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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Titus 1

 

 

Verse 1

According to the faith of God‘s elect (κατα πιστιν εκλεκτων τεουkata pistin eklektōn theou). Here καταkata expresses the aim of Paul‘s apostleship, not the standard by which he was chosen as in Philemon 3:14; a classic idiom, repeated here with επιγνωσιν ευσεβειαν επιταγηνepignōsinεπιγνωσινeusebeianτης κατ ευσεβειανepitagēn “with a view to” in each case. For “God‘s elect” see note on Romans 8:33; Colossians 3:12.

The knowledge (epignōsin). “Full knowledge,” one of Paul‘s favourite words. For the phrase see note on 1 Timothy 2:4.

Which is according to godliness (tēs kat' eusebeian). “The (truth) with a view to godliness.” The combination of faith and full knowledge of the truth is to bring godliness on the basis of the hope of life eternal.


Verse 2

God who cannot lie (ο απσευδης τεοςho apseudēs theos). “The non-lying God.” Old adjective (αa privative and πσευδηςpseudēs), here only in N.T. See 2 Timothy 2:13. In Polycarp‘s last prayer.

Promised (επηγγειλατοepēggeilato). First aorist middle indicative of επαγγελλωepaggellō Antithesis in επανερωσεν δεephanerōsen de (manifested) in Titus 1:3 (first aorist active indicative of πανεροωphaneroō). Same contrast in Romans 16:25; Colossians 1:26.

Before times eternal (προ χρονων αιωνωνpro chronōn aiōnōn). Not to God‘s purpose before time began (Ephesians 1:4; 2 Timothy 1:9), but to definite promises (Romans 9:4) made in time (Lock). “Long ages ago.” See note on Romans 16:25.


Verse 3

In his own seasons (καιροις ιδιοιςkairois idiois). Locative case. See note on 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 6:15.

In the message (εν κηρυγματιen kērugmati). See note on 1 Corinthians 1:21; 1 Corinthians 2:4 for this word, the human proclamation (preaching) of God‘s word.

Wherewith I was intrusted (ο επιστευτηνho episteuthēn). Accusative relative οho retained with the first aorist passive indicative of πιστευωpisteuō as in 1 Timothy 1:11. See note on 1 Timothy 2:7.

Of God our Saviour (του σωτηρος ημων τεουtou sōtēros hēmōn theou). In Titus 1:4 he applies the words “του σωτηρος ημωνtou sōtēros hēmōn ” to Christ. In Titus 2:13 he applies both τεουtheou and σωτηροςsōtēros to Christ.


Verse 4

My true child (γνησιωι τεκνωιgnēsiōi teknōi). See note on 1 Timothy 1:2 for this adjective with Timothy. Titus is not mentioned in Acts, possibly because he is Luke‘s brother. But one can get a clear picture of him by turning to 2 Corinthians 2:13; 2 Corinthians 7:6-15; 8:6-24; 2 Corinthians 12:16-18; Galatians 2:1-3; Titus 1:4.; Titus 3:12; 2 Timothy 4:10. He had succeeded in Corinth where Timothy had failed. Paul had left him in Crete as superintendent of the work there. Now he writes him from Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).

After a common faith (κατα κοινην πιστινkata Koinéēn pistin). Here καταkata does mean standard, not aim, but it is a faith (πιστινpistin) common to a Gentile (a Greek) like Titus as well as to a Jew like Paul and so common to all races and classes (Judges 1:3). ΚοινοςKoinéos does not here have the notion of unclean as in Acts 10:14; Acts 11:8.


Verse 5

For this cause (τουτου χαρινtoutou charin). In N.T. only here and Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:14. Paul may be supplementing oral instruction as in Timothy‘s case and may even be replying to a letter from Titus (Zahn).

Left I thee in Crete (απελειπον σε εν Κρητηιapeleipon se en Krētēi). This is the imperfect active of απολειπωapoleipō though MSS. give the aorist active also (απελιπονapelipon) and some read κατελειπονkateleipon or κατελιπονkatelipon Both are common verbs, though Paul uses καταλειπωkataleipō only in 1 Thessalonians 3:1 except two quotations (Romans 11:4; Ephesians 5:31) and απολειπωapoleipō only here and 2 Timothy 4:13, 2 Timothy 4:20. Perhaps απολειπωapoleipō suggests a more temporary stay than καταλειπωkataleipō Paul had apparently stopped in Crete on his return from Spain about a.d. 65.

That thou shouldest set in order (ινα επιδιορτωσηιhina epidiorthōsēi). Late and rare double compound (inscriptions, here only in N.T.), first aorist middle subjunctive (final clause with ιναhina) of επιδιορτοωepidiorthoō to set straight (ορτοωorthoō) thoroughly (διαdia) in addition (επιepi), a clean job of it.

The things that were wanting (τα λειπονταta leiponta). “The things that remain.” See note on 2 Timothy 3:13; Luke 18:22. Either things left undone or things that survive. In both senses the new pastor faces problems after the tornado has passed. Parry takes it “of present defects” in Cretan character.

And appoint (και καταστησηιςkai katastēsēis). Final clause still and first aorist active subjunctive of κατιστημιkathistēmi the word used in Acts 6:13 about the deacons. The word does not preclude the choice by the churches (in every city, κατα πολινkata polin distributive use of καταkata). This is a chief point in the επιδορτωσιςepidorthōsis (White).

Elders (πρεσβυτερουςpresbuterous). See note on 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 4:14.

As I gave thee charge (ως εγω σοι διεταχαμηνhōs egō soi dietaxamēn). First aorist (constative) middle imperative of διατασσωdiatassō clear reference to previous personal details given to Titus on previous occasions.


Verse 6

Blameless (ανεγκλητοςanegklētos). In a condition of first class. Used in 1 Timothy 3:10 of deacons which see.

That believe (πισταpista). Added to what is in 1 Timothy 3:4. “Believing children.”

Not accused of riot (μη εν κατηγοριαι ασωτιαςmē en katēgoriāi asōtias). See note on 1 Timothy 5:19 for κατηγοριαkatēgoria and Ephesians 5:18 for ασωτιαasōtia “Not in accusation of profligacy.”

Unruly (ανυποτακταanupotakta). See note on 1 Timothy 1:9. Public disorder, out of doors. See also Titus 1:10.


Verse 7

The bishop (τον επισκοπονton episkopon). Same office as “elder” in Titus 1:5. “Elder is the title, oversight is the function” (B. Weiss).

As God‘s steward (ως τεου οικονομονhōs theou oikonomon). See note on 1 Corinthians 4:1. for Paul‘s idea of the bishop (elder) as God‘s steward (cf. 1 Corinthians 9:17; Colossians 1:25; Ephesians 3:2; 1 Timothy 1:4).

Not self-willed (μη αυταδηmē authadē). Old word (from αυτοσ ηδομαιautosοργιλονhēdomai), self-pleasing, arrogant. In N.T. only here and 2 Peter 2:10.

Not soon angry (οργηorgilon). Old adjective from αισχροκερδηorgē (anger). Here only in N.T. Vulgate, iracundum. For “brawler” and “striker” see note on 1 Timothy 3:2.

Not greedy of filthy lucre (απιλαργυρονaischrokerdē). “Not greedy of shameful gain.” Used of deacons in 1 Timothy 3:8, aphilarguron used of elders in 1 Timothy 3:3.


Verse 8

A lover of good (πιλαγατονphilagathon). Late double compound (πιλοσ αγατοςphilosδικαιονagathos). See Wisdom of Solomon 7:22. Here only in N.T. Just (οσιονdikaion), holy (εγκρατηhosion) not in 1 Timothy 3.

Temperate (εν κρατοςegkratē). Old and common adjective (enkratos strength), having power over, controlling, here only in N.T. Picture of self-control.


Verse 9

Holding to (αντεχομενονantechomenon). Present middle participle of αντεχωantechō old verb, to hold back, in middle to hold oneself face to face with, to cling to, as in 1 Thessalonians 5:14.

The faithful word (του πιστου λογουtou pistou logou). See note on 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 6:3; Romans 16:17. Some would see a reference here to Christ as the Personal Logos.

That he may be able (ινα δυνατος ηιhina dunatos ēi). Final clause with present active subjunctive. Paul several times uses δυνατος ειμιdunatos eimi in the sense of δυναμαιdunamai with infinitive as here (Romans 4:21; Romans 11:23; 2 Timothy 1:12).

The gainsayers (τους αντιλεγονταςtous antilegontas). Present active participle of αντιλεγωantilegō old word, to answer back, as in Romans 10:21. “The talkers back.”


Verse 10

Vain talkers (ματαιολογοιmataiologoi). Late and rare compound, empty talkers, in Vett. Val. and here. See note on 1 Timothy 1:6 for ματαιολογιαmataiologia

Deceivers (πρεναπαταιphrenapatai). Late and rare compound, in papyri, eccl. writers, here alone in N.T. “Mind-deceivers.” See note on Galatians 6:3 for πρεναπαταινphrenapatāin

Specially they of the circumcision (μαλιστα οι εκ της περιτομηςmalista hoi ek tēs peritomēs). Same phrase in Acts 11:2; Galatians 2:12; Colossians 4:11. Jews are mentioned in Crete in Acts 2:11. Apparently Jewish Christians of the Pharisaic type tinged with Gnosticism.


Verse 11

Whose mouths must be stopped (ους δει επιστομιζεινhous dei epistomizein). Literally, “whom it is necessary to silence by stopping the mouth.” Present active infinitive επιστομιζεινepistomizein old and common verb (επιepi στομαstoma mouth), here only in N.T. To stop the mouth either with bridle or muzzle or gag.

Overthrow (ανατρεπουσινanatrepousin). Old and common verb, to turn up, to overturn. In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:18. In papyri to upset a family by perversion of one member.

Things which they ought not (α μη δειha mē dei). Note subjective negative μηmē with indefinite relative and indicative mode.

For filthy lucre‘s sake (αισχρου κερδους χαρινaischrou kerdous charin). The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul‘s warnings in 1 Timothy 3:3, 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:5 reveal it as “a besetting temptation of the professional teacher” (Parry). See Titus 1:7 above. Disgraceful gain, made in shameful ways.


Verse 12

A prophet of their own (ιδιος αυτων προπητηςidios autōn prophētēs). “Their own prophet.” Self-styled “prophet” (or poet), and so accepted by the Cretans and by Cicero and Apuleius, that is Epimenides who was born in Crete at Cnossos. It is a hexameter line and Callimachus quoted the first part of it in a Hymn to Zeus. It is said that Epimenides suggested to the Athenians the erection of statues to “unknown gods” (Acts 17:23).

Liars (πσευσταιpseustai). See note on 1 Timothy 1:10 for the word. The Cretans had a bad reputation on this line, partly due to their claim to having the tomb of Zeus.

Evil beasts (κακα τηριαkaka thēria). “Wicked wild beasts.” Lock asks if the Minotaur was partly responsible.

Idle gluttons (γαστερες αργαιgasteres argai). “Idle bellies.” Blunt and forceful. See note on Philemon 3:19 “whose god is the belly” (η κοιλιαhē koilia). Both words give the picture of the sensual gormandizer.


Verse 13

Testimony (μαρτυριαmarturia). Of the poet Epimenides. Paul endorses it from his recent knowledge.

Sharply (αποτομωςapotomōs). Old adverb from αποτομοςapotomos (from αποτεμνωapotemnō to cut off), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 13:10, “curtly,” “abruptly.” It is necessary to appear rude sometimes for safety, if the house is on fire and life is in danger.

That they may be sound (ινα υγιαινωσινhina hugiainōsin). Final clause with ιναhina and present active subjunctive of υγιαινωhugiainō for which verb see note on 1 Timothy 1:10.


Verse 14

See note on 1 Timothy 1:4 for προσεχωprosechō and μυτοιςmuthois only here we have Jewish (ΙουδαικοιςIoudaikois) added. Perhaps a reference to the oral traditions condemned by Christ in Mark 7:2-8. See also Colossians 2:22, apparently Pharisaic type of Gnostics.

Who turn away from the truth (αποστρεπομενωνapostrephomenōn). Present middle (direct) participle of αποστρεπωapostrephō “men turning themselves away from the truth” (accusative according to regular idiom). “The truth” (1 Timothy 4:3) is the gospel (Ephesians 4:21).


Verse 15

To them that are defiled (τοις μεμιαμμενοιςtois memiammenois). Perfect passive articular participle of μιαινωmiainō old verb, to dye with another colour, to stain, in N.T. only here, Judges 1:8; Hebrews 12:15. See μεμιανταιmemiantai (perf. pass. indic.) in this verse. ΜολυνωMolunō (1 Corinthians 8:7) is to smear.

Unbelieving (απιστοιςapistois). As in 1 Corinthians 7:12.; 1 Timothy 5:8. The principle or proverb just quoted appears also in 1 Corinthians 6:12; 1 Corinthians 10:23; Romans 14:20. For the defilement of mind (νουςnous) and conscience (συνειδησιςsuneidēsis) in both Gentile and Jew by sin, see Romans 1:18-2:29.


Verse 16

They profess (ομολογουσινhomologousin). Present active indicative of ομολογεωhomologeō common verb (ομου λεγωhomouΕιδεναιlegō) as in Romans 10:10. οιδαEidenai (know) is second perfect active infinitive of τοις εργοιςoida in indirect assertion.

By their works (αρνουνταιtois ergois). Instrumental case.

They deny (αρνεομαιarnountai). Present middle of βδελυκτοιarneomai old verb, common in the Gospels and the Pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 5:8; Titus 2:12; 2 Timothy 2:12).

Abominable (βδελυσσομαιbdeluktoi). Verbal adjective from απειτειςbdelussomai Only in lxx and here.

Disobedient (αδοκιμοιapeitheis). See note on Romans 1:30.

Reprobate (adokimoi). See note on 1 Corinthians 9:27; Romans 1:28.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Titus 1:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/titus-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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Thursday, November 14th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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