Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 9:20

As for all the people who were left of the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites, who were not of the sons of Israel,
New American Standard

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Amorites;   Hittites;   Jebusites;   Thompson Chain Reference - Hivites;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Amorites, the;   Hittites;   Hivites;   Nethinim;   Strangers in Israel;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Canaanites;   Egypt;   Nethinim;   Perizzites;   Stranger;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Hittites;   Hivites;   Perizzites;   Slave;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - War, Holy War;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Canaanites;   Hivites;   Perizzites;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Canaan;   Jebus;   Judges, the Book of;   Nethinim;   Perizzite;   Solomon;   Solomon's Servants;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Economic Life;   Hittites and Hivites;   Jebusites;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alliance;   Israel;   Nethinim;   Slave, Slavery;   Solomon;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Amorites ;   Hiram ;   Hivites ;   Perizzites ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hittites;   Hivites;   Millo;   Perizzites;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses;   Red Sea;   Solomon's Servants;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gibeon;   Judea;   Nethinims;   Perizzites;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Jerusalem;   King;   Solomon's Servants;   Stranger and Sojourner (in the Old Testament);   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aliens;   Amorites;  

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

"As for all the people that were left of the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, who were not of the children of Israel; their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel were not able utterly to destroy, of them did Solomon raise a levy of bondservants unto this day. But of the children of Israel did Solomon make no bondservants; but they were the men of war, and his servants, and his princes, and his captains, and rulers of his chariots, and of his horsemen."

While true enough that the soldiers and other `servants' of Solomon which were drawn from the Israelites themselves were not called "slaves"; they most certainly were required to serve Solomon, and it was only a matter of time and opportunity until that civilization, much as Israel loved it, was doomed to failure, as are all cultures that are supported and sustained by slave labor and unscrupulous oppression of the poor. The remnants of the Canaanites were slaves, and the Israelites were Solomon's servants, a distinction without much difference.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/1-kings-9.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And all the people that were left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites,.... Who were not destroyed in the times of Joshua, or since, but dwelt in several cities of the land of Israel from those times; see Judges 1:1, which were not of the children of Israel; not natives of the land of Israel, though they might be proselytes, at least some of them.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-9.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

[And] all the people [that were] h left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which [were] not of the children of Israel,

(h) These were as bondmen and paid what was required, either labour or money.
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-kings-9.html. 1599-1645.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 9:20 [And] all the people [that were] left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which [were] not of the children of Israel,

Ver. 20. And all the people that were left.] These and their posterity seem to be called Solomon’s servants, [Ezra 2:55; Ezra 2:58 Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 7:60; Nehemiah 11:3] like as the Gibeonites were called Nethinims. [Ezra 2:43]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-9.html. 1865-1868.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(20) A tribute of bond service.—This was probably not originated, but simply enforced and organised, by Solomon. It dated, in theory at least, from the Conquest. The most notable example of it is the case of the Gibeonites (Joshua 9:21-27); but there are incidental notices of similar imposition of serfship in Judges 1:28; Judges 1:30; Judges 1:33; Judges 1:35. Many of the dangers of the stormy age of the Judges were due to the uprising of these subject races; as in the revival of the northern confederacy at Hazor under Sisera (Judges 4), and the usurpation of Abimelech by aid of the Shecliemites (Judges 9). Probably their subordination to Israel varied according to the strength or weakness of each age; but, when the monarchy became organised under David and Solomon, it was fixed definitely and permanently, although, like the serfship of the Middle Ages, it might vary in its severity in different times and in different regions.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-9.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And all the people that were left of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which were not of the children of Israel,
left
2 Chronicles 8:7,8-18
Amorites
Genesis 15:19-21; Exodus 23:23,28-33; 34:11,12; Deuteronomy 7:1-3
Reciprocal: Genesis 9:25 - a servant;  Joshua 9:8 - General1 Kings 5:15 - threescore;  1 Chronicles 1:15 - Hivite;  1 Chronicles 22:2 - the strangers;  2 Chronicles 2:17 - numbered;  Psalm 72:9 - They that;  Ecclesiastes 2:7 - servants

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:20". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-9.html.