Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 9:21

their descendants who were left after them in the land whom the sons of Israel were unable to destroy utterly, from them Solomon levied forced laborers, even to this day.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Amorites;   Hittites;   Hivites;   Jebusites;   Servant;   Solomon;   Thompson Chain Reference - Bondservants;   Liberty-Bondage;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Amorites, the;   Hittites;   Hivites;   Nethinim;   Tribute;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Nethinim;   Stranger;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Foreigner;   Hittites;   Hivites;   Perizzites;   Slave;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Devote, Devoted;   War, Holy War;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Canaanites;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Canaan;   Issachar;   Jebus;   Judges, the Book of;   Kings, the Books of;   Solomon;   Solomon's Servants;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Economic Life;   Hittites and Hivites;   Jebusites;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alliance;   Israel;   Kings, Books of;   Nethinim;   Slave, Slavery;   Solomon;   Tribute, Toll, Taxing;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Amorites ;   Hiram ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Millo;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses;   Solomon's Servants;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gibeon;   Nethinims;   Perizzites;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Jerusalem;   Solomon;   Solomon's Servants;   Stranger and Sojourner (in the Old Testament);   Tribute;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Amorites;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Ban;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

A tribute of bond-service - He made them do the most laborious part of the public works, the Israelites being generally exempt. When Sesostris, king of Egypt, returned from his wars, he caused temples to be built in all the cities of Egypt, but did not employ one Egyptian in the work, having built the whole by the hands of the captives which he had taken in his wars. Hence he caused this inscription to be placed upon each temple: -

Ουδεις εγχωριος εις αυτα μεμοχθηκε .

No native has labored in these

Diodor. Sic. Bibl., lib. i., c. 56.

It appears that Solomon might with propriety have placed a similar inscription on most of his works.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-9.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

See 1 Kings 5:15 note.

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-9.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Their children that were left after them in the land,.... The posterity of those left unsubdued in the times of Joshua:

whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy; in later times, though now it is thought by some it was not for want of power, but because they had made a covenant with them, as the Gibeonites did, and therefore they could not, because it would have been a breach of covenant to have destroyed them; see 2 Chronicles 8:8,

upon these did Solomon levy a tribute of bond service unto this day; not a tribute of money, which being poor they were not able to pay, but of service, and which being once laid on was continued, and even to the time of the writing of this book.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-9.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day.

Those — He used them as bondmen, and imposed bodily labours upon them. "But why did not Solomon destroy them as God had commanded, when now it was fully in his power to do so?" The command of destroying them, Deuteronomy 7:2, did chiefly, if not only, concern that generation of Canaanites, who lived in, or, near the time of the Israelites entering into Canaan. And that command seems not to be absolute, but conditional, and with some exception for those who should submit and embrace the true religion, as may be gathered both from Joshua 11:19, and from the history of the Gibeonites. For if God's command had been absolute, the oaths of Joshua, and of the princes, could not have obliged them, nor dispensed with such a command.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-9.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 9:21 Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day.

Ver. 21. Were not able utterly to destroy.] Once they could, but did not; afterwards they would have done it, but were not able.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-9.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

He used them as bond-men, and imposed burdens and bodily labours upon them. See 2 Chronicles 2:18. Hence some think they are called Solomon’s servants, Ezra 2:55,58.

Quest. Why did not Solomon destroy them, as God had commanded, when now it was fully in his power to do so?

Answ. First, The command of destroying them, Deuteronomy 7:2, did chiefly, if not only, concern that generation of Canaanites who lived in or near the time of the Israelites’ entering into Canaan. Secondly, That command seems not to be absolute and universal, but conditional, and with some exception for those who should submit to them, and embrace the true religion, as may be gathered both from Joshua 11:19, and from the history of the Gibeonites, Jos 9, whom Joshua did not sin in sparing, when he had sworn to do so; and Saul did sin in endeavouring to destroy them. But if God’s command had been absolute, the oaths of Joshua, and of the princes, could not have obliged them, nor dispensed with such a command.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-9.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

21.Levy a tribute of bondservice — A considerable portion of the levies of men employed by Solomon in his public works was doubtless drawn from the ranks of the subjugated nations.

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Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-9.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Day. After the captivity, some were found who had perhaps come from Phœnicia, 1 Esdras ix. 1. Solomon reduced the natives of the country to the most abject condition, forcing them to work like slaves. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] viii. 6.) --- Hebrew, "upon those, Solomon imposed a tribute of bond-service, until this day." (Haydock) --- Esdras (1 Esdras ii. 58.) calls them who returned from captivity, the children of the servants of Solomon, 392. Their fathers were probably styled proselytes; and were in number, 153,600. See 1 Paralipomenon xxii. 2., and 2 Paralipomenon ii. 17. (Calmet)

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Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-9.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

bondservice. See note on 1 Kings 9:22.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-9.html. 1909-1922.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Their children that were left after them in the land, whom the children of Israel also were not able utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondservice unto this day.
left
Judges 1:21,27-35; 2:20-23; 3:1-4; Psalms 106:34-36
not
Joshua 15:63; 17:12,16-18
levy
15; 5:13; Judges 1:28,35
tribute
He made them do the most laborious parts of the public works, the Israelites being exempt from all but the more honourable employments.
bond-service
Genesis 9:25,26; Ezra 2:55-58; Nehemiah 7:57; 11:3
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 20:11 - tributaries;  Joshua 9:8 - GeneralJoshua 16:10 - they drave;  1 Chronicles 20:3 - with saws;  1 Chronicles 22:2 - the strangers;  2 Chronicles 2:17 - numbered;  Ezra 2:58 - Solomon's;  Nehemiah 5:4 - the king's tribute;  Psalm 72:9 - They that

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These files are public domain.
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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 9:21". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-9.html.