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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Hebrews 12

 

 

Other Authors
Verse 1

Therefore (τοιγαρουνtoigaroun). Triple compound inferential participle (τοι γαρ ουνtoi class="normal greek">και ημεις — gar class="normal greek">εχοντες περικειμενον oun) like the German doch denn nun, a conclusion of emphasis, old particle, in N.T. only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:8. There should be no chapter division here, since Hebrews 12:1-3 really is the climax in the whole argument about the better promises (10:19-12:3) with a passionate appeal for loyalty to Christ.

Us also (εχοντεςkai hēmeis). We as well as “these all” of Hebrews 11:39 and all the more because of the “something better” given us in the actual coming of Christ.

Compassed about
(εχωechontes perikeimenon). Literally, “having (περικειμενονechontes present active participle of περικειμαιechō) lying around us” (νεπος μαρτυρωνperikeimenon present middle participle of Νεπεληperikeimai old verb as in Luke 17:2).

Cloud of witnesses
(μαρτυρεςnephos marturōn). Old word (Latin nubes), here only in the N.T., for vast mass of clouds. τεαταιNephelē is a single cloud. The metaphor refers to the great amphitheatre with the arena for the runners and the tiers upon tiers of seats rising up like a cloud. The αποτεμενοιmartures here are not mere spectators (αποτιτημιtheatai), but testifiers (witnesses) who testify from their own experience (Hebrews 11:2, Hebrews 11:4, Hebrews 11:5, Hebrews 11:33, Hebrews 11:39) to God‘s fulfilling his promises as shown in chapter Heb 11.

Laying aside
(ογκον πανταapothemenoi). Second aorist-middle (indirect, from ourselves) participle of ενεγκειν περωapotithēmi old verb as in Colossians 3:8 (laying off old clothes). The runners ran in the stadium nearly naked.

Every weight
(πορτοσ βαροςogkon panta). Old word (kin to την ευπεριστατον αμαρτιανenegkein class="normal greek">ευ — pherō) like περιιστημιphortos class="normal greek">τρεχωμεν baros Here every encumbrance that handicaps like doubt, pride, sloth, anything. No trailing garment to hinder or trip one.

The sin which doth so easily beset us
(τρεχωtēn euperistaton hamartian). “The easily besetting sin.” There are a dozen possible renderings of this double compound verbal from δι υπομονηςeu well, and τον προκειμενον ημιν αγωναperiistēmi to place around or to stand around (intransitive). The Vulgate has circumstans nos peccatum (the sin standing around us). Probably this is the true idea here, “the easily encompassing (or surrounding) sin.” In this case apostasy from Christ was that sin. In our cases it may be some other sin. The verbal adjective reminds one of the ring of wild beasts in the jungle that encircle the camp-fire at night each ready to pounce upon a careless victim.

Let us run
(προκειμαιtrechōmen). Present active volitive subjunctive of ημινtrechō “let us keep on running.”

With patience
(di' hupomonēs). Not with impatience, doubt, or despair.

The race that is set before us
(ton prokeimenon hēmin agōna). Note the article and the present middle participle of prokeimai old compound (already in Hebrews 6:18, and also in Hebrews 12:2). Dative case (hēmin) of personal interest.


Verse 2

Looking unto (απορωντες ειςaphorōntes eis). Present active participle of αποραωaphoraō old verb to look away, “looking away to Jesus.” In N.T. only here and Philemon 2:23. Fix your eyes on Jesus, after a glance at “the cloud of witnesses,” for he is the goal. Cf. Moses in Hebrews 11:26 (απεβλεπενapeblepen).

The author (τον αρχηγονton archēgon). See Hebrews 2:10 for this word. “The pioneer of personal faith” (Moffatt).

Perfecter
(τελειωτηνteleiōtēn). A word apparently coined by the writer from τελειοωteleioō as it has been found nowhere else. Vulgate has consummator.

For the joy
(αντι της χαραςanti tēs charas). Answering to, in exchange for (Hebrews 12:16), at the end of the race lay the joy “set before him” (προκειμενης αυτωιprokeimenēs autōi), while here was the Cross (σταυρονstauron) at this end (the beginning of the race) which he endured (υπεμεινενhupemeinen aorist active indicative of υπομενωhupomenō),

despising shame
(αισχυνης καταπρονησαςaischunēs kataphronēsas). The cross at his time brought only shame (most shameful of deaths, “yea, the death of the cross” Philemon 2:8). But Jesus despised that, in spite of the momentary shrinking from it, and did his Father‘s will by submitting to it.

Hath sat down
(κεκατικενkekathiken). Perfect active indicative of κατιζωkathizō and still is there (Hebrews 1:3).


Verse 3

Consider (αναλογισαστεanalogisasthe). First aorist middle imperative of αναλογιζομαιanalogizomai old word to reckon up, to compare, to weigh, only here in the N.T. See κατανοησατεkatanoēsate in Hebrews 3:1. Understanding Jesus is the key to the whole problem, the cure for doubt and hesitation.

Endured (υπομεμενηκοταhupomemenēkota). Perfect active participle of the same verb υπομενωhupomenō used in Hebrews 12:2.

Gainsaying
(αντιλογιανantilogian). Old word from αντιλογοςantilogos (from αντιλεγωantilegō), already in Hebrews 6:16; Hebrews 7:7.

Of sinners
(υπο των αμαρτωλωνhupo tōn hamartōlōn). “By sinners.”

Against themselves
(εις εαυτουςeis heautous). Against their better selves if a genuine reading. But εις εαυτονeis heauton (against himself), against Christ, is far more likely correct.

That ye wax not weary
(ινα μη καμητεhina mē kamēte). Negative final clause with ινα μηhina mē and the second aorist active subjunctive of καμνωkamnō old verb to be weary as here or sick as in James 5:15.

Fainting in your souls
(ταις πσυχαις υμων εκλυομενοιtais psuchais humōn ekluomenoi). Present passive participle of εκλυωekluō old verb to loosen out, to set free, and in passive to be enfeebled, to be tired out (here in soul with locative case), as in Hebrews 12:5. The rest of the Epistle drives home the argument.


Verse 4

Resisted (αντικατεστητεantikatestēte). Second aorist active indicative (intransitive) of the double compound αντικατιστημιantikathistēmi old verb to stand in opposition against in line of battle, intransitively to stand face to face (αντιanti) against (καταkata), here only in the N.T.

Unto blood (μεχρις αιματοςmechris haimatos). “Up to blood.” As was true of Jesus and many of the other heroes of faith in chapter Heb 11.

Striving
(ανταγωνιζομενοιantagōnizomenoi). Present middle participle of ανταγωνιζομαιantagōnizomai old verb with the same figure in αντικατεστητεantikatestēte

Against sin
(προς αμαρτιανpros hamartian). Face to face with sin as in Hebrews 12:1.


Verse 5

Ye have forgotten (εκλεληστεeklelēsthe). Perfect middle indicative of εκλαντανωeklanthanō to cause to forget, old verb, here only in the N.T. with genitive case as usual.

Reasoneth with you (υμιν διαλεγεταιhumin dialegetai). Present middle indicative of διαλεγομαιdialegomai old verb to ponder different (διαdia -) things, to converse, with dative. Cf. Acts 19:8. The quotation is from Proverbs 3:11.

Regard not lightly
(μη ολιγωρειmē oligōrei). Prohibition with μηmē and the present active imperative of ολιγωρεωoligōreō old verb from ολιγωροςoligōros and this from ολιγοςoligos (little) and ωραhōra (hour), old verb, here only in N.T.

Chastening
(παιδειαςpaideias). Old word from παιδευωpaideuō to train a child (παιςpais), instruction (2 Timothy 3:16), which naturally includes correction and punishment as here. See also Ephesians 6:4.

Nor faint
(μηδε εκλυουmēde ekluou). Prohibition with μηmē and present passive imperative of εκλυωekluō (see Hebrews 12:3).


Verse 6

Scourgeth (μαστιγοιmastigoi). Present active indicative of μαστιγοωmastigoō old verb from μαστιχmastix (whip). This is a hard lesson for God‘s children to learn and to understand. See Hebrews 5:7 about Jesus.


Verse 7

That ye endure (υπομενετεhupomenete). Present active indicative or present active imperative and so just “endure for chastening.”

Dealeth with you (υμιν προσπερεταιhumin prospheretai). Present middle indicative of προσπερωprospherō but this sense of bearing oneself towards one with the dative here only in the N.T., though often in the older Greek.

What
(τιςtis). Interrogative.

Whom
(ονhon). Relative. Cf. Matthew 7:9.


Verse 8

If ye are without chastening (ει χωρις εστε παιδειαςei chōris este paideias). Condition of first class, determined as fulfilled. Note position of εστεeste (are) between the preposition χωριςchōris and παιδειαςpaideias (ablative case).

Have been made (γεγονασινgegonasin). Perfect active indicative of γινομαιginomai

Partakers
(μετοχοιmetochoi). Partners (Hebrews 3:14).

Then
(αραara). Accordingly, correspondingly.

Bastards
(νοτοιnothoi). Old word, here only in N.T. Illegitimate.


Verse 9

Furthermore (ειταeita). The next step in the argument (Mark 4:17).

We had (ειχομενeichomen). Imperfect indicative of customary action, “we used to have.”

To chasten us
(παιδευταςpaideutas). Predicate accusative after ειχομενeichomen “as chasteners.” Old word from παιδευωpaideuō as agent (-τηςtēs). Only once in lxx (Hosea 5:2) and twice in N.T. (here and Romans 2:20).

We gave them reverence
(ενετρεπομεταenetrepometha). Imperfect middle of old word εντρεπωentrepō to turn in or at. Here “we turned ourselves to” as in Matthew 21:37, habitual attitude of reverence.

Shall we be in subjection
(υποταγησομεταhupotagēsometha). Second future passive of υποτασσωhupotassō There is no δεde here to correspond to μενmen in the first part of the verse.

Unto the father of spirits
(τωι πατρι των πνευματωνtōi patri tōn pneumatōn). Rather, “Unto the Father of our spirits” (note article τονton). As God is.


Verse 10

They (οι μενhoi men). Demonstrative οιhoi in contrast (μενmen).

Chastened (επαιδευονepaideuon). Imperfect active, used to chasten.

As seemed good to them
(κατα το δοκουν αυτοιςkata to dokoun autois). “According to the thing seeming good to them.” ΔοκουνDokoun is present active neuter singular articular participle of δοκεωdokeō

But he
(ο δεho de). Demonstrative with δεde vs. μενmen

For our profit
(επι το συμπερονepi to sumpheron). Present active articular neuter singular participle of συμπερωsumpherō to bear together as in 1 Corinthians 12:7.

That we may be partakers
(εις το μεταλαβεινeis to metalabein). Articular second aorist active infinitive of μεταλαμβανωmetalambanō with ειςeis for purpose, “for the partaking.”

Of his holiness
(της αγιοτητος αυτουtēs hagiotētos autou). Genitive with μεταλαβεινmetalabein (to share in). Rare word, in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 1:12.


Verse 11

For the present (προς το παρονpros to paron). A classical phrase (Thucydides), προςpros with the accusative neuter singular articular participle of παρειμιpareimi to be beside.

Not joyous, but grievous (ου χαρασ αλλα λυπηςou charas class="normal greek">και του τεου και μη εχ ημων — alla lupēs). Predicate ablative (springing from) or predicate genitive (marked by). Either makes sense, but note predicate ablative in 2 Corinthians 4:7 (καρπον ειρηνικονkai tou theou kai mē ex hēmōn).

Peaceable fruit
(ειρηνηkarpon eirēnikon). Old adjective from δι αυτης γεγυμνασμενοιςeirēnē (peace), in N.T. only here and James 3:17. Peaceable after the chastening is over.

Exercised thereby
(γυμναζωdi' autēs gegumnasmenois). Perfect passive participle (dative case) of gumnazō state of completion, picturing the discipline as a gymnasium like Hebrews 5:14; 1 Timothy 4:7.


Verse 12

Wherefore (διοdio). Because of the chastening.

Lift up (ανορτωσατεanorthōsate). First aorist active imperative of ανορτοωanorthoō old compound (from ανα ορτοςana class="normal greek">παρειμενας — orthos) to make straight, in N.T. here and Luke 13:13; Acts 15:16.

Hang down
(παριημιpareimenas). Perfect passive participle of παραλελυμεναpariēmi old verb to let pass, to relax, in N.T. only here and Luke 11:42.

Palsied
(παραλυωparalelumena). Perfect passive participle of paraluō old verb to loosen on the side, to dissolve, to paralyze (Luke 5:18, Luke 5:24).


Verse 13

Straight paths (τροχιας ορταςtrochias orthas). Track of a wheel (τροχοςtrochos James 3:6 from τρεχωtrechō to run), here only in N.T. “Straight (ορταςorthas) wheel tracks.”

Be not turned out of the way (ινα μη εκτραπηιhina mē ektrapēi). Negative final clause with ινα μηhina mē and second aorist passive of εκτρεπωektrepō old verb to turn out, to twist, to put out of joint. So 1 Timothy 1:6. Vivid picture of concern for the lame (χωλονchōlon as in Matthew 11:5). Graphic picture of concern for the weak, a good argument for prohibition also.


Verse 14

Follow after peace (ειρηνην διωκετεeirēnēn diōkete). Give peace a chase as if in a hunt.

With all men (μετα παντωνmeta pantōn). Like Paul‘s use of διωκωdiōkō with ειρηνηνeirēnēn in Romans 14:19 and his to εχ υμωνex humōn (so far as proceeds from you) in Hebrews 12:18. This lesson the whole world needs including Christians.

Sanctification
(αγιασμονhagiasmon). Consecration as in 1 Thessalonians 4:7; Romans 6:19, etc.

Without which
(ου χωριςhou chōris). Ablative case of the relative with χωριςchōris (post positive here). About seeing God compare Matthew 5:8 where we have καταροιkatharoi f0).


Verse 15

Looking carefully (επισκοπουντεςepiskopountes). Present active participle of επισκοπεωepiskopeō to have oversight, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 5:2. Cf. επισχοποςepiscopos (bishop).

Lest there be any man (μη τιςmē tis). Negative purpose clause with ειei (present active subjunctive) omitted.

Falleth short of
(υστερων αποhusterōn apo). Present active participle of υστερεωhustereō (see Hebrews 4:1) agreeing with τιςtis Followed here by αποapo and the ablative.

Root of bitterness
. (ριζα πικριαςriza pikrias). Quoted from Deuteronomy 29:18. Vivid picture.

Springing up
(ανω πυουσαanō phuousa). Present active participle of πυωphuō to sprout. Pictured here as a quick process. Also from Deuteronomy 29:18.

Trouble
(ενοχληιenochlēi). Present active subjunctive (in final clause with μη τιςmē tis) of ενοχλεωenochleō old verb to trouble with a crowd, to annoy. In N.T. only here and Luke 6:18.

Be defiled
(μιαντωσινmianthōsin). First aorist passive subjunctive (in final clause with μηmē) of μιανωmianō old verb to dye, to stain, to defile as in Titus 1:15 (the conscience). The contagion of sin is terrible as any disease.


Verse 16

Profane (βεβηλοςbebēlos). Trodden under foot, unhallowed (1 Timothy 1:9).

For one mess of meat (αντι βρωσεως μιαςanti brōseōs mias). Idea of exchange, “for one act of eating” (1 Corinthians 8:4).

Sold
(απεδετοapedeto). Second aorist middle indicative from Genesis 25:31, Genesis 25:33, and with irregular form for απεδοτοapedoto (regular μιmi form).

His own birthright
(τα πρωτοτοκια εαυτουta prōtotokia heautou). From Genesis also and in Philo, only here in N.T. From πρωτοτοκοςprōtotokos (first born, Hebrews 1:6).


Verse 17

Ye know (ιστεiste). Regular form for the second person of οιδαoida rather than the Koiné οιδατεoidate

He was rejected (απεδοκιμαστηapedokimasthē). First aorist passive indicative of αποδοκιμαζωapodokimazō old verb to disapprove (Matthew 21:42).

Place of repentance
(μετανοιας τοπονmetanoias topon). ΜετανοιαMetanoia is change of mind and purpose, not sorrow though he had tears (μετα δακρυωνmeta dakruōn) afterwards as told in Genesis 27:38. He sought it (αυτηνautēn the blessing ευλογιανeulogian) with tears, but in vain. There was no change of mind in Isaac. The choice was irrevocable as Isaac shows (Genesis 27:33). Esau is a tragic example of one who does a willful sin which allows no second chance (Hebrews 6:6; Hebrews 10:26). The author presses the case of Esau as a warning to the Christians who were tempted to give up Christ.


Verse 18

Ye are not come (ου προσεληλυτατεou proselēluthate). Perfect active indicative of προσερχομαιproserchomai There is no word here in the Greek for “a mount” like ορειorei in Hebrews 12:20, Hebrews 12:22 (and Exodus 19:12.; Deuteronomy 4:11), but it is clearly understood since the dative participles agree with it unless they be taken as descriptive of πυριpuri (“a palpable and kindled fire “ when πυριpuri would be the dative case after προσεληλυτατεproselēluthate).

That might be touched (πσηλαπωμενωιpsēlaphōmenōi). Present passive participle (dative case) of πσηλαπαωpsēlaphaō old verb to handle, to touch (Luke 24:39).

That burned with fire
(κεκαυμενωι πυριkekaumenōi puri). Perfect passive participle of καιωkaiō old verb to burn, with instrumental case πυριpuri (fire), unless the other view (above) is correct.


Verse 19

Unto blackness (γνοπωιgnophōi). Dative case of γνοποςgnophos (late form for earlier δνοποςdnophos and kin to νεποςnephos cloud), here only in N.T. Quoted here from Exodus 10:22.

Darkness (ζοπωιzophōi). Old word, in Homer for the gloom of the world below. In the Symmachus Version of Exodus 10:22, also in Judges 1:6; 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:15.

Tempest
(τυελληιthuellēi). Old word from τυωthuō (to boil, to rage), a hurricane, here only in N.T. From Exodus 10:22.

The sound of a trumpet
(σαλπιγγος ηχωιsalpiggos ēchōi). From Exodus 19:16. ΕχοςEchos is an old word (our εχοecho) as in Luke 21:25; Acts 2:2.

The voice of words
(πωνηι ρηματωνphōnēi rēmatōn). From Exodus 19:19; Deuteronomy 4:12.

Which voice
(ηςhēs). Relative referring to πωνηphōnē (voice) just before, genitive case with ακουσαντεςakousantes (heard, aorist active participle).

Intreated
(παρηιτησαντοparēitēsanto). First aorist middle (indirect) indicative of παραιτεομαιparaiteomai old verb, to ask from alongside (Mark 15:6), then to beg away from oneself, to depreciate as here, to decline (Acts 25:11), to excuse (Luke 14:18), to avoid (1 Timothy 4:7).

That no word should be spoken unto them
(προστετηναι αυτοις λογονprostethēnai autois logon). First aorist passive infinitive of προστιτημιprostithēmi old word to add, here with accusative of general reference (λογονlogon), “that no word be added unto them.” Some MSS. have here a redundant negative μηmē with the infinitive because of the negative idea in παρηιτησαντοparēitēsanto as in Galatians 5:7.


Verse 20

For they could not endure (ουκ επερον γαρouk epheron gar). Imperfect active of περωpherō “for they were not enduring (bearing).”

That which was enjoined (το διαστελλομενονto diastellomenon). Present passive articular participle of διαστελλωdiastellō old verb to distinguish, to dispose, to order. The quotation is from Exodus 19:12. The people appealed to Moses (Exodus 20:19) and the leaders did so also (Deuteronomy 5:23.), both in terror.

If even
(κανkan). “Even if.” Condition of third class with second aorist active subjunctive of τιγγανωthigganō as in Hebrews 11:28, followed by genitive ορουςorous (mountain).

It shall be stoned
(λιτοβολητησεταιlithobolēthēsetai). From Exodus 19:13. Late compound verb from λιτοβολοςlithobolos (from λιτοσ βαλλωlithos class="translit"> ballō) as in Matthew 21:35.


Verse 21

Fearful (ποβερονphoberon). As in Hebrews 10:27, Hebrews 10:31, only in Heb. in N.T.

The appearance (το πανταζομενονto phantazomenon). Present passive articular participle of πανταζωphantazō old verb from παινωphainō to make visible, here only in N.T. “The manifestation.”

I exceedingly fear and quake
(εκποβος ειμι και εντρομοςekphobos eimi kai entromos). “I am terrified (εκποβοςekphobos late compound like εκποβεωekphobeō to frighten, Mark 9:6) and trembling” (εντρομοςentromos late compound like εντρεμωentremō to tremble at, as in Acts 7:32; Acts 16:29). ΕκποβοςEkphobos is quoted from Deuteronomy 9:19.


Verse 22

But (αλλαalla). Sharp contrast to Hebrews 12:18 with same form προσεληλυτατεproselēluthate

Unto Mount Zion (Σιων ορειSiōn orei). Dative case of οροςoros as with the other substantives. In contrast to Mount Sinai (Hebrews 12:18-21). Paul has contrasted Mount Sinai (present Jerusalem) with the Jerusalem above (heaven) in Galatians 4:21-31.

City
(πολειpolei). As in Hebrews 11:10, Hebrews 11:16. Heaven is termed thus a spiritual mountain and city.

The heavenly Jerusalem
(Ιερουσαλεμ επουρανιωιIerousalem epouraniōi). See Hebrews 11:10, Hebrews 11:16; Isaiah 60:14.

Innumerable hosts of angels
(μυριασιν αγγελωνmuriasin aggelōn). “Myriads of angels.” ΜυριαςMurias is an old word (from μυριοςmurios 1 Corinthians 4:15) as in Luke 12:1.


Verse 23

To the general assembly (πανηγυρειpanēgurei). Old word (from παςpas and αγυρισ αγειρωaguris class="normal greek">Πανηγυριζω — ageirō). Here only in N.T. αγγελωνPanēgurizō occurs in Isaiah 66:10 for keeping a festal holiday. Possibly to be connected with εκκλησιαι πρωτοτοκωνaggelōn though not certain.

Church of the firstborn (εκκλησιαekklēsiāi prōtotokōn). Probably an additional item besides the angelic host as the people of Israel are called firstborn (Exodus 4:22). The word απογεγραμμενων εν ουρανοιςekklēsia here has the general sense of all the redeemed, as in Matthew 16:18; Colossians 1:18; Ephesians 5:24-32, and equivalent to the kingdom of God.

Who are enrolled in heaven
(απογραπωapogegrammenōn en ouranois). Perfect passive participle of κριτηι τεωι παντωνapographō old verb to write off, to copy, to enroll as in Luke 2:1, Luke 2:3, Luke 2:5 (only N.T. examples). Enrolled as citizens of heaven even while on earth (Luke 10:20; Philemon 1:27; Philemon 3:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8, etc.).

To God the Judge of all
(τετελειωμενωνkritēi theōi pantōn). All these chief substantives in the dative case. People should not forget that God is the Judge of all men.

Made perfect
(τελειοωteteleiōmenōn). Perfect passive participle of teleioō perfected at last (Hebrews 11:40).


Verse 24

To Jesus (ΙησουIēsou). This great fact is not to be overlooked (Philemon 2:10.). He is there as Lord and Saviour and still “Jesus.”

The mediator of a new covenant (διατηκης νεας μεσιτηιdiathēkēs neas mesitēi). As already shown (Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 8:6, Hebrews 8:8, Hebrews 8:9, Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 9:15) and now gloriously consummated.

To the blood of sprinkling
(αιματι ραντισμουhaimati rantismou). As in Hebrews 9:19-28.

Than Abel
(παρα τον Αβελpara ton Abel). Accusative as in Hebrews 1:4.

Better
(κρειττονkreitton). Comparative of καλοςkalos Abel‘s blood still speaks (Hebrews 11:4), but it is as nothing compared to that of Jesus.


Verse 25

See (βλεπετεblepete). Earnest word as in Hebrews 3:12. Driving home the whole argument of the Epistle by this powerful contrast between Mount Zion and Mount Sinai. The consequences are dreadful to apostates now, for Zion has greater terrors than Sinai, great as those were.

That ye refuse not (μη παραιτησηστεmē paraitēsēsthe). Negative purpose with μηmē and the first aorist middle subjunctive of παραιτεομαιparaiteomai the same verb used in Hebrews 12:19 about the conduct of the Israelites at Sinai and also below.

Him that speaketh
(τον λαλουνταton lalounta). Present active articular participle of λαλεωlaleō as in Hebrews 12:24 (Jesus speaking by his blood).

For if they did not escape
(ει γαρ εκεινοι ουκ εχεπυγονei gar ekeinoi ouk exephugon). Condition of first class with ειei and second aorist active indicative of εκπευγωekpheugō to escape. Direct reference to Sinai with use of the same verb again (παραιτησαμενοιparaitēsamenoi when they refused).

Him that warned
(τον χρηματιζονταton chrēmatizonta). That is Moses. For χρηματιζωchrēmatizō see Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 11:7.

Much more we
(πολυ μαλλον ημειςpolu mallon hēmeis). Argument from the less to the greater, πολυpolu adverbial accusative case. The verb has to be supplied from the condition, “We shall not escape.” Our chance to escape is far less, “we who turn away (αποστρεπομενοιapostrephomenoi middle participle, turn ourselves away from) the one from heaven (τον απ ουρανωνton ap' ouranōn),” God speaking through his Son (Hebrews 1:2).


Verse 26

Then shook (εσαλευσεν τοτεesaleusen tote). Old verb as in Matthew 11:7.

He hath promised (επηγγελταιepēggeltai). Perfect middle indicative of επαγγελλωepaggellō and it still holds. He quotes Haggai 2:6.

Will I make to tremble
(σεισωseisō). Old and strong verb (here future active) σειωseiō to agitate, to cause to tremble as in Matthew 21:10. The author applies this “yet once more” (ετι απαχeti hapax) and the reference to heaven (τον ουρανονton ouranon) to the second and final “shaking” at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ for judgment (Hebrews 9:28).


Verse 27

And this word (το δεto de). He uses the article to point out “ετι απαχeti hapax ” which he explains (δηλοιdēloi signifies, present active indicative of δηλοωdēloō).

The removing (την μετατεσινtēn metathesin). For this word see Hebrews 7:12; Hebrews 11:5. For the transitory nature of the world see 1 Corinthians 7:31; 1 John 2:17. “There is a divine purpose in the cosmic catastrophe” (Moffatt).

Made
(πεποιημενωνpepoiēmenōn). Perfect passive participle of ποιεωpoieō Made by God, but made to pass away.

That those things which are not shaken may remain
(ινα μεινηι τα μη σαλευομεναhina meinēi ta mē saleuomena). Final clause with μηmē and the first aorist active subjunctive of μενωmenō The Kingdom of God is not shaken, fearful as some saints are about it.


Verse 28

Wherefore (διοdio). Ground for loyalty to Christ and for calm trust in God.

That cannot be shaken (ασαλευτονasaleuton). Old compound with alpha privative and the verbal adjective from σαλευωsaleuō just used. In N.T. only here and Acts 27:41.

Let us have grace
(εχωμεν χαρινechōmen charin). Present active volitive subjunctive of εχωechō “Let us keep on having grace” as in Hebrews 4:16, though it can mean “Let us keep on having gratitude” as in Luke 17:9.

Whereby
(δι ηςdi' hēs). That is δια χαριτοςdia charitos

We may offer service
(λατρευωμενlatreuōmen). This subjunctive in a relative clause can be volitive like εχωμενechōmen just before (cf. imperative στητεstēte in 1 Peter 5:12) or it might be the futuristic subjunctive as in Hebrews 8:3 (ο προσενεγκηιho prosenegkēi).

Well pleasing
(ευαρεστωςeuarestōs). Old compound adverb, here only in N.T.

With reverence and awe
(μετα ευλαβειας και δεουςmeta eulabeias kai deous). For ευλαβειαeulabeia see Hebrews 5:7; Hebrews 11:7. ΔεοςDeos is apprehension of danger as in a forest. “When the voice and tread of a wild beast are distinctly heard close at hand the δεοςdeos becomes ποβοςphobos ” (Vincent).


Verse 29

A consuming fire (πυρ καταναλισκονpur katanaliskon). From Deuteronomy 4:24. Present active participle of καταναλισκωkatanaliskō old compound verb, here only in the N.T. This verse is to be coupled with Hebrews 10:31.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 12:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-12.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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Sunday, May 26th, 2019
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