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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
John 19

 

 

Introduction
1Christ is scourged, crowned with thorns, and beaten.
4Pilate is desirous to release him, but being overcome with the outrage of the Jews, he delivers him to be crucified.
23They cast lots for his garments.
25He commends his mother to John.
28He dies.
31His side is pierced.
38He is buried by Joseph and Nicodemus.

Verse 1
Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.
Pilate
Matthew 27:26-31; Mark 15:15-20; Luke 23:16,23
scourged
Psalms 129:3; Isaiah 50:6; 53:5; Matthew 20:19; 23:34; Mark 10:33,34; Luke 18:33; Acts 16:22,23; 22:24,25; 2 Corinthians 11:24; Hebrews 11:36; 1 Peter 2:24

Verse 2
And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,
the soldiers
5; Psalms 22:6; Isaiah 49:7; 53:3; Matthew 27:27-31; Mark 15:17-20; Luke 23:11

Verse 3
And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.
Hail
Matthew 26:49; 27:29; Luke 1:28
King
19-22; 18:33

Verse 4
Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.
that ye
6; 18:38; Matthew 27:4,19,24,54; Luke 23:41,47; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 7:26; 1 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 2:22; 3:18; 1 John 3:5

Verses 4-16
Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.
that ye
6; 18:38; Matthew 27:4,19,24,54; Luke 23:41,47; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 7:26; 1 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 2:22; 3:18; 1 John 3:5

Verse 5
Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!
Behold
1:29; Isaiah 7:14; 40:9; 43:1; Lamentations 1:12; Hebrews 12:2

Verse 6
When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.
the chief priest
15; Matthew 27:22; Mark 15:12-15; Luke 22:21-23; Acts 2:23; 3:13-15; 7:52; Acts 13:27-29
Take
Pilate neither did nor could say this seriously; for crucifixion was not a Jewish but a Roman mode of punishment. The cross was made of two beams, either crossing at the top, at right angles, like a T, or in the middle of their length like an X; with a piece on the centre of the transverse beam for the accusation, and another piece projecting from the middle, on which the person sat. The cross on which our Lord suffered was of the former kind, being thus represented on all old monuments, coins, and crosses. The body was usually fastened to the upright beam by nailing the feet to it, and on the transverse piece by nailing the hands; and the person was frequently permitted to hang in this situation till he perished through agony and lack of food. This horrible punishment was usually inflicted only on slaves for the worst of crimes.
18:31; Matthew 27:24

Verse 7
The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.
We have
Leviticus 24:16; Deuteronomy 18:20
because
5:18; 8:58,59; 10:30-33,36-38; Matthew 26:63-66; 27:42,43; Mark 14:61-64; Mark 15:39; Romans 1:4

Verse 8
When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;
heard
13; Acts 14:11-19

Verse 9
And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.
Whence
8:14; 9:29,30; Judges 13:6
But
Psalms 38:13-15; Isaiah 53:7; Matthew 27:12-14; Mark 15:3-5; Acts 8:32,33; Philippians 1:28

Verse 10
Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?
knowest
18:39; Daniel 3:14,15; 5:19

Verse 11
Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.
Thou
3:27; 7:30; Genesis 45:7,8; Exodus 9:14-16; 1 Chronicles 29:11; Psalms 39:9; 62:11; Jeremiah 27:5-8; Lamentations 3:37; Daniel 4:17,25,32,35; 5:21; Matthew 6:13; Luke 22:53; Acts 2:23; 4:28; Romans 11:36; 13:1; James 1:17
he
11:49,50; 18:3; Matthew 26:65; 27:2; Mark 14:44
the greater
9:41; 15:22-24; Luke 7:41,42; 10:11-14; 12:47,48; Hebrews 6:4-8; James 4:17

Verse 12
And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
from
Mark 6:16-26; Acts 24:24-27
thou art
18:33-36; Luke 23:2-5; Acts 17:6,7

Verse 13
When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.
heard
8; Proverbs 29:25; Isaiah 51:12,13; 57:11; Luke 12:5; Acts 4:19
and sat
Psalms 58:1,2; 82:5-7; 94:20,21; Ecclesiastes 5:8; Amos 4:7

Verse 14
And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!
the preparation
31,32,42; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54
the sixth
Instead of [hektos (eéktov)] sixth, several MSS. and fathers have [tritos (triðtov)] third, as in the parallel place.
Mark 15:25,33,34
Behold
3,5,19-22

Verse 15
But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
Away
6; Luke 23:18; Acts 21:36; 22:22
We have
18:31; Genesis 49:10; Ezekiel 21:26,27

Verse 16
Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.
Matthew 27:26-31; Mark 15:15-20; Luke 23:24

Verse 17
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
he
Matthew 10:38; 16:24; 27:31-33; Mark 8:34; 10:21; 15:21,22; Luke 9:23; 14:27; Luke 23:26,33
went
Leviticus 16:21,22; 24:14; Numbers 15:35,36; 1 Kings 21:13; Luke 23:33; Acts 7:58; Hebrews 13:11-13
Golgotha
Golgotha, of which [ ()] and Calvaria are merely translations, is supposed to have been a hill, or a rising on a greater hill, on the north-west of Jerusalem.
Matthew 27:33,34; Mark 15:21,22; Luke 23:33

Verses 17-22
And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
he
Matthew 10:38; 16:24; 27:31-33; Mark 8:34; 10:21; 15:21,22; Luke 9:23; 14:27; Luke 23:26,33
went
Leviticus 16:21,22; 24:14; Numbers 15:35,36; 1 Kings 21:13; Luke 23:33; Acts 7:58; Hebrews 13:11-13
Golgotha
Golgotha, of which [ ()] and Calvaria are merely translations, is supposed to have been a hill, or a rising on a greater hill, on the north-west of Jerusalem.
Matthew 27:33,34; Mark 15:21,22; Luke 23:33

Verse 18
Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
18:32; Psalms 22:16; Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:35-38,44; Mark 15:24-28; Luke 23:32-34; Galatians 3:13; Hebrews 12:2

Verse 19
And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
wrote
Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38
And the
The apparent discrepancy between the accounts of this title given by the Evangelists, which has been urged as an objection against their inspiration and veracity, has been most satisfactorily accounted for by Dr. Townson; who supposes that, as it was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, it might have slightly varied in each language; and that, as Luke and John wrote for the Gentiles, they would prefer the Greek inscription, that Matthew, addressing the Jews, would use the Hebrew, and that Mark, writing to the Romans, would naturally give the Latin.
JESUS
3,12; 1:45,46,49; 18:33; Acts 3:6; 26:9

Verse 20
This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.
in
13; 5:2; Acts 21:40; 22:2; 26:14; Revelation 16:16
and Greek
Acts 21:37; Revelation 9:11

Verse 22
Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.
What
12; Psalms 65:7; 76:10; Proverbs 8:29

Verse 23
Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
the soldiers
Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34
now
Such was the [chiton (xitwñn)] or coat, of the Jewish high-priest, as described by Josephus.
woven
or, wrought.
Exodus 39:22,23

Verse 24
They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.
that
28,36,37; 10:35; 12:38,39
They parted
Psalms 22:18; Isaiah 10:7; Acts 13:27

Verse 25
Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.
his mother
Luke 2:35
and his
Matthew 27:55,56; Mark 15:40,41; Luke 23:49
Cleophas
or, Cleopas.
Luke 24:18
and Mary
20:1,11-18; Mark 16:9; Luke 8:2

Verse 26
When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!
whom
13:23; 20:2; 21:7,20,24
Woman
2:4

Verse 27
Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.
Behold
Genesis 45:8; 47:12; Matthew 12:48-50; 25:40; Mark 3:34; 1 Timothy 5:2-4
took
1 John 3:18,19
his
1:11; 16:32

Verse 28
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
Jesus
30; 13:1; 18:4; Luke 9:31; 12:50; 18:31; 22:37; Acts 13:29
that the
Psalms 22:15; 69:21

Verses 28-37
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
Jesus
30; 13:1; 18:4; Luke 9:31; 12:50; 18:31; 22:37; Acts 13:29
that the
Psalms 22:15; 69:21

Verse 29
Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.
was set
Matthew 27:34,48; Mark 15:36; Luke 23:36
hyssop
This hyssop is termed a reed by Matthew and Mark; and it appears that a species of hyssop, with a reedy stalk, about two feet long, grew about Jerusalem.
Exodus 12:22; Numbers 19:18; 1 Kings 4:33; Psalms 51:7

Verse 30
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
It is
28; *Gr:; 4:34; 17:4; Genesis 3:15; Psalms 22:15; Isaiah 53:10,12; Daniel 9:24,26; Zechariah 13:7; Matthew 3:15; Romans 3:25; 10:4; 1 Corinthians 5:7; Colossians 2:14-17; Hebrews 9:11-14,22-28; Hebrews 10:1-14; 12:2
and he
10:11,18; Matthew 20:28; 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 2:14,15

Verse 31
The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
because
14,42; Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42
that the
Deuteronomy 21:22,23
that sabbath
Leviticus 23:7-16
their
Lactantius says that it was a custom to break the legs of criminals upon the cross; which was done, we are told, at the instep with an iron mallet; and appears to have been a kind of coup de grace, the sooner to put them out of pain.
1; Proverbs 12:10; Micah 3:3

Verse 32
Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.
of the first
18; Luke 23:39-43

Verse 34
But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.
came
13:8-10; Psalms 51:7; Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1; Matthew 27:62; Acts 22:16; 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Ephesians 5:26; Titus 2:14; 3:5-7; Hebrews 9:13,22; 10:19-22; 1 Peter 3:21; 1 John 1:6-9; 5:6,8; Revelation 1:5; 7:14

Verse 35
And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.
he that
26; 21:24; Acts 10:39; Hebrews 2:3,4; 1 Peter 5:1; 1 John 1:1-3
that ye
11:15,42; 14:29; 17:20,21; 20:31; Romans 15:4; 1 John 5:13

Verse 36
For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.
that the
Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalms 22:14; 34:20; 35:10

Verse 37
And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
They
Psalms 22:16,17; Zechariah 12:10; Revelation 1:7

Verse 38
And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.
Joseph
Matthew 27:57-60; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50
but
9:22; 12:42; Proverbs 29:25; Philippians 1:14

Verses 38-42
And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.
Joseph
Matthew 27:57-60; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50
but
9:22; 12:42; Proverbs 29:25; Philippians 1:14

Verse 39
And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.
Nicodemus
3:1-21; 7:50-52; Matthew 12:20; 19:30
a
12:7; 2 Chronicles 16:14; Song of Solomon 4:6,14

Verse 40
Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.
wound
11:44; 20:5-7; Acts 5:6

Verse 41
Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.
and in
20:15; 2 Kings 23:30; Isaiah 22:16; Matthew 27:60,64-66; Luke 23:53

Verse 42
There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.
laid
Psalms 22:15; Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 12:40; Acts 13:29; 1 Corinthians 15:4; Colossians 2:12
because
14,31

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 19:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-19.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, November 12th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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