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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Titus 2

 

 


Verse 1

But speak thou (συ δε λαλειsu de lalei). In contrast to these Pharisaic Gnostics in Crete.

Befit (πρεπειprepei). Old verb to be becoming, seemly. See note on 1 Timothy 2:10; Ephesians 5:3. With dative case διδασκαλιαιdidaskaliāi

Sound (υγιαινουσηιhugiainousēi). Healthful as in Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2; 1 Timothy 1:10, common word in the Pastorals.


Verse 2

Aged men (πρεσβυταςpresbutas). See note on Philemon 1:9 for this word. For discussion of family life see also 1 Corinthians 3:18-4:1; Ephesians 5:22-6:9; 1 Timothy 5:1-6:2. For the adjectives here see note on 1 Timothy 3:2, 1 Timothy 3:8; for the substantives see note on 1 Timothy 6:11.


Verse 3

Aged women (πρεσβυτιδαςpresbutidas). Old word, feminine of πρεσβυτηςpresbutēs only here in N.T. See πρεσβυτεραςpresbuteras in 1 Timothy 5:2.

Reverent (ιεροπρεπειςhieroprepeis). Old word (ειροσ πρεπειheirosεν καταστηματιprepei). Only here in N.T. Same idea in 1 Timothy 2:10. Like people engaged in sacred duties (Lock).

In demeanour (κατιστημιen katastēmati). Late and rare word (inscriptions) from μη διαβολουςkathistēmi deportment, only here in N.T.

Not slanderers (μηδε οινωι πολλωι δεδουλωμεναςmē diabolous). See note on 1 Timothy 3:11; 2 Timothy 3:3.

Nor enslaved to much wine (δουλοωmēde oinōi pollōi dedoulōmenas). Perfect passive participle of οινωιdouloō with dative case καλοδιδασκαλουςoinōi See note on 1 Timothy 3:8. “It is proved by experience that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost impossible” (White). But God can do the “impossible.”

Teachers of that which is good (kalodidaskalous). Compound word found here alone, bona docentes (teaching good and beautiful things). A sorely needed mission.


Verse 4

That they may train (ινα σωπρονιζωσινhina sōphronizōsin). Purpose clause, ιναhina and present active subjunctive of σωπρονιζωsōphronizō old verb (from σωπρωνsōphrōn sound in mind, σαοσ πρηνsaosπιλανδρους ειναιphrēn as in this verse), to make sane, to restore to one‘s senses, to discipline, only here in N.T.

To love their husbands (ειναιphilandrous einai). Predicate accusative with πιλανδροςeinai of old adjective πιλοσ ανηρphilandros (Ανηρphilosπιλοτεκνουςanēr fond of one‘s husband), only here in N.T. Anēr means man, of course, as well as husband, but only husband here, not “fond of men” (other men than their own).

To love their children (philoteknous). Another old compound, here only in N.T. This exhortation is still needed where some married women prefer poodle-dogs to children.


Verse 5

Workers at home (οικουργουςoikourgous). So the oldest MSS. (from οικοσ εργουoikosοικουρουςergou) instead of κοισο ουροςoikourous keepers at home (from αγαταςkoisoυποτασσομαιouros keeper). Rare word, found in Soranus, a medical writer, Field says. Cf. 1 Timothy 5:13. “Keepers at home” are usually “workers at home.”

Kind (ιδιοιςagathas). See note on Romans 5:7. See note on Colossians 3:18; Ephesians 5:22 for the same use of ινα μη βλασπημηταιhupotassomai to be in subjection. Note idiois (their own). See note on 1 Timothy 6:1 for the same negative purpose clause (hina mē blasphēmētai).


Verse 6

The younger men (τους νεωτερουςtous neōterous). Just one item, besides “likewise” (οσαυτωςhosautōs as in Titus 2:3; 1 Timothy 2:1-15, 9), “to be soberminded” (σωπρονεινsōphronein old verb as in Romans 12:3). It is possible to take “in all things” (περι πανταperi panta) with σωπρονεινsōphronein though the editors take it with Titus 2:7.


Verse 7

Shewing thyself (σεαυτον παρεχομενοςseauton parechomenos). Present middle (redundant middle) participle of παρεχωparechō with the reflexive pronoun σεαυτονseauton as if the active voice παρεχωνparechōn The Koiné{[28928]}š shows an increasing number of such constructions (Robertson, Grammar, p. 811). See active in 1 Timothy 1:4.

An ensample (τυπονtupon). For this word see note on 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Philemon 3:17.

Uncorruptness (απτοριανaphthorian). Only example, from late adjective απτοροςaphthoros (αa privative and πτειρωphtheirō).


Verse 8

Sound (υγιηhugiē Attic usually υγιαhugiā in accusative singular), elsewhere in Pastorals participle υγιανωνhugianōn (Titus 2:1).

That cannot be condemned (ακαταγνωστονakatagnōston). Only N.T. example (verbal, αa privative and καταγνωστοςkatagnōstos) and in 4 Maccabees 4:47. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 200) quotes it from an inscription and the adverb from a papyrus.

He that is of the contrary part (ο εχ εναντιαςho ex enantias). “The one on the opposite side” (your opponent). Cf. Titus 2:9; 1 Timothy 5:14.

May be ashamed (ινα εντραπηιhina entrapēi). Final clause with ιναhina and second aorist passive subjunctive of εντρεπωentrepō to turn, in middle and passive to turn one on himself and so be ashamed (to blush) as in 2 Thessalonians 3:14; 1 Corinthians 4:14. This sense in the papyri.

Evil (παυλονphaulon). Old word, easy (easy morals), worthless; bad, as in 2 Corinthians 5:10.


Verse 9

Servants (δουλουςdoulous). “Slaves.” Supply “exhort” (παρακαλειparakalei). See note on 1 Timothy 6:1 for “masters” (δεσποταιςdespotais).

Well-pleasing (ευαρεστουςeuarestous). See note on 2 Corinthians 5:9.

Not gainsaying (mē antilegontas). “Not answer back.” See note on Romans 10:21.


Verse 10

Not purloining (μη νοσπιζομενουςmē nosphizomenous). Present middle participle of νοσπιζωnosphizō old verb (from νοσπιnosphi apart), in middle to set apart for oneself, to embezzle, in N.T. only here and Acts 5:2.

Fidelity (πιστινpistin). See note on Galatians 5:22; 1 Timothy 5:12 for πιστιςpistis in the sense of faithfulness. Nowhere else in the N.T. do we have αγατηagathē with πιστιςpistis as here, but an Oxyr. papyrus (iii. 494, 9) has this very phrase (πασαν πιστιν ενδεικνυμενηιpāsan pistin endeiknumenēi). Westcott and Hort put αγαπηνagapēn in the margin. See note on Titus 3:2.

That they may adorn (ινα κοσμωσινhina kosmōsin). Final clause with ιναhina and present active subjunctive. See note on 1 Timothy 2:9 for κοσμεωkosmeō Paul shows slaves how they may “adorn” the teaching of God.


Verse 11

Hath appeared (επεπανηepephanē). “Did appear,” the first Epiphany (the Incarnation). Second aorist passive indicative of επιπαινωepiphainō old verb, in N.T. here, Titus 3:4; Luke 1:79; Acts 27:20.

Bringing salvation (σωτηριοςsōtērios). Old adjective from σωτηρsōtēr (Saviour), here alone in N.T. except το σωτηριονto sōtērion (salvation, “the saving act”) in Luke 2:30; Luke 3:6; Ephesians 6:17.

Instructing (παιδευουσαpaideuousa). See note on 1 Timothy 1:20.

Ungodliness (ασεβειανasebeian). See note on Romans 1:18.

Worldly lusts (τας κοσμικας επιτυμιαςtas kosmikas epithumias). Aristotle and Plutarch use κοσμικοςkosmikos (from κοσμοςkosmos) about the universe as in Hebrews 9:1 about the earthly. Here it has alone in N.T. the sense of evil “in this present age” as with κοσμοςkosmos in 1 John 2:16. The three adverbs set off the opposite (soberly σωπρονωςsōphronōs righteously δικαιωςdikaiōs godly ευσεβωςeusebōs).


Verse 13

Looking for (προσδεχομενοιprosdechomenoi). Present middle participle of προσδεχομαιprosdechomai old verb, the one used of Simeon (Luke 2:25) and others (Luke 2:38) who were looking for the Messiah.

The blessed hope and appearing of the glory (την μακαριαν ελπιδα και επιπανειαν της δοχηςtēn makarian elpida kai epiphaneian tēs doxēs). The word επιπανειαepiphaneia (used by the Greeks of the appearance of the gods, from επιπανησ επιπαινωepiphanēsεπεπανηepiphainō) occurs in 2 Timothy 1:10 of the Incarnation of Christ, the first Epiphany (like the verb επιπανειαepephanē Titus 2:11), but here of the second Epiphany of Christ or the second coming as in 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1, 2 Timothy 4:8. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 both παρουσιαepiphaneia and του μεγαλου τεου και σωτηρος Ιησου Χριστουparousia (the usual word) occur together of the second coming.

Of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ (τεουtou megalou theou kai sōtēros Iēsou Christou). This is the necessary meaning of the one article with σωτηροςtheou and Χριστου Ιησουsōtēros just as in 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:11. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 786. Westcott and Hort read Christou Iēsou f0).


Verse 14

Who gave himself for us (ος εδωκεν εαυτον υπερ ημωνhos edōken heauton huper hēmōn). Paul‘s great doctrine (Galatians 1:4; Galatians 2:20; 1 Timothy 2:6).

That he might redeem us (ινα λυτρωσηταιhina lutrōsētai). Final clause, ιναhina and the aorist middle subjunctive of λυτροωlutroō old verb from λυτρονlutron (ransom), in N.T. only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18.

Purify to himself (καταρισηι εαυτωιkatharisēi heautōi). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of καταριζωkatharizō for which verb see note on Ephesians 5:26.

Lawlessness (ανομιαςanomias). See note on 2 Thessalonians 2:3.

A people for his own possession (λαον περιουσιονlaon periousion). A late word (from περιειμιperieimi to be over and above, in papyri as well as περιουσιαperiousia), only in lxx and here, apparently made by the lxx, one‘s possession, and so God‘s chosen people. See note on 1 Peter 2:9 (λαος εις περιποιησινlaos eis peripoiēsin).

Zealous of good works (ζηλωτην καλων εργωνzēlōtēn kalōn ergōn). “A zealot for good works.” Substantive for which see note on 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. Objective genitive εργωνergōn f0).


Verse 15

With all authority (μετα πασης επιταγηςmeta pasēs epitagēs). See note on 1 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Corinthians 8:8. Assertion of authority is sometimes necessary.

Let no man despise thee (μηδεις σου περιπρονειτωmēdeis sou periphroneitō). Present active imperative in prohibition of περιπρονεωperiphroneō old verb, only here in N.T., to think around (on all sides). Literally, “let no man think around thee” (and so despise thee). In 1 Timothy 4:12 it is καταπρονειτωkataphroneitō (think down on), a stronger word of scorn, but this one implies the possibility of one making mental circles around one and so “out-thinking” him. The best way for the modern minister to command respect for his “authority” is to do thinking that will deserve it.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Titus 2:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/titus-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, November 27th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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