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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Acts 22

 

 

Verse 1

Brethren and fathers (Ανδρες αδελποι και πατερεςAndres adelphoi kai pateres) Men, brethren, and fathers. The very language used by Stephen (Acts 7:2) when arraigned before the Sanhedrin with Paul then present. Now Paul faces a Jewish mob on the same charges brought against Stephen. These words are those of courtesy and dignity (amoris et honoris nomina, Page). These men were Paul‘s brother Jews and were (many of them) official representatives of the people (Sanhedrists, priests, rabbis). Paul‘s purpose is conciliatory, he employs “his ready tact” (Rackham).

The defence which I now make unto you (μου της προς υμας νυνι απολογιαςmou tēs pros humas nuni apologias). Literally, My defence to you at this time. ΝυνιNuni is a sharpened form (by ι̇i) of νυνnun (now), just now. The term απολογιαapologia (apology) is not our use of the word for apologizing for an offence, but the original sense of defence for his conduct, his life. It is an old word from απολογεομαιapologeomai to talk oneself off a charge, to make defence. It occurs also in Acts 25:16 and then also in 1 Corinthians 9:3; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philemon 1:7, Philemon 1:16; 2 Timothy 4:16; 1 Peter 3:15. Paul uses it again in Acts 25:16 as here about his defence against the charges made by the Jews from Asia. He is suspected of being a renegade from the Mosaic law and charged with specific acts connected with the alleged profanation of the temple. So Paul speaks in Aramaic and recites the actual facts connected with his change from Judaism to Christianity. The facts make the strongest argument. He first recounts the well-known story of his zeal for Judaism in the persecution of the Christians and shows why the change came. Then he gives a summary of his work among the Gentiles and why he came to Jerusalem this time. He answers the charge of enmity to the people and the law and of desecration of the temple. It is a speech of great skill and force, delivered under remarkable conditions. The one in chapter Acts 26 covers some of the same ground, but for a slightly different purpose as we shall see. For a discussion of the three reports in Acts of Paul‘s conversion see chapter Acts 9. Luke has not been careful to make every detail correspond, though there is essential agreement in all three.


Verse 2

He spake (προσεπωνειprosephōnei). Imperfect active, was speaking. See aorist active προσεπωνησενprosephōnēsen in Acts 21:40.

They were the more quiet (μαλλον παρεσχον ησυχιανmāllon pareschon hēsuchian). Literally, The more (μαλλονmāllon) they furnished or supplied (second aorist active indicative of παρεχωparechō) quietness (ησυχιανhēsuchian old word, in the N.T. only here and 2 Thessalonians 3:12; 1 Timothy 2:11.). Precisely this idiom occurs in Plutarch and the lxx (Job 34:29). Knowling notes the fondness of Luke for words of silence (σιγη σιγαω ησυχαζωsigēsigaōhēsuchazō) as in Luke 14:4; Luke 15:26; Acts 11:18; Acts 12:17; Acts 15:12; Acts 21:14, Acts 21:40. It is a vivid picture of the sudden hush that swept over the vast mob under the spell of the Aramaic. They would have understood Paul‘s Koiné{[28928]}š Greek, but they much preferred the Aramaic. It was a masterstroke.


Verse 3

I am a Jew (Εγω ειμι ανηρ ΙουδαιοςEgō eimi anēr Ioudaios). Note use of ΕγωEgō for emphasis. Paul recounts his Jewish advantages or privileges with manifest pride as in Acts 26:4.; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 1:14; Philemon 3:4-7.

Born (γεγεννημενοςgegennēmenos). Perfect passive participle of γενναωgennaō See above in Acts 21:39 for the claim of Tarsus as his birth-place. He was a Hellenistic Jew, not an Aramaean Jew (cf. Acts 6:1).

Brought up (ανατετραμμενοςanatethrammenos). Perfect passive participle again of ανατρεπωanatrephō to nurse up, to nourish up, common old verb, but in the N.T. only here, Acts 7:20., and MSS. in Luke 4:16. The implication is that Paul was sent to Jerusalem while still young, “from my youth” (Acts 26:4), how young we do not know, possibly thirteen or fourteen years old. He apparently had not seen Jesus in the flesh (2 Corinthians 5:16).

At the feet of Gamaliel (προς τους ποδας Γαμαλιηλpros tous podas Gamaliēl). The rabbis usually sat on a raised seat with the pupils in a circle around either on lower seats or on the ground. Paul was thus nourished in Pharisaic Judaism as interpreted by Gamaliel, one of the lights of Judaism. For remarks on Gamaliel see chapter Acts 5:34. He was one of the seven Rabbis to whom the Jews gave the highest title αββανRabban (our Rabbi). αββιRabbi (my teacher) was next, the lowest being αβRab (teacher). “As Aquinas among the schoolmen was called Doctor Angelicus, and Bonaventura Doctor Seraphicus, so Gamaliel was called the Beauty of the Law ” (Conybeare and Howson).

Instructed (πεπαιδευμενοςpepaideumenos). Perfect passive participle again (each participle beginning a clause), this time of παιδευωpaideuō old verb to train a child (παιςpais) as in Acts 7:22 which see. In this sense also in 1 Timothy 1:20; Titus 2:12. Then to chastise as in Luke 23:16, Luke 23:22 (which see); 2 Timothy 2:25; Hebrews 12:6.

According to the strict manner (κατα ακριβειανkata akribeian). Old word, only here in N.T. Mathematical accuracy, minute exactness as seen in the adjective in Acts 26:5. See also Romans 10:2; Galatians 1:4; Philemon 3:4-7.

Of our fathers (πατρωιουpatrōiou). Old adjective from πατερpater only here and Acts 24:14 in N.T. Means descending from father to son, especially property and other inherited privileges. ΠατρικοςPatrikos (patrician) refers more to personal attributes and affiliations.

Being zealous for God (ζηλωτης υπαρχων του τεουzēlōtēs huparchōn tou theou). Not adjective, but substantive zealot (same word used by James of the thousands of Jewish Christians in Jerusalem, Acts 21:20 which see) with objective genitive του τεουtou theou (for God). See also Acts 21:14; Acts 28:17; 2 Timothy 1:3 where he makes a similar claim. So did Peter (Acts 3:13; Acts 5:30) and Stephen (Acts 7:32). Paul definitely claims, whatever freedom he demanded for Gentile Christians, to be personally “a zealot for God” “even as ye all are this day” (κατως παντες υμεις εστε σημερονkathōs pantes humeis este sēmeron). In his conciliation he went to the limit and puts himself by the side of the mob in their zeal for the law, mistaken as they were about him. He was generous surely to interpret their fanatical frenzy as zeal for God. But Paul is sincere as he proceeds to show by appeal to his own conduct.


Verse 4

And I (οςhos).

I who, literally.

This Way (ταυτην την οδονtautēn tēn hodon). The very term used for Christianity by Luke concerning Paul‘s persecution (Acts 9:2), which see. Here it “avoids any irritating name for the Christian body” (Furneaux) by using this Jewish terminology.

Unto the death (αχρι τανατουachri thanatou). Unto death, actual death of many as Acts 26:10 shows.

Both men and women (ανδρας τε και γυναικαςandras te kai gunaikas). Paul felt ashamed of this fact and it was undoubtedly in his mind when he pictured his former state as “a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious (1 Timothy 1:13), the first of sinners” (1 Timothy 1:15). But it showed the lengths to which Paul went in his zeal for Judaism.


Verse 5

Doth bear me witness (μαρτυρει μοιmartureōi moi). Present active indicative as if still living. Caiaphas was no longer high priest now, for Ananias is at this time (Acts 23:2), though he may be still alive.

All the estate of the elders (παν το πρεσβυτεριονpan to presbuterion). All the eldership or the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:5) of which Paul was probably then a member (Acts 26:10). Possibly some of those present were members of the Sanhedrin then (some 20 odd years ago).

From whom (παρ ωνpar' hōn). The high priest and the Sanhedrin.

Letters unto the brethren (επισταλας προς τους αδελπουςepistalas pros tous adelphous). Paul still can tactfully call the Jews his “brothers” as he did in Romans 9:3. There is no bitterness in his heart.

Journeyed (επορευομηνeporeuomēn). Imperfect middle indicative of πορευομαιporeuomai and a vivid reality to Paul still as he was going on towards Damascus.

To bring also (αχων καιaxnō kai). Future active participle of αγωagō to express purpose, one of the few N.T. examples of this classic idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1118).

Them which were there (τους εκεισε ονταςtous ekeise ontas). Constructio praegnans. The usual word would be εκειekei (there), not εκεισεekeise (thither). Possibly the Christians who had fled to Damascus, and so were there (Robertson, Grammar, p. 548).

In bonds (δεδεμενουςdedemenous). Perfect passive participle of δεωdeō predicate position, “bound.”

For to be punished (ινα τιμωρητωσινhina timōrēthōsin). First aorist passive subjunctive of τιμωρεωtimōreō old verb to avenge, to take vengeance on. In the N.T. only here, and Acts 26:11. Pure final clause with ιναhina He carried his persecution outside of Palestine just as later he carried the gospel over the Roman empire.


Verse 6

And it came to pass (εγενετο δεegeneto de). Rather than the common και εγενετοkai egeneto and with the infinitive (περιαστραπσαιperiastrapsai), one of the three constructions with και ̔δἐ εγενετοkai ‛de' egeneto by Luke (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1042f.), followed by καιkai by finite verb, by subject infinitive as here.

As I made my journey (μοι πορευομενωιmoi poreuomenōi). To me (dative after εγενετοegeneto happened to me) journeying (participle agreeing with μοιmoi). See this same idiom in Acts 22:17. Luke uses εγενετο δεegeneto de seventeen times in the gospel and twenty-one in the Acts.

Unto Damascus (τηι Δαμασκωιtēi Damaskōi). Dative after εγγιζοντιeggizonti (drawing nigh to).

About noon (περι μεσημβριανperi mesēmbrian). Mid (μεσοςmesos) day (ημεραhēmera), old word, in the N.T. only here and Acts 8:26 which see where it may mean “toward the south.” An item not in ch. 9.

Shone round about me (περιαστραπσαι περι εμεperiastrapsai peri eme). First aorist active infinitive of περιαστραπτωperiastraptō to flash around, in lxx and late Greek, in the N.T. only here and Acts 9:3 which see. Note repetition of περιperi

A great light (πως ικανονphōs hikanon). Luke‘s favourite word ικανονhikanon (considerable). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive.


Verse 7

I fell (επεσαepesa). Second aorist active indicative with α̇a rather than επεσονepeson the usual form of πιπτωpiptō

Unto the ground (εις το εδαποςeis to edaphos). Old word, here alone in N.T. So the verb εδαπιζωedaphizō is in Luke 19:44 alone in the N.T.

A voice saying (πωνης λεγουσηςphōnēs legousēs). Genitive after ηκουσαēkousa though in Acts 26:14 the accusative is used after ηκουσαēkousa as in Acts 22:14 after ακουσαιakousai either being allowable. See note on Acts 9:7 for discussion of the difference in case. Saul‘s name repeated each time (Acts 9:4; Acts 22:7; Acts 26:14). Same question also in each report: “Why persecuted thou me?” (Τι με διωκεισTi me diōkeiṡ). These piercing words stuck in Paul‘s mind.


Verse 8

Of Nazareth (ο Ναζωραιοςho Nazōraios). The Nazarene, not in Acts 9:5; Acts 26:15 and here because Jesus is mentioned now for the first time in the address. The form ΝαζωραιοςNazōraios as in Matthew 2:23 (which see) is used also in Acts 24:5 for the followers of Jesus instead of ΝαζαρηνοςNazarēnos as in Mark 1:24, etc. (which see).


Verse 9

But they heard not the voice (την δε πωνην ουκ ηκουσανtēn de phōnēn ouk ēkousan). The accusative here may be used rather than the genitive as in Acts 22:7 to indicate that those with Paul did not understand what they heard (Acts 9:7) just as they beheld the light (Acts 22:9), but did not see Jesus (Acts 9:7). The difference in cases allows this distinction, though it is not always observed as just noticed about Acts 22:14; Acts 26:14. The verb ακουωakouō is used in the sense of understand (Mark 4:33; 1 Corinthians 14:2). It is one of the evidences of the genuineness of this report of Paul‘s speech that Luke did not try to smooth out apparent discrepancies in details between the words of Paul and his own record already in ch. 9. The Textus Receptus adds in this verse: “And they became afraid” (και εμποβοι εγενοντοkai emphoboi egenonto). Clearly not genuine.


Verse 10

Into Damascus (εις Δαμασκονeis Damaskon). In Acts 9:6 simply “into the city” (εις την πολινeis tēn polin).

Of all things which (περι παντων ωνperi pantōn hōn). ωνHōn relative plural attracted to genitive of antecedent from accusative αha object of ποιησαιpoiēsai (do).

Are appointed for thee (τετακται σοιtetaktai soi). Perfect passive indicative of τασσωtassō to appoint, to order, with dative σοιsoi Compare with οτι σε δειhoti se dei of Acts 9:6. The words were spoken to Paul, of course, in the Aramaic, Saoul, Saoul.


Verse 11

I could not see (ουκ ενεβλεπονouk eneblepon). Imperfect active of εμβλεπωemblepō I was not seeing, same fact stated in Acts 9:8. Here the reason as “for the glory of that light” (απο της δοχης του πωτος εκεινουapo tēs doxēs tou phōtos ekeinou).

Being led by the hand (χειραγωγουμενοςcheiragōgoumenos). Present passive participle of χειραγωγεωcheiragōgeō the same verb used in Acts 9:8 (χειραγωγουντεςcheiragōgountes) which see. Late verb, in the N.T. only in these two places. In lxx.


Verse 12

A devout man according to the law (ευλαβης κατα τον νομονeulabēs kata ton nomon). See note on Acts 2:5, note on Acts 8:2, and note on Luke 2:25 for the adjective ευλαβηςeulabēs Paul adds “according to the law” to show that he was introduced to Christianity by a devout Jew and no law-breaker (Lewin).


Verse 13

I looked up on him (αναβλεπσα εις αυτονanablepsa eis auton). First aorist active indicative and same word as αναβλεπσονanablepson (Receive thy sight). Hence here the verb means as the margin of the Revised Version has it: “I received my sight and looked upon him.” For “look up” see note on John 9:11.


Verse 14

Hath appointed thee (προεχειρισατοproecheirisato). First aorist middle indicative of προχειριζωprocheirizō old verb to put forth into one‘s hands, to take into one‘s hands beforehand, to plan, propose, determine. In the N.T. only in Acts 3:20; Acts 22:14; Acts 26:16. Three infinitives after this verb of God‘s purpose about Paul:

to know (γνωναιgnōnai second aorist active of γινωσκωginōskō) his will,

to see (ιδεινidein second aorist active of οραωhoraō) the Righteous One (cf. Acts 3:14),

to hear (ακουσαιakousai first aorist active of ακουωakouō) a voice from his mouth.


Verse 15

A witness for him (μαρτυς αυτωιmartus autōi). As in Acts 1:8.

Of what (ωνhōn). Attraction of the accusative relative αha to the genitive case of the unexpressed antecedent τουτωνtoutōn

Thou hast seen and heard (εωρακαςheōrakas present perfect active indicative και ηκουσαςkai ēkousas first aorist active indicative). This subtle change of tense is not preserved in the English. Blass properly cites the perfect εωρακαheōraka in 1 Corinthians 9:1 as proof of Paul‘s enduring qualification for the apostleship.


Verse 16

By baptized (βαπτισαιbaptisai). First aorist middle (causative), not passive, Get thyself baptized (Robertson, Grammar, p. 808). Cf. 1 Corinthians 10:2. Submit yourself to baptism. So as to απολουσαιapolousai Get washed off as in 1 Corinthians 6:11. It is possible, as in Acts 2:38, to take these words as teaching baptismal remission or salvation by means of baptism, but to do so is in my opinion a complete subversion of Paul‘s vivid and picturesque language. As in Romans 6:4-6 where baptism is the picture of death, burial and resurrection, so here baptism pictures the change that had already taken place when Paul surrendered to Jesus on the way (Acts 22:10). Baptism here pictures the washing away of sins by the blood of Christ.


Verse 17

When I had returned (μοι υποστρεπσαντιmoi hupostrepsanti), while I prayed (προσευχομενου μουproseuchomenou mou), I fell (γενεσται μεgenesthai me). Note dative μοιmoi with εγενετοegeneto as in Acts 22:6, genitive μουmou (genitive absolute with προσευχομενουproseuchomenou), accusative of general reference μεme with γενεσταιgenesthai and with no effort at uniformity, precisely as in Acts 15:22, Acts 15:23 which see. The participle is especially liable to such examples of anacolutha (Robertson, Grammar, p. 439).


Verse 18

Saw him saying (ιδειν αυτον λεγονταidein auton legonta). The first visit after his conversion when they tried to kill him in Jerusalem (Acts 9:29).

Because (διοτι διαdiotiοτιdia and hoti), for that.


Verse 19

Imprisoned and beat (ημην πυλακιζων και δερωνēmēn phulakizōn kai derōn). Periphrastic imperfect active of πυλακιζωphulakizō (lxx and late Koiné, here alone in the N.T.) and δερωderō (old verb to skin, to beat as in Matthew 21:35 which see).

In every synagogue (κατα τας συναγογαςkata tas sunagogas). Up and down (καταkata) in the synagogues.


Verse 20

Was shed (εχεχυννετοexechunneto). Imperfect passive of εκχυννωekchunnō (see note on Matthew 23:35), was being shed.

Witness (μαρτυροςmarturos). And “martyr” also as in Revelation 2:13; Revelation 17:6. Transition state for the word here.

I also was standing by (και αυτος ημην επεστωςkai autos ēmēn ephestōs). Periphrastic second past perfect in form, but imperfect (linear) in sense since εστωσισταμενοςhestōŝhistamenos (intransitive).

Consenting (συνευδοκωνsuneudokōn). The very word used by Luke in Acts 8:1 about Paul. Koiné{[28928]}š word for being pleased at the same time with (cf. Luke 11:48). Paul adds here the item of “guarding the clothes of those who were slaying (αναιρουντωνanairountōn as in Luke 23:32; Acts 12:2) him” (Stephen). Paul recalls the very words of protest used by him to Jesus. He did not like the idea of running away to save his own life right where he had helped slay Stephen. He is getting on dangerous ground.


Verse 21

I will send thee forth far hence unto the Gentiles (Εγω εις ετνη μακραν εχαποστελω σεEgō eis ethnē makran exapostelō se). Future active of the double (εχex out, αποapo off or away) compound of εχαποστελλωexapostellō common word in the Koiné{[28928]}š (cf. Luke 24:49). This is a repetition by Jesus of the call given in Damascus through Ananias (Acts 9:15). Paul had up till now avoided the word Gentiles, but at last it had to come, “the fatal word” (Farrar).


Verse 22

They gave him audience (ηκουονēkouon). Imperfect active, they kept on listening, at least with respectful attention.

Unto this word (αχρι τουτου του λογουachri toutou tou logou). But “this word” was like a spark in a powder magazine or a torch to an oil tank. The explosion of pent-up indignation broke out instantly worse than at first (Acts 21:30).

Away with such a fellow from the earth (Αιρε απο της γης τον τοιουτονAire apo tēs gēs ton toiouton). They renew the cry with the very words in Acts 21:36, but with “from the earth” for vehemence.

For it is not fit (ου γαρ κατηκενou gar kathēken). Imperfect active of κατηκωkathēkō old verb to come down to, to become, to fit. In the N.T. only here and Romans 1:28. The imperfect is a neat Greek idiom for impatience about an obligation: It was not fitting, he ought to have been put to death long ago. The obligation is conceived as not lived up to like our “ought” (past of owe). See Robertson, Grammar, p. 886.


Verse 23

As they cried out (κραυγαζοντων αυτωνkraugazontōn autōn). Genitive absolute with present active participle of κραυγαζωkraugazō a rare word in the old Greek from κραυγηkraugē (a cry). See Matthew 12:19. Two other genitive absolutes here, ριπτουντωνrhiptountōn (throwing off, present active participle, frequent active variation of ριπτωrhiptō) and βαλλοντωνballontōn (present active participle of βαλλωballō flinging). These present participles give a lively picture of the uncontrolled excitement of the mob in their spasm of wild rage.


Verse 24

That he be examined by scourging (μαστιχιν ανεταζεσται αυτονmastixin anetazesthai auton). The present passive infinitive of ανεταζωanetazō in indirect command after ειπαςeipas (bidding). This verb does not occur in the old Greek (which used εχεταζωexetazō as in Matthew 2:8), first in the lxx, in the N.T. only here and Acts 22:29, but Milligan and Moulton‘s Vocabulary quotes an Oxyrhynchus papyrus of a.d. 127 which has a prefect using the word directing government clerks to “examine” (ανεταζεινanetazein) documents and glue them together into volumes (τομοιtomoi). The word was evidently in use for such purposes. It was a kind of “third degree” applied to Paul by the use of scourges (μαστιχινmastixin), instrumental plural of μαστιχmastix old word for whip, as in Hebrews 11:36. But this way of beginning an inquiry by torture (inquisition) was contrary to Roman law (Page): Non esse a tormentis incipiendum, Divus Augustus statuit.

That he might know (ινα επιγνωιhina epignōi). Final clause with ιναhina and second aorist active subjunctive of επιγνωσκωepignōskō (full knowledge). Lysias was as much in the dark as ever, for Paul‘s speech had been in Aramaic and this second explosion was a mystery to him like the first.

They so shouted (ουτος επεπωνουνhoutos epephōnoun). Imperfect active progressive imperfect had been so shouting.


Verse 25

When they had tied him up (ος προετειναν αυτονhos proeteinan auton). First aorist active indicative of προτεινωproteinō old verb to stretch forward, only here in the N.T. Literally, “When they stretched him forward.”

With the thongs (τοις ιμασινtois himasin). If the instrumental case of ιμαςhimas old word for strap or thong (for sandals as Mark 1:7, or for binding criminals as here), then Paul was bent forward and tied by the thongs to a post in front to expose his back the better to the scourges. But τοις ιμασινtois himasin may be dative case and then it would mean “for the lashes.” In either case it is a dreadful scene of terrorizing by the chiliarch.

Unto the centurion that stood by (προς τον εστωτα εκατονταρχονpros ton hestōta hekatontarchon). He was simply carrying out the orders of the chiliarch (cf. Matthew 27:54). Why had not Paul made protest before this?

Is it lawful? (ει εχεστινei exestiṅ). This use of ειei in indirect questions we have had before (Acts 1:6).

A Roman and uncondemned (ομαιον και ακατακριτονRomaion kai akatakriton). Just as in Acts 16:37 which see. Blass says of Paul‘s question: Interrogatio subironica esto4 confidentiae plena.


Verse 26

What art thou about to do? (Τι μελλεις ποιεινTi melleis poieiṅ). On the point of doing, sharp warning.


Verse 27

Art thou a Roman? (Συ ομαιος ειSu Romaios ei̇).

Thou (emphatic position) a Roman? It was unbelievable.


Verse 28

With a great sum (πολλου κεπαλαιουpollou kephalaiou). The use of κεπαλαιουkephalaiou (from κεπαληkephalē head) for sums of money (principal as distinct from interest) is old and frequent in the papyri. Our word capital is from χαπυτcaput (head). The genitive is used here according to rule for price. “The sale of the Roman citizenship was resorted to by the emperors as a means of filling the exchequer, much as James I. made baronets” (Page). Dio Cassius (LX., 17) tells about Messalina the wife of Claudius selling Roman citizenship. Lysias was probably a Greek and so had to buy his citizenship.

But I am a Roman born (Εγω δε και γεγεννημαιEgō de kai gegennēmai). Perfect passive indicative of γενναωgennaō The word “Roman” not in the Greek. Literally, “But I have been even born one,” (i.e. born a Roman citizen). There is calm and simple dignity in this reply and pardonable pride. Being a citizen of Tarsus (Acts 21:39) did not make Paul a Roman citizen. Tarsus was an urbs libera, not a colonia like Philippi. Some one of his ancestors (father, grandfather) obtained it perhaps as a reward for distinguished service. Paul‘s family was of good social position. “He was educated by the greatest of the Rabbis; he was at an early age entrusted by the Jewish authorities with an important commission; his nephew could gain ready access to the Roman tribune; he was treated as a person of consequence by Felix, Festus, Agrippa, and Julius” (Furneaux).


Verse 29

Departed from him (απεστησαν απ αυτουapestēsan ap' autou). Second aorist active indicative (intransitive) of απιστημιaphistēmi stood off from him at once.

Was afraid (εποβητηephobēthē). Ingressive aorist passive indicative of ποβεομαιphobeomai became afraid. He had reason to be.

That he was a Roman (οτι ομαιος εστινhoti Romaios estin). Indirect assertion with tense of εστινestin retained.

Because he had bound him (οτι αυτον ην δεδεκωςhoti auton ēn dedekōs). Causal οτιhoti here after declarative οτιhoti just before. Periphrastic past perfect active of δεωdeō to bind.


Verse 30

To know the certainty (γνωναι το ασπαλεςgnōnai to asphales). Same idiom in Acts 21:34 which see.

Wherefore he was accused (το τι κατεγορειταιto tōi kategoreitai). Epexegetical after to ασπαλεςasphales Note article (accusative case) with the indirect question here as in Luke 22:1, Luke 22:23, Luke 22:24 (which see), a neat idiom in the Greek.

Commanded (εκελευσενekeleusen). So the Sanhedrin had to meet, but in the Tower of Antonia, for he brought Paul down (καταγαγωνkatagagōn second aorist active participle of καταγωkatagō).

Set him (εστησενestēsen). First aorist active (transitive) indicative of ιστημιhistēmi not the intransitive second aorist εστηestē Lysias is determined to find out the truth about Paul, more puzzled than ever by the important discovery that he has a Roman citizen on his hands in this strange prisoner.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Acts 22:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/acts-22.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, October 22nd, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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