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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 22

 

 

Introduction
1Of theft.
5Of damage.
7Of trespasses.
14Of borrowing.
16Of fornication.
18Of witchcraft.
19Of bestiality.
20Of idolatry.
21Of strangers, widows, and fatherless.
25Of usury.
26Of pledges.
28Of reverence to magistrates.
29Of the first fruits.
31Of torn flesh.

Verse 1
If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.
sheep
or, goat. he shall. There is a smaller compensation required in other things, (ver. 9,) and also a disproportion between an ox and a sheep. The reason of the former is, as Maimonides explains it, because money, goods, etc., are better guarded in houses and cities, than cattle in a field; which consequently can be more easily stolen. The reason of the latter seems to be, as it is explained by Bishop Patrick, that an ox was of greater value, and more useful for the purposes of husbandry.
Leviticus 6:1-6; Numbers 5:7; 2 Samuel 12:6; Proverbs 6:31; Luke 19:8
five oxen
Proverbs 14:4

Verse 2
If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.
breaking
Job 24:14; 30:5; Hosea 7:1; Joel 2:9; Matthew 6:19,20; 24:43; 1 Thessalonians 5:2
no blood
Numbers 35:27

Verse 3
If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.
then he shall
21:2; Judges 2:14; 10:7; Isaiah 50:1

Verse 4
If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.
found
21:16
he shall restore double
1,7,9; Proverbs 6:31; Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 16:18; Revelation 18:6

Verse 5
If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.
shall he make restitution
3,12; 21:34; Job 20:18

Verse 6
If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.
If fire break out
Mr. Harmer observes, that it is a common custom in the East to set the dry herbage on fire; which fires, from want of care, often produce great damage. Hence a law to guard against such evils was highly expedient.
so that the stacks of corn
Judges 15:4,5; 2 Samuel 14:30,31
he that kindled the fire
9,12; 21:33,34

Verse 7
If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double.
if the thief be found
Proverbs 6:30,31; Jeremiah 2:26; John 12:6; 1 Corinthians 6:10
let him pay double

Verse 8
If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods.
the judges
28; *marg:; 21:6; Deuteronomy 16:18; 19:17,18; 1 Chronicles 23:4; Psalms 82:1

Verse 9
For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour.
for all manner of trespass
Numbers 5:6,7; 1 Kings 8:31; Matthew 6:14,15; 18:15,35; Luke 17:3,4
the cause of both parties
18:21,22; 23:6-8; Deuteronomy 16:18,19; 25:1; 2 Chronicles 19:10
pay double unto his
4,7

Verse 10
If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it:
Genesis 39:8; Luke 12:48; 16:11; 2 Timothy 1:12

Verse 11
Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.
an oath of the Lord
Leviticus 5:1; 6:3; 1 Kings 2:42,43; Proverbs 30:9; Hebrews 6:16
that he hath not
8; 23:1

Verse 12
And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.
stolen from him
7; Genesis 31:39

Verse 13
If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.
torn in pieces
Ezekiel 4:14; Amos 3:12; Micah 5:8; Nahum 2:12
let him bring it for witness
Or, rather, "Let him bring" aid hatteraiphah, an evidence of the thing torn, such as the horns, hoofs, etc.

Verse 14
And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.
borrow
Deuteronomy 15:2; 23:19,20; Nehemiah 5:4; Psalms 37:21; Matthew 5:42; Luke 6:35
make it good
11; 21:34; Leviticus 24:18

Verse 15
But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.
it came for his hire
Zechariah 8:10

Verse 16
And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
a man entice
Genesis 34:2-4; Deuteronomy 22:28,29

Verse 17
If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
utterly
Deuteronomy 7:3,4
pay
Heb. weigh.
Genesis 23:16
dowry of virgins
Genesis 34:12; Deuteronomy 22:29; 1 Samuel 18:25

Verse 18
Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
Leviticus 19:26,31; 20:6,27; Deuteronomy 18:10,11; 1 Samuel 28:3,9; Isaiah 19:3; Acts 8:9-11; Acts 16:16-19; 19:19; Galatians 5:20; Revelation 22:15

Verse 19
Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.
Leviticus 18:23,25; 20:15,16; Deuteronomy 27:21

Verse 20
He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
sacrificeth
Numbers 25:2-4,7,8; Deuteronomy 13:1-15; 17:2-5; 18:20
utterly
Numbers 21:3; Joshua 23:15,16

Verse 21
Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
vex a stranger
23:9; Leviticus 19:33; 25:35; Deuteronomy 10:19; Jeremiah 7:6; 22:3; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5
for ye were strangers
20:2; 23:9; Deuteronomy 10:19; 15:15; 23:7

Verse 22
Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.
Deuteronomy 10:18; 24:17; 27:19; Psalms 94:6,7; Isaiah 1:17,23; 10:2; Ezekiel 22:7; Zechariah 7:10; James 1:27

Verse 23
If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry;
they cry at all
Deuteronomy 15:9; 24:15; Job 31:38,39; 35:9; Luke 18:7
I will surely
Job 34:28; Psalms 10:17,18; 18:6; 140:12; 145:19; 146:7-9; Proverbs 22:22,23; Proverbs 23:10,11; James 5:4

Verse 24
And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.
my wrath
Job 31:23; Psalms 69:24; 76:7; 90:11; Nahum 1:6; Romans 2:5-9; Hebrews 10:31
your wives
Job 27:13-15; Psalms 78:63,64; 109:9; Jeremiah 15:8; 18:21; Lamentations 5:3; Luke 6:38

Verse 25
If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.
Leviticus 25:35-37; Deuteronomy 23:19,20; 2 Kings 4:1,7; Nehemiah 5:2-5,7,10,11; Psalms 15:5; Proverbs 28:8; Jeremiah 15:10; Ezekiel 18:8,17; Matthew 25:27; Luke 19:23

Verse 26
If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down:
to pledge
Deuteronomy 24:6,10-13,17; Job 22:6; 24:3,9; Proverbs 20:16; 22:27; Ezekiel 18:7,16; Ezekiel 33:15; Amos 2:8

Verse 27
For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.
when he crieth
2:23,24; Psalms 34:6; 72:12; Isaiah 19:20
for I am gracious
34:6; 2 Chronicles 30:9; Psalms 86:15; 136:10,11

Verse 28
Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.
the gods
or, judges.
8,9; Psalms 32:6; 82:1-7; 138:1; John 10:34,35
nor curse
21:17; 1 Samuel 24:6,10; 26:9; Ecclesiastes 10:20; Acts 23:3,5; Romans 13:2-7; Titus 3:1,2; 1 Peter 2:17; 2 Peter 2:10; Jude 1:8

Verse 29
Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.
shalt not delay
23:16,19; Deuteronomy 26:2-10; 2 Kings 4:42; 2 Chronicles 31:5; Proverbs 3:9,10; Ezekiel 20:40; Micah 7:1; Matthew 6:33; Romans 8:23; James 1:18
the first of they ripe fruits
Heb. they fulness. liquors. Heb. tear. the firstborn.
13:2,12; 34:19

Verse 30
Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.
Likewise
Deuteronomy 15:19
seven days
Leviticus 22:27

Verse 31
And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs.
holy
19:5,6; Leviticus 11:45; 19:2; Deuteronomy 14:21; 1 Peter 1:15,16
neither
Leviticus 17:15,16; 20:25; 22:8; Deuteronomy 14:21; Ezekiel 4:14; 44:31; Acts 10:14; 15:20

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 22:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/exodus-22.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Sunday, October 20th, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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