloi many). ΑυτωνAutōn (their) refers to πσευδοδιδασκαλοιpseudodidaskaloi (false teachers) while πολλοιpolloi to their deluded followers. See Romans 2:23. for a picture of such conduct by Jews (quotation from Isaiah 52:5, with βλασπημεωblasphēmeō used as here with δι υμαςdi' humas because of you).

The way of truth (η οδος της αλητειαςhē hodos tēs alētheias). οδοςHodos (way) occurs often in N.T. for Christianity (Acts 9:2; Acts 16:17; Acts 18:25; Acts 22:4; Acts 24:14). This phrase is in Genesis 24:48 as “the right road,” and that is what Peter means here. So Psalm 119:30. See again 2 Peter 2:15, 2 Peter 2:21.


Verse 3

In covetousness (εν πλεονεχιαιen pleonexiāi). As did Balaam (2 Peter 2:15). These licentious Gnostics made money out of their dupes. A merely intellectual Gnosticism had its fruit in immorality and fraud.

With feigned words (πλαστοις λογοιςplastois logois). Instrumental case. ΠλαστοςPlastos is verbal adjective (from πλασσωplassō to mould as from clay, for which see Romans 9:20), here only in N.T. “With forged words.” See sample in 2 Peter 3:4.

Shall make merchandise of you (υμας εμπορευσονταιhumas emporeusontai). Future middle of εμπορευομαιemporeuomai (from εμποροςemporos a travelling merchant), old word, to go in for trade, in N.T. only here and James 4:13, which see. Cf. our emporium (John 2:16, market house).

Whose sentence (οις το κριμαhois to krima). “For whom (dative case) the sentence” (verdict, not process κρισιςkrisis).

Now from of old (εκπαλαιekpalai). Late and common compound adverb, in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 3:5.

Lingereth not (ουκ αργειouk argei). “Is not idle,” old verb, αργεωargeō (from αργοςargos not working, alpha privative and εργονergon), here only in N.T.

Slumbereth not (ου νυσταζειou nustazei). Old and common verb (from νυωnuō to nod), in N.T. only here and Matthew 25:5. Note απωλειαapōleia (destruction) three times in 2 Peter 2:1-3.


Verse 4

For if God spared not (ει γαρ ο τεος ουκ επεισατοei gar ho theos ouk epheisato). First instance (γαρgar) of certain doom, that of the fallen angels. Condition of the first class precisely like that in Romans 11:21 save that here the normal apodosis (υμων ου πεισεταιhumōn ou pheisetai) is not expressed as there, but is simply implied in 2 Peter 2:9 by οιδεν κυριος ρυεσταιoiden kurios ruesthai (the Lord knows how to deliver) after the parenthesis in 2 Peter 2:8.

Angels when they sinned (αγγελων αμαρτησαντωνaggelōn hamartēsantōn). Genitive case after επεισατοepheisato (first aorist middle indicative of πειδομαιpheidomai) and anarthrous (so more emphatic, even angels), first aorist active participle of αμαρτανωhamartanō “having sinned.”

Cast them down to hell (ταρταρωσαςtartarōsas). First aorist active participle of ταρταροωtartaroō late word (from ταρταροςtartaros old word in Homer, Pindar, lxx Job 40:15; 41:23, Philo, inscriptions, the dark and doleful abode of the wicked dead like the Gehenna of the Jews), found here alone save in a scholion on Homer. ΤαρταροςTartaros occurs in Enoch 20:2 as the place of punishment of the fallen angels, while Gehenna is for apostate Jews.

Committed (παρεδωκενparedōken). First aorist active indicative of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi the very form solemnly used by Paul in Romans 1:21, Romans 1:26, Romans 1:28.

To pits of darkness (σειροις ζοπουseirois zophou). οποςZophos (kin to γνοποσ νεποςgnophosσειραιςnephos) is an old word, blackness, gloom of the nether world in Homer, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:17; Judges 1:13; Hebrews 12:18. The MSS. vary between σειραseirais (σειροιςseira chain or rope) and σειροςseirois (Σειροιςseiros old word for pit, underground granary). εις κρισιν τηρουμενουςSeirois is right (Aleph A B C), dative case of destination.

To be reserved unto judgment (τηρεωeis krisin tēroumenous). Present (linear action) passive participle of κολαζομενους τηρεινtēreō “Kept for judgment.” Cf. 1 Peter 1:4. Aleph A have κρισιςkolazomenous tērein as in 2 Peter 2:9. Note krisis (act of judgment).


Verse 5

The ancient world (αρχαιου κοσμουarchaiou kosmou). Genitive case after επεισατοepheisato (with ειei understood) repeated (the second example, the deluge). This example not in Jude. Absence of the article is common in the prophetic style like 2 Peter. For αρχαιοςarchaios see Luke 9:8.

Preserved (επυλαχενephulaxen). Still part of the long protasis with ειei first aorist active indicative of πυλασσωphulassō seven others (ογδοονogdoon). “Eighth,” predicate accusative adjective (ordinal), classic idiom usually with αυτονauton See 1 Peter 3:20 for this same item. Some take ογδοονogdoon with κηρυκαkēruka (eighth preacher), hardly correct.

A preacher of righteousness (δικαιοσυνης κηρυκαdikaiosunēs kēruka). “Herald” as in 1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11 alone in N.T., but κηρυσσωkērussō is common. It is implied in 1 Peter 3:20 that Noah preached to the men of his time during the long years.

When he brought (επαχαςepaxas). First aorist active participle (instead of the common second aorist active επαγαγωνepagagōn) of εισαγωeisagō old compound verb to bring upon, in N.T. only here and Acts 5:28 (by Peter here also).

A flood (κατακλυσμονkataklusmon). Old word (from κατακλυζωkatakluzō to inundate), only of Noah‘s flood in N.T. (Matthew 24:38.; Luke 17:27; 2 Peter 2:5).

Upon the world of the ungodly (κοσμοι ασεβωνkosmoi asebōn). Anarthrous and dative case κοσμωιkosmōi The whole world were “ungodly” (ασεβειςasebeis as in 1 Peter 4:18) save Noah‘s family of eight.


Verse 6

Turning into ashes (τεπρωσαςtephrōsas). First aorist participle of τεπροωtephroō late word from τεπραtephra ashes (in Dio Cassius of an eruption of Vesuvius, Philo), here alone in N.T.

The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah (πολεις Σοδομων και Γομορραςpoleis Sodomōn kai Gomorrās). Genitive of apposition after πολειςpoleis (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Judges 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Genesis 19:24.

Condemned them (κατεκρινενkatekrinen). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινωkatakrinō still part of the protasis with ειei an overthrow (καταστροπηιkatastrophēi). Instrumental case or even dative like τανατωιthanatōi with κατακρινωkatakrinō in Matthew 20:18. But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic.

Having made them (τετεικωςtetheikōs). Perfect active participle of τιτημιtithēmi example (υποδειγμαhupodeigma). For which see James 5:10; John 13:15. Cf. 1 Peter 2:21.

Unto those that should live ungodly (μελλοντων ασεβεσινmellontōn asebesin). Rather, “unto ungodly men of things about to be” (see Hebrews 11:20 for this use of μελλοντωνmellontōn). But Aleph A C K L read ασεβεινasebein (present active infinitive) with μελλοντωνmellontōn = ασεβησοντωνasebēsontōn (future active participle of ασεβεωasebeō), from which we have our translation.


Verse 7

And delivered (και ερυσατοkai erusato). First aorist middle of ρυομαιruomai as in Matthew 6:13, still part of the protasis with ειei Lot (δικαιον Λοτdikaion Lot). This adjective δικαιοςdikaios occurs three times in 2 Peter 2:7, 2 Peter 2:8. See Wisdom 10:6.

Sore distressed (καταπονουμενονkataponoumenon). Present passive participle of καταπονεωkataponeō late and common verb, to work down, to exhaust with labor, to distress, in N.T. only here and Acts 7:24.

By the lascivious life of the wicked (υπο της των ατεσμων εν ασελγειαι αναστροπηςhupo tēs tōn athesmōn en aselgeiāi anastrophēs). “By the life in lasciviousness of the lawless.” ΑτεσμοςAthesmos (alpha privative and τεσμοςthesmos), late and common adjective (cf. ατεμιτοςathemitos 1 Peter 4:3) for rebels against law (of nature and conscience here). ΑναστροπηAnastrophē is frequent in 1 Peter.


Verse 8

For (γαρgar). Parenthetical explanation in 2 Peter 2:8 of the remark about Lot.

Dwelling (ενκατοικωνenkatoikōn). Present active participle of ενκατοικεωenkatoikeō old but rare double compound, here only in N.T.

In seeing and hearing (βλεμματι και ακοηιblemmati kai akoēi). “By sight (instrumental case of βλεμμαblemma old word, from βλεπωblepō to see, here only in N.T.) and hearing” (instrumental case of ακοηakoē from ακουωakouō to hear, common as Matthew 13:14).

From day to day (ημεραν εχ ημεραςhēmeran ex hēmerās). “Day in day out.” Accusative of time and ablative with εχex Same idiom in Psalm 96:2 for the more common εχ ημερας εις ημερανex hēmeras eis hēmeran (εβασανιζενebasanizen). Imperfect active (kept on vexing) of βασανιζωbasanizō old word, to test metals, to torment (Matthew 8:29).

With their lawless deeds (ανομοις εργοιςanomois ergois). Instrumental case of cause, “because of their lawless (contrary to law) deeds.” For ανομοςanomos see 2 Thessalonians 2:8.


Verse 9

The Lord knoweth how (οιδεν κυριοςoiden kurios). The actual apodosis of the long protasis begun in 2 Peter 2:4. God can deliver his servants as shown by Noah and Lot and he will deliver you. The idiomatic use of οιδαoida and the infinitive (ρυεσταιruesthai present middle and see 2 Peter 2:7) for knowing how as in Matthew 7:11; James 4:17.

The godly (ευσεβειςeusebeis). Old anarthrous adjective (from ευeu and σεβομαιsebomai to worship), in N.T. only here and Acts 10:2, Acts 10:7 (by Peter). For temptation (πειρασμουpeirasmou) see James 1:2, James 1:12; 1 Peter 1:6.

To keep (τηρεινtērein). Present active infinitive of τηρεωtēreō after οιδενoiden (αδικουςadikous). As in 1 Peter 3:18.

Under punishment (κολαζομενουςkolazomenous). Present passive participle of κολαζωkolazō old verb (from κολοςkolos lopped off), in N.T. only here and Acts 4:21. Present tense emphasises continuity of the punishment. See κολασιν αιωνιονkolasin aiōnion in Matthew 25:46.


Verse 10

Chiefly (μαλισταmalista). Especially. He turns now to the libertine heretics (2 Peter 2:2, 2 Peter 2:7).

After the flesh (οπισω σαρκοςopisō sarkos). Hebraistic use of οπισωopisō as with αμαρτιωνhamartiōn (sins) in Isaiah 65:2. Cf. Matthew 4:19; 1 Timothy 5:15.

Of defilement (μιασμουmiasmou). Old word (from μιαινωmiainō Titus 1:15), here only in N.T.

Despise dominion (κυριοτητος καταπρονουνταςkuriotētos kataphronountas). ΚυριοτηςKuriotēs is late word for lordship (perhaps God or Christ) (from ΚυριοςKurios), in Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 1:21; Judges 1:8. Genitive case after καταπρουνταςkataphrountas (thinking down on, Matthew 6:24).

Daring (τολμηταιtolmētai). Old substantive (from τολμαωtolmaō to dare), daring men, here only in N.T.

Self-willed (αυταδειςauthadeis). Old adjective (from αυτοςautos and ηδομαιhēdomai), self-pleasing, arrogant, in N.T. only here and Titus 1:7.

They tremble not to rail at dignities (δοχας ου τρεμουσιν βλασπημουντεςdoxas ou tremousin blasphēmountes). “They tremble not blaspheming dignities.” ΤρεμωTremō is old verb (Mark 5:33), used only in present as here and imperfect. Here with the complementary participle βλασπημουντεςblasphēmountes rather than the infinitive βλασπημεινblasphēmein See Judges 1:8. Perhaps these dignities (δοχαςdoxas) are angels (εςιλevil).


Verse 11

Whereas (οπουhopou). Loose use of οπουhopou (in Xenophon) = “wherein.”

Though greater (μειζονες οντεςmeizones ontes). Than the evil δοχαιdoxai Concessive participle and comparative adjective.

In might and strength (ισχυι και δυναμειischui kai dunamei). Locative case. Both indwelling strength (ισχυςischus Mark 12:30) and ability (δυναμιςdunamis Matthew 25:15).

Railing judgment (βλασπεμον κρισινblasphemon krisin). “Blasphemous accusation.”

Against them (κατ αυτωνkat' autōn). The evil angels (δοχαιdoxai).

Before the Lord (παρα κυριωιpara kuriōi). In God‘s presence. See Judges 1:9 and possibly Enoch 9.


Verse 12

But these (ουτοι δεhoutoi de). The false teachers of 2 Peter 2:1.

As creatures (ζωαzōa). Living creatures, old word, from ζωοςzōos (alive), Judges 1:10; Revelation 4:6-9.

Without reason (αλογαaloga). Old adjective, in N.T. only here, Judges 1:10; Acts 25:27. Brute beasts like τηριαthēria (wild animals).

Born (γεγεννημεναgegennēmena). Perfect passive participle of γενναωgennaō animals (πυσικαphusika). Old adjective in ικος̇ikos (from πυσιςphusis nature), natural animals, here only in N.T.

To be taken (εις αλωσινeis halōsin). “For capture” (old substantive, from αλοωhaloō here only in N.T.).

And destroyed (και πτορανkai phthoran). “And for destruction” just like a beast of prey caught. See 2 Peter 1:4.

In matters whereof they are ignorant (εν οις αγνοουσινen hois agnoousin). “In which things they are ignorant.” Here εν οιςen hois = εν τουτοις αen toutois ha (in those things which), a common Greek idiom. For αγνοεωagnoeō (present active indicative) see 1 Thessalonians 4:13; 1 Timothy 1:7 for a like picture of loud ignoramuses posing as professional experts.

Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed (εν τηι πτοραι αυτων πταρησονταιen tēi phthorāi autōn phtharēsontai). Second future passive of πτειρωphtheirō Rhetorical Hebraism in the use of εν πτοραιen phthorāi (same root as πτειρωphtheirō), word four times in 2 Peter. See Judges 1:10.


Verse 13

Suffering wrong (αδικουμενοιadikoumenoi). Present middle or passive participle of αδικεωadikeō to do wrong. So Aleph B P, but A C K L have κομιουμενοιkomioumenoi (future middle participle of κομιζωkomizō), shall receive.

As the hire of wrong-doing (μιστον αδικιαςmisthon adikias). The Elephantine papyrus has the passive of αδικεωadikeō in the sense of being defrauded, and that may be the idea here. Peter plays on words again here as often in 2 Peter. The picture proceeds now with participles like ηγουμενοιhēgoumenoi (counting).

Pleasure (ηδονηνhēdonēn). See James 4:1, James 4:3.

To revel in the daytime (την εν ημεραι τρυπηνtēn en hēmerāi truphēn). “The in the daytime revel” (old word τρυπηtruphē from τρυπτωthruptō to enervate, in N.T. only here and Luke 7:25).

Spots (σπιλοιspiloi). Old word for disfiguring spot, in N.T. only here and Ephesians 5:27.

Blemishes (μωμοιmōmoi). Old word for blot (kin to μυωmuō), only here in N.T. See 1 Peter 1:19 for αμωμος και ασπιλοςamōmos kai aspilos (εντρυπωντεςentruphōntes). Present active participle of εντρυπαωentruphaō old compound for living in luxury, only here in N.T.

In their love-feasts (εν ταις αγαπαιςen tais agapais). So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read απαταιςapatais (in their deceivings). If αγαπαιςagapais is genuine as it is in Judges 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of αγαπηagapē they feast with you (συνευωχουμενοιsuneuōchoumenoi). Present passive participle of late and rare verb συνευωχεωsuneuōcheō (συνsun together, and ευωχεωeuōcheō to feed abundantly) to entertain with. Clement of Alex. (Paed. ii. I. 6) applies ευωχιαeuōchia to the αγαπηagapē f0).


Verse 14

Of adultery (μοιχαλιδοςmoichalidos). Rather, “of an adulteress,” like James 4:4. Vivid picture of a man who cannot see a woman without lascivious thoughts toward her (Mayor). Cf. Matthew 5:28.

That cannot cease (ακαταπαστουςakatapastous). Reading of A B in place of ακαταπαυστουςakatapaustous (alpha privative and verbal of καταπαυωkatapauō to cease). “Unable to stop.” This a late verbal, only here in N.T. It is probable that ακαταπαστουςakatapastous is merely a misspelling of ακαταπαυστουςakatapaustous sin (αμαρτιαςhamartias). Ablative case as in 1 Peter 4:1 (αμαρτιαςhamartias). Insatiable lust.

Enticing (δελεαζοντεςdeleazontes). Present active participle of δελεαζωdeleazō to catch by bait as in 2 Peter 2:18; James 1:14.

Unsteadfast (αστηρικτουςastēriktous). Late verbal adjective (alpha privative and στηριζωstērizō), in Longinus and Vettius Valens, here alone in N.T.

Exercised (γεγυμνασμενηνgegumnasmenēn). Perfect passive predicate participle with εχοντεςechontes from γυμναζωgumnazō precisely as in Hebrews 5:14. Rhetorical metaphor from the gymnasium.

In covetousness (πλεονεχιαςpleonexias). Genitive case after the participle.

Children of cursing (καταρας τεκναkataras tekna). Hebraism like τεκνα υπακοηςtekna hupakoēs in 1 Peter 1:14 = accursed (καταρατοιkataratoi).


Verse 15

Forsaking (καταλειποντεςkataleipontes). Present active participle of καταλειπωkataleipō (continually leaving) or καταλιποντεςkatalipontes (second aorist active), having left.

The right way (ευτειαν οδονeutheian hodon). “The straight way” of 1 Samuel 12:23 (cf. Matthew 7:13. for this use of οδοςhodos), “the way of truth” (2 Peter 2:2).

They went astray (επλανητησανeplanēthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of πλαναωplanaō like Mark 12:24.

The way of Balaam (τηι οδωι του αλααμtēi hodōi tou Balaam). Associative instrumental case after εχακολουτησαντεςexakolouthēsantes for which verb see 2 Peter 1:16; 2 Peter 2:2. These false teachers, as shown in 2 Peter 2:13, followed the way of Balaam, “who loved the hire of wrong-doing” (ος μιστον αδικιας ηγαπησενhos misthon adikias ēgapēsen).


Verse 16

But he was rebuked (ελεγχιν δε εσχενelegxin de eschen). “But he had rebuke.” Second aorist active indicative of εχωechō and accusative of ελεγχιςelegxis (late word from ελεγχωelegchō a periphrasis for ελεγχωelegchō here only in N.T.

For his own transgression (ιδιας παρανομιαςidias paranomias). Objective genitive of παρανομιαparanomia old word (from παρανομοςparanomos lawbreaker), here only in N.T.

A dumb ass (υποζυγιον απωνονhupozugion aphōnon). Dumb is without voice, old word for idols and beasts. The adjective υποζυγιοςhupozugios (υπο ζυγον ονhupo zugon on) “being under a yoke,” is applied to the ass as the common beast of burden (papyri, Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 160), in N.T. only here and Matthew 21:5.

Spake (πτεγχαμενονphthegxamenon). First aorist middle participle of πτεγγομαιphtheggomai old verb, to utter a sound, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:18, Acts 4:18.

Stayed (εκωλυσενekōlusen). First aorist active indicative of κωλυωkōluō to hinder.

Madness (παραπρονιανparaphronian). Only known example of this word instead of the usual παραπροσυνηparaphrosunē or παραπρονησιςparaphronēsis It is being beside one‘s wits.


Verse 17

Without water (ανυδροιanudroi). As in Matthew 12:43; Luke 11:24. Old word for common and disappointing experience of travellers in the orient.

Mists (ομιχλαιhomichlai). Old word for fog, here alone in N.T.

Driven by a storm (υπο λαιλαπος ελαυνομεναιhupo lailapos elaunomenai). ΛαιλαπςLailaps is a squall (Mark 4:37; Luke 8:23, only other N.T. examples). See James 3:4 for another example of ελαυνωelaunō for driving power of wind and waves.

For whom (οιςhois). Dative case of personal interest.

The blackness (ο ζοποςho zophos). See 2 Peter 2:4 for this word.

Hath been reserved (τετηρηταιtetērētai). Perfect passive participle of τηρεωtēreō for which see 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:9.


Verse 18

Great swelling words (υπερογκαhuperogka). Old compound adjective (υπερhuper and ογκοςogkos a swelling, swelling above and beyond), in N.T. only here and Judges 1:16.

Of vanity (ματαιοτητοςmataiotētos). Late and rare word (from ματαιοςmataios empty, vain), often in lxx, in N.T. here, Romans 8:20; Ephesians 4:17.

By lasciviousness (ασελγειαιςaselgeiais). Instrumental plural, “by lascivious acts.” Note asyndeton as in 2 Peter 1:9, 2 Peter 1:17.

Those who are just escaping (τους ολιγως αποπευγονταςtous oligōs apopheugontas). So A B read ολιγωςoligōs (slightly, a little), while Aleph C K L P read οντωςontōs (actually). ΟλιγωςOligōs late and rare, only here in N.T. So again the Textus Receptus has αποπυγονταςapophugontas (second aorist active participle, clean escaped) while the correct text is the present active αποπευγονταςapopheugontas them that live in error (τους εν πλανηι αναστρεπομενουςtous en planēi anastrephomenous). Accusative case after αποπευγονταςapopheugontas (escaping from) according to regular idiom. Peter often uses αναστρεπωanastrephō and αναστροπηanastrophē f0).


Verse 19

Liberty (ελευτεριανeleutherian). Promising “personal liberty,” that is license, after the fashion of advocates of liquor today, not the freedom of truth in Christ (John 8:32; Galatians 5:1, Galatians 5:13).

Themselves bondservants (αυτοι δουλοιautoi douloi). “Themselves slaves” of corruption and sin as Paul has it in Romans 6:20.

Of whom (ωιhōi). Instrumental case, but it may mean “of what.”

Is overcome (ηττηταιhēttētai). Perfect passive indicative of ητταωhēttaō (from ηττωνhēttōn less) old verb, in N.T. only here, 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Corinthians 12:13.

Of the same (τουτωιtoutōi). “By this one (or thing).”

Is brought into bondage (δεδουλωταιdedoulōtai). Perfect passive indicative of δουλοωdouloō Like Paul again (Romans 6:16, Romans 6:18; Romans 8:21).


Verse 20

After they have escaped (αποπυγοντεςapophugontes). Second aorist active participle here (see 2 Peter 2:18).

The defilements (τα μιασματαta miasmata). Old word miasma, from μιαινωmiainō here only in N.T. Our “miasma.” The body is sacred to God. Cf. μιασμουmiasmou in 2 Peter 2:10.

They are again entangled (παλιν εμπλακεντεςpalin emplakentes). Second aorist passive participle of εμπλεκωemplekō old verb, to inweave (noosed, fettered), in N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:4.

Overcome (ηττωνταιhēttōntai). Present passive indicative of ητταοωhēttaoō for which see 2 Peter 2:19, “are repeatedly worsted.” Predicate in the condition of first class with ειei It is not clear whether the subject here is “the deluded victims” (Bigg) or the false teachers themselves (Mayor). See Hebrews 10:26 for a parallel.

Therein (τουτοιςtoutois). So locative case (in these “defilements”), but it can be instrumental case (“by these,” Strachan).

With them (αυτοιςautois). Dative of disadvantage, “for them.”

Than the first (των πρωτωνtōn prōtōn). Ablative case after the comparative χειροναcheirona See this moral drawn by Jesus (Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26).


Verse 21

It were better (κρειττον ηνkreitton ēn). Apodosis of a condition of second class without ανan as is usual with clauses of possibility, propriety, obligation (Matthew 26:24; 1 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 7:7; Hebrews 9:26).

Not to have known (μη επεγνωκεναιmē epegnōkenai). Perfect active infinitive of επιγινωσκωepiginōskō (cf. επιγνωσειepignōsei 2 Peter 2:20) to know fully.

The way of righteousness (την οδον της δικαιοσυνηςtēn hodon tēs dikaiosunēs). For the phrase see Matthew 21:33, also the way of truth (2 Peter 2:2), the straight way (2 Peter 2:15).

After knowing it (επιγνουσινepignousin). Second aorist active participle of επιγινωσκωepiginōskō (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with αυτοιςautois (for them).

To turn back (υποστρεπσαιhupostrepsai). First aorist active infinitive of υποστρεπωhupostrephō old and common verb, to turn back, to return.

From (εκek). Out of. So in Acts 12:25 with υποστρεπωhupostrephō With ablative case. See Romans 7:12 for αγιαhagia applied to η εντοληhē entolē (cf. 1 Timothy 6:14). 2 Peter strikes a high ethical note (2 Peter 1:5.).

Delivered (παραδοτεισηςparadotheisēs). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi f0).


Verse 22

It has happened (συμβεβηκενsumbebēken). Perfect active indicative of συμβαινωsumbainō for which see 1 Peter 4:12.

According to the true proverb (το της αλητους παροιμιαςto tēs alēthous paroimias). “The word (τοto used absolutely, the matter of, as in Matthew 21:21; James 4:14) of the true proverb” (παροιμιαparoimia a wayside saying, for which see John 10:6; John 16:25, John 16:29). The first proverb here given comes from Proverbs 26:11. ΕχεραμαExerama is a late and rare word (here only in N.T., in Diosc. and Eustath.) from εχεραωexeraō to vomit.

The sow that had washed (ς λουσαμενηhūs lousamenē). ςHūs old word for hog, here only in N.T. Participle first aorist direct middle of λουωlouō shows that it is feminine (anarthrous). This second proverb does not occur in the O.T., probably from a Gentile source because about the habit of hogs. Epictetus and other writers moralize on the habit of hogs, having once bathed in a filthy mud-hole, to delight in it.

To wallowing (εις κυλισμονeis kulismon). “To rolling.” Late and rare word (from κυλιωkuliō Mark 9:20), here only in N.T.

In the mire (βορβορουborborou). Objective genitive, old word for dung, mire, here only in N.T. J. Rendel Harris (Story of Ahikar, p. LXVII) tells of a story about a hog that went to the bath with people of quality, but on coming out saw a stinking drain and went and rolled himself in it.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 2 Peter 2:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/2-peter-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, November 13th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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