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Wherefore . Greek. toigaroun, a very emph. word of inference; Occurs only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:8 . Resume from Hebrews 10:39 .
seeing. &c . = we also having so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us.
compassed about = surrounding. Greek. perikeimai. See Acts 28:20 .
cloud = throng. Greek. nephos. Only here. The usual word for "cloud" is nephele.
witnesses . Greek. martus. See John 1:7 . Whose lives witness to the power of faith. Not "spectators", for then the word would be autoptes (Luke 1:2 ) or epoptes (2 Peter 1:16 ).
let us lay aside = laying aside. See Rom 18:12 .
weight . Greek. onkos. Only here.
sin . App-128 .
doth so easily beset . Greek. enperistatos. Only here.
with = through. Greek. dia. App-104 .Hebrews 12:1 .
patience = patient continuance. See Romans 2:7 .
race . Greek. agon. See Philippians 1:1 , Philippians 1:30 . Always translated fight, conflict, &c, except here. The word means the place of assembly, and then the games witnessed, and then any contest, a lawsuit, &c.
set before . Greek. prokeimai. Compare Hebrews 6:18 .
Looking = Looking away from (these witnesses). Greek. aphorao. App-133 . Compare Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:23 .
Jesus . App-98 .
Author . See Hebrews 2:10 and Acts 3:15 .
Finisher = Perfecter. Greek. teleiotes. Only here. Compare App-125Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 1:2 .
faith . Greek. pistis . App-150 . He stands at the head of the train of faith's heroes, and alone brought faith to perfection. Omit our.
endured = patiently endured. See Hebrews 10:32 .
the = a.
the shame = shame.
is set . All the texts read, "hath sat".
at = on. Greek. en. App-104 .
God . App-98 . The charge is to look away from the witnesses of the past to Him Who is the faithful and true Witness (Revelation 3:14 ).
consider . Greek. analogizomai. Only here.
That = That hath.
contradiction . Greek. antilogia. See Hebrews 6:16 . Compare Luke 2:34 , where the verb antilego occurs.
of = by. Greek. hupo . App-104 .
lest = in order that (Greek. hina) not (Greek. me) .
be wearied . Greek. kamno . Only here, James 5:15 .Revelation 2:3 .
and faint = fainting. Greek. ekluo . See Galatians 1:6 , Galatians 1:9 .
minds = souls. App-110 .
not yet . Greek. oupo.
resisted . Greek. antikathistemi. Only here.
unto . Greek. mechris. Compare Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:8 .
striving . Greek. antagonizomai. Only here.
sin . App-128 . The Lord's example is set before them. Hitherto they had to endure spoliation and shameful treatment, but not martyrdom. This is in favour of the early date of the Epistle ( App-180 ). The words "not yet" suggest a time before the persecution under Nero, which began A.D. 65 and lasted till his death A.D. 68.
forgotten . Greek. eklanthanomai. Only here.
exhortation . Greek. paraklesis. See Romans 12:8 and App-134 .
speaketh . Greek. dialegomai. See Acts 17:2 .
unto = to.
children, son . Greek. huios. App-108 .
despise . Greek. oligoreo. Only here. See Proverbs 3:11 , Proverbs 3:12 .
chastening . Greek. paideia. See Ephesians 6:4 .
LORD . App-98 .
nor . Greek. mede .
rebuked . Greek. elencho.
loveth . Greek. agapao. App-135 . See Revelation 3:19 .
chasteneth Greek. paideuo. See 1 Corinthians 11:32 .
scourgeth . Greek. mastigoo. See John 19:1 .
If . Greek. ei , but the texts read eis , i.e. Ye are suffering patiently for ( eis ) discipline.
dealeth . Greek. prosphero. Occurs in Hebrew twenty times; translated "offer", except here. In this verse it is passive and means to do business with, deal with.
the = a.
not . App-105 .
if . Greek. ei . App-118 .
without . Greek. choris. See Hebrews 4:15 .
chastisement = chastening, as verses: Hebrews 12:5 , Hebrews 12:7 , Hebrews 12:11 . are = have become.
partakers . Greek. metochos. See Hebrews 1:9 .
bastards . i.e. fictitious. Greek. nothos. Only here.
Furthermore = Moreover.
have . Omit.
which, &c . = as correctors. Greek. paideutes. Only here and Romans 2:20 .
gave . . . reverence . Greek. entrepomai. See 1 Corinthians 4:14 .
them . Omit.
be in subjection . Greek. hupotasso. See Hebrews 2:5 .
Father . App-98 .
spirits . App-101 . Compare Numbers 16:22 .Job 33:4 .Ecclesiastes 1:12 , Ecclesiastes 1:7 . Isaiah 42:5 .Zechariah 12:1 . Here not "angels" as some interpret, but the new-created spirits of His "sons".
live . App-170 .
for . Greek. pros . App-104 .
after their own pleasure = according as (Greek. kata) it seemed good to them.
that = to the end (Greek. eis) that.
be partakers . Greek. metalambano. See Hebrews 6:7 .
holiness . Greek. hagiotes. Only here. Not the word in Hebrews 12:14 .
no chastening . Literally all chastening seemeth not (Greek. ou) .
joyous = of joy. App-17 .
grievous = of grief.
peaceable . Greek. eirenikos. Only here and James 3:17 .
righteousness . Greek. dikaiosune. App-191 .
exercised . See Hebrews 5:14 .
thereby = by (Greek. dia . App-104 .Hebrews 12:1; Hebrews 12:1 ) it.
lift up . Greek. anorthoo. See Luke 13:13 . Elsewhere Acts 15:16 .
hang down . Greek. pariemai. Only here.
feeble = palsied. Greek. paraluomai. See Luke 5:18 .
straight . Greek. orthos. Only here and Acts 14:10 .
paths . Greek. trochia. Only here.
be turned out of the way . Greek. ektrepomai. See 1 Timothy 1:6 .
healed . Greek. iaomai. See Luke 6:17 .
Follow = Pursue. The force of the Greek dioko is seen in Philippians 1:3 , Philippians 1:14 (press toward).
with . Greek. meta . App-104 .
holiness . Greek. hagiasmos. See Romans 6:19 .
no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.
shall see . Greek. opsomai. App-133 . (a.)
the Lord . App-98 .
Looking diligently . Greek. episkopeo. Only here and 1 Peter 5:2 .
lest . Greek. me . App-105 .
any . Greek. tis . App-123 .
man = one.
fail . Greek. hustereo. Compare Hebrews 4:1 ; Hebrews 11:37 .
of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .
grace . App-184 .
bitterness . Greek. pikria. See Acts 8:23 .
springing = germinating. Greek. phuo . Only here and Luke 8:6 , Luke 8:8 .
trouble . Greek. enochleo. Only here. See Acts 15:19 .
thereby . Greek. dia tautes . Some texts read di autes, the same as Hebrews 12:11 .
be defiled . Greek. miaino. See John 18:28 .
profane . Greek. bebelos. See 1 Timothy 1:9 .
morsel of meat . Greek. brosis. See Romans 14:17 .
sold . Greek. apodidomi. Same as "yield", Hebrews 12:11 .
his . The texts read "his own".
birthright . Greek. prototokia. Only here.
know . Greek. oida . App-132 .
afterward . Greek. metepeita . Only here. Add "also".
when he would have = wishing to. Greek. thelo . App-102 .
inherited . Greek. kleronomeo. See Hebrews 1:4 .
rejected . Greek. apodokimazo. Only here and 1 Peter 2:4 , 1 Peter 2:7 , after the Gospels. Compare dokimazo, Hebrews 3:9 .
repentance . Greek. metanoia. App-111 . Repentance means a change of mind, and Esau sought to change his (father's) mind.
though he sought . . . carefully = having sought carefully. Greek. ekzeteo. See Hebrews 11:6 .
mount . The texts omit.
that might, &c . = that was touched. Greek. pselaphao. The reference is to Exodus 19:16-19 .
and . This and other five "ands" in verses: Hebrews 12:18 , Hebrews 12:19 exemplify the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ).
nor = and.
blackness = a thick cloud. Greek. gnophos . Only here.
darkness . Greek. skotos, but the texts read zophos. See 2 Peter 2:4 , 2 Peter 2:17 . Jude 1:6 , Jude 1:13 .
tempest . Greek. thuella. Only here.
sound . Greek. echos. See Acts 2:2 .
words . Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32 .
intreated . Greek. paraiteomai. Same as "refuse" in Hebrews 12:25 . See Luke 14:18 (make excuse).
word . Greek. logos . App-121 .
spoken = added.
if . Greek. ean . App-118 .
beast . Greek. therion, not zoon.
touch . See Hebrews 11:28 .
or thrust through, &c . All the texts omit. No doubt this is because of the complex Ellipsis. In Exodus 19:13 we read, "There shall not a hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live". The work on "Figures of Speech" makes it clear thus: "And if so much as [a man, or] a beast touch the mountain [if a man] he shall be stoned or [if a beast] thrust through with a dart".
terrible . Greek. phoberos. See Hebrews 10:27 , Hebrews 10:31 .
sight = spectacle. Greek. phantazo. Only here. See Acts 25:23 .
Moses . See Hebrews 3:2 .
exceedingly fear and quake = am fearful (Greek. ekphobos. Compare Mark 9:6 ) and quaking (Greek. entromos. See Acts 7:32 ).
the living God . See Hebrews 3:12 .
heavenly . Greek. epouranios. Compare Hebrews 3:1 .
Jerusalem . Compare Galatians 1:4 , Gal 1:26 . Revelation 3:12 ; Revelation 21:2 , Revelation 21:10 .
innumerable company = myriads.
general assembly . Greek. paneguris. Only here.
church . App-186 .
firstborn = firstborn ones. Greek. prototokos. See Hebrews 11:28 .
written . Greek. apographo. Only here and Luke 2:1 , Luke 2:3 , Luke 2:5 .
heaven . Plural See Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .
Judge . Greek. krites. Compare App-122 .
spirits . App-101 .
just men . Greek. dikaios. App-191 .
made perfect = perfected. See Hebrews 11:40 . App-125 . The standpoint is from "the glory" as in Romans 8:30 .
Mediator . Greek. mesites. See Hebrews 9:15 .
the = a.
covenant . See Matthew 26:28 .
blood of sprinkling (Greek. rhantismos) . The phrase only here and 1 Peter 1:2 (sprinkling of blood).
speaketh . Greek. laleo. App-121 .
than . Greek. para. App-104 . Compare Hebrews 1:4 . In Hebrews 12:18-24 seven statements are set forth as to the Old Covenant dispensation, followed by ten of the New. Together se venteen (see App-10 ).
See . Greek. blepo. App-133 .
refuse . Same word as "intreat", Hebrews 12:19 .
spake . Greek. chrematizo. See Hebrews 8:5 ; Hebrews 11:7 .
earth . Greek. ge . App-129 .
if we = who.
turn away . Greek. apostrepho, as Acts 3:26 .
shook . Greek. saleuo. As Matthew 24:29 .
once . See Hebrews 6:4 .
shake . Greek. seio . See Haggai 2:6 , Haggai 2:7 . Occurs: Matthew 27:51 ; Matthew 28:2 ; &c. Compare seismos, earthquake.
also heaven = the heaven (singular Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 ) also.
signifieth Greek. deloo. See 1 Corinthians 1:11 .
removing . Greek. metathesis . Compare Hebrews 7:12 ; Hebrews 11:5 .
that = in order that. Greek. hina .
cannot be = are not (Greek. me) to be.
remain . Greek. meno. See p. 1511.
which cannot be moved = immovable. Greek. asaleutos. Only here and Acts 27:41 .
whereby = by (Greek. dia . App-104 .Hebrews 12:1; Hebrews 12:1 ) which.
serve . Greek. latreuo. App-190 .
acceptably . Greek. euarestos. Only here. The adjective in Hebrews 13:21 .
reverence . Greek. aidos. Only here and 1 Timothy 2:9 . The texts read deos, awe.
godly fear . Greek. eulabeia. See Hebrews 5:7 , the only other occurance.
consuming fire . From Deuteronomy 4:24 . Compare Exodus 21:17 . Psalms 50:3 ; Psalms 97:3 . 2 Thessalonians 1:8 ; &c.
consuming . Greek. katanalisko. Only here. Intensive of analisko (Luke 9:54 .Galatians 1:5 , Galatians 1:15 . 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ).
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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 12". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 12 / Ordinary 17